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  1. Areca (Betel Nut) is the fourth most commonly used psychoactive drug throughout the world and is legal in U.S. It is carcinogenic. Within a health program in the Federated States of Micronesia we surveyed use ...

    Authors: Peter Milgrom, Ohnmar K Tut, John Gilmatam, Marcelle Gallen and Donald L Chi
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:26
  2. Despite progressive population health policies to reduce tobacco harm, smoking prevalence continues to be inequitable amongst key ethnic groups in New Zealand. The purpose of this study is to describe the pred...

    Authors: Tasileta Teevale, Simon Denny, Vili Nosa and Janie Sheridan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:25
  3. Blue lights are sometimes placed in public washrooms to discourage injection drug use. Their effectiveness has been questioned and concerns raised that they are harmful but formal research on the issue is limi...

    Authors: Alexis Crabtree, Gareth Mercer, Robert Horan, Shannon Grant, Tracy Tan and Jane A Buxton
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:22
  4. For decades, Thailand has experienced high rates of illicit drug use and related harms. In response, the Thai government has relied on drug law enforcement to address this problem. Despite these efforts, high ...

    Authors: Kanna Hayashi, Lianping Ti, Nadia Fairbairn, Karyn Kaplan, Paisan Suwannawong, Evan Wood and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:21
  5. HIV infection among people who inject drugs (IDU) remains a major global public health challenge. However, among IDU, access to essential HIV-related services remains unacceptably low, especially in settings w...

    Authors: Lianping Ti and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:20
  6. Smokers of any age can reap substantial health benefits by quitting. In fact, no other single public health effort is likely to achieve a benefit comparable to large-scale smoking cessation. Surveys document t...

    Authors: Riccardo Polosa, Brad Rodu, Pasquale Caponnetto, Marilena Maglia and Cirino Raciti
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:19
  7. We utilized multiple recruitment approaches to recruit IDUs in a longitudinal cohort study to examine HIV incidence and behavior change pre- and post-introduction of comprehensive HIV prevention services.

    Authors: Waimar Tun, Mary Philip Sebastian, Vartika Sharma, Ira Madan, Samir Souidi, Dean Lewis, Ibou Thior and Avina Sarna
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:16
  8. The majority of HIV-infected individuals requiring antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Russia are Injection Drug Users (IDU). Substitution therapy used as part of a comprehensive harm reduction program is unavaila...

    Authors: Alla V Shaboltas, Roman V Skochilov, Lillian B Brown, Vanessa N Elharrar, Andrei P Kozlov and Irving F Hoffman
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:15
  9. To determine relapse rates and associated factors among people who use drugs (PWUDs) attending abstinence-oriented drug treatment clinics in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Authors: Yuki Maehira, Ezazul Islam Chowdhury, Masud Reza, Ronald Drahozal, Tarun Kanti Gayen, Iqbal Masud, Sonia Afrin, Noboru Takamura and Tasnim Azim
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:14
  10. About a third of the global HIV infections outside sub-Saharan Africa are related to injecting drug use (IDU), and this accounts for a growing proportion of persons living with HIV. This paper is a response to...

    Authors: Zaino Petersen, Bronwyn Myers, Marie-Claire van Hout, Andreas Plüddemann and Charles Parry
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:13
  11. In spite of the negative health effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking, its use is becoming more common. The objective of this study is to systematically review the medical literature for motives, beliefs and at...

    Authors: Elie A Akl, Mohammed Jawad, Wai Yim Lam, Christopher N Co, Rawad Obeid and Jihad Irani
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:12
  12. Cohort studies provide an excellent opportunity to monitor changes in behaviour and disease transmission over time. In Australia, cohort studies of people who inject drugs (PWID) have generally focused on olde...

    Authors: Danielle Horyniak, Peter Higgs, Rebecca Jenkinson, Louisa Degenhardt, Mark Stoové, Thomas Kerr, Matthew Hickman, Campbell Aitken and Paul Dietze
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:11
  13. Illicit drug users have a high prevalence of HCV and represent the majority of newly infected persons in the U.S. Despite the availability of effective HCV treatment, few drug users have been evaluated or trea...

    Authors: Ashly E Jordan, Carmen L Masson, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Courtney McKnight, Nicole Pepper, Katie Bouche, Laura Guzman, Evan Kletter, Randy M Seewald, Don C Des-Jarlais, James L Sorensen and David C Perlman
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:10
  14. Karachi is the largest metropolis of Pakistan and its economic hub attracting domestic migrants for economic opportunities. It is also the epicenter of HIV epidemic in the country. Since 2004, one pilot study ...

    Authors: Aysha Zahidie, Arshad Altaf, Adeel Ahsan and Tanzil Jamali
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:9
  15. Needle-syringe exchange programs (NSPs) have been substantially rolled-out in China since 2002. Limited studies reported effectiveness of NSPs in a Chinese setting. This study aimed to assess the association b...

    Authors: Lei Zhang, Xi Chen, Jun Zheng, Junshi Zhao, Jun Jing, Jun Zhang, Eric PF Chow and David P Wilson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:8
  16. Unsafe injection practices play a major role in elevated rates of morbidity and mortality among people who inject drugs (IDU). There is growing interest in the direct involvement of IDU in interventions that s...

    Authors: Cody Callon, Grant Charles, Rick Alexander, Will Small and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:4
  17. Despite its increasing prevalence and acceptance among the general public, cannabis use continues to be viewed as an aberrant activity in many contexts. However, little is known about how stigma associated wit...

    Authors: Joan L Bottorff, Laura JL Bissell, Lynda G Balneaves, John L Oliffe, N Rielle Capler and Jane Buxton
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:2
  18. In India, as in rest of the world, HIV prevention programs have focused on HIV transmission through unsafe injecting practices with less attention on sexual risk behaviors among injecting drug users (IDUs). Th...

    Authors: Khrieketou Suohu, Chumben Humtsoe, Niranjan Saggurti, Shrutika Sabarwal, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra and Michelle Kermode
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:40
  19. The World Health Organization (WHO) attributes more than 4 million deaths a year to tobacco, and it is expected that this figure will rise to 10 million deaths a year by 2020. Moreover, it is now a growing pub...

    Authors: Ayalu A Reda, Asmamaw Moges, Berhanu Yazew and Sibhatu Biadgilign
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:39
  20. The HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Indonesia reached 50% in 2005. While drug use remains illegal in Indonesia, a needle and syringe program (NSP) was implemented in 2006.

    Authors: Guy Morineau, Liesbeth JM Bollen, Rizky Ika Syafitri, Nurjannah Nurjannah, Dyah Erti Mustikawati and Robert Magnani
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:37
  21. Abstinence and responsible drinking are not typically associated with youth drinking culture. Amongst Pacific youth in New Zealand there are high numbers, compared to the general New Zealand population, who ch...

    Authors: Tamasailau Suaalii-Sauni, Kathleen Seataoai Samu, Lucy Dunbar, Justin Pulford and Amanda Wheeler
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:36
  22. HIV prevalence is increasing among female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexico’s Northern border region, who experience multiple occupational risks. Improving vulnerable populations’ education, empowerment, and access...

    Authors: Angela M Robertson, Victoria D Ojeda, Lucie Nguyen, Remedios Lozada, Gustavo A Martínez, Steffanie A Strathdee and Thomas L Patterson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:35
  23. The current anti-doping policy (‘war on doping’) resembles the ‘war on drugs’ in several aspects, including a zero-tolerance approach, ideology encroaching on human rights and public health principles, high co...

    Authors: Bengt Kayser and Barbara Broers
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:33
  24. The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention...

    Authors: Nick Thomson, Supheap Leang, Kannarath Chheng, Amy Weissman, Graham Shaw and Nick Crofts
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:31
  25. In 2003 the Government of Cambodia officially began to recognise that harm reduction was an essential approach to preventing HIV among people who use drugs and their sexual partners. Several programs aiming to...

    Authors: Kannarath Chheng, Supheap Leang, Nick Thomson, Timothy Moore and Nick Crofts
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:30
  26. Peuan Mit is a Lao organization working to address the needs of children and youth living and working on the streets. This case study outlines how a trusted and strong relationship with local police provides m...

    Authors: Brigitte Tenni and Vanphanom Sychareun
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:29
  27. The response to drug use in Laos has focused on reducing opium supply (supply reduction) and rates of drug use (demand reduction). However, recently there is increased interest among government counterparts to...

    Authors: Vanphanom Sychareun, Visanou Hansana, Sysavanh Phommachanh, Vathsana Somphet, Phouthong Phommavongsa, Brigitte Tenni, Timothy Moore and Nick Crofts
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:28
  28. Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) was introduced in the rapidly developing semi-rural district of Tu Liem in Hanoi in December, 2009. Commune police play an integral role in determining which injecting drug ...

    Authors: Melissa Jardine, VanAnh Thi Nguyen and Thu Hong Khuat
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:26
  29. The findings of our research show that while police play multiple roles in the fight against drug-related crime, they often perceived their tasks – especially preventing and controlling drug use on the one han...

    Authors: Thu Hong Khuat, VanAnh Thi Nguyen, Melissa Jardine, Timothy Moore, Thu Huong Bui and Nick Crofts
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:25
  30. For over 15 years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of gre...

    Authors: Nick Thomson, Tim Moore and Nick Crofts
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:23
  31. Differences in beliefs about Cannabis were compared between Canada, Sweden and Finland using nationally representative population surveys containing similar items.

    Authors: John A Cunningham, Jan Blomqvist, Anja Koski-Jännes and Kirsimarja Raitasalo
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:21
  32. Approximately 90,000 Canadians use opioids each year, many of whom experience health and social problems that affect the individual user, families, communities and the health care system. For those who wish to...

    Authors: Jessica Dooley, Mark Asbridge, John Fraser and Susan Kirkland
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:20
  33. This study explored the value of providing information in a Fact Sheet to correct misperceptions about the relative harmfulness of nicotine replacement products (NRT) and smokeless tobacco (ST), when compared ...

    Authors: Ron Borland, Lin Li, K Michael Cummings, Richard O’Connor, Kevin Mortimer, Tom Wikmans, Lars Ramstrom, Bill King and Ann McNeill
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:19
  34. Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment...

    Authors: Hajar Shekarchizadeh, Hamed Ekhtiari, Mohammad R Khami and Jorma I Virtanen
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:18
  35. Improving access to sterile injection equipment is a key component in community-based infectious disease prevention. Implementation of syringe access programs has sometimes been complicated by community opposi...

    Authors: Basha Silverman, Corey S Davis, Julia Graff, Umbreen Bhatti, Melissa Santos and Leo Beletsky
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:17