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  1. People who both smoke cigarettes and vape are often considered as a homogenous group even though multiple subgroups may exist. We examined biomarkers of exposure (BOE) and biomarkers of potential harm (BOPH) t...

    Authors: Pavel N. Lizhnyak, Brendan Noggle, Lai Wei, Jeffery Edmiston, Elizabeth Becker, Ryan A. Black and Mohamadi Sarkar
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:90
  2. Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) is the primary intervention for opioid use disorder (OUD) in Canada and the USA. Yet, a number of barriers contribute to sub-optimal treatment uptake and retention, including dai...

    Authors: Cayley Russell, Shannon Lange, Fiona Kouyoumdjian, Amanda Butler and Farihah Ali
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:89
  3. Australia has had a framework for legal medicinal cannabis since 2016, yet prior online surveys in 2016 and 2018 indicated that most consumers continued to use illicit medical cannabis products. Regulatory dat...

    Authors: Nicholas Lintzeris, Llewellyn Mills, Sarah V. Abelev, Anastasia Suraev, Jonathon C. Arnold and Iain S. McGregor
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:88
  4. Supervised injection facilities (SIFs) provide spaces where persons who inject drugs (PWID) can inject under medical supervision and access harm reduction services. Though SIFs are not currently sanctioned in ...

    Authors: Eliana Duncan, Sarah Shufelt, Meredith Barranco and Tomoko Udo
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:87
  5. Police action can increase risky substance use patterns by people who use drugs (PWUD), but it is not known how increased police presence affects utilization of low-barrier substance use disorder bridge clinic...

    Authors: Karrin Weisenthal, Simeon D. Kimmel, Jessica Kehoe, Marc R. Larochelle, Alexander Y. Walley and Jessica L. Taylor
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:86
  6. Authors: Alice Zhang, Joseph A. Balles, Jennifer E. Nyland, Thao H. Nguyen, Veronica M. White and Aleksandra E. Zgierska
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:85

    The original article was published in Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:67

  7. The meaningful inclusion of young people who use or have used drugs is a fundamental aspect of harm reduction, including in program design, research, service provision, and advocacy efforts. However, there are...

    Authors: M-J Stowe, Orsi Feher, Beatrix Vas, Sangeet Kayastha and Alissa Greer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:83
  8. Internationally, strategies focusing on reducing alcohol-related harms in homeless populations with severe alcohol use disorder (AUD) continue to gain acceptance, especially when conventional modalities focuse...

    Authors: Shannon M. Smith-Bernardin, Leslie W. Suen, Jill Barr-Walker, Isabel Arrellano Cuervo and Margaret A. Handley
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:82
  9. The impact of public health policies during the COVID-19 pandemic on people who inject drugs (PWID) has varied across regions. In other countries, recent research has shown that PWID access to harm reduction s...

    Authors: Kinna Thakarar, Michael Kohut, Rebecca Hutchinson, Rebecca Bell, Hannah E. Loeb, Debra Burris and Kathleen M. Fairfield
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:80
  10. US overdose deaths have reached a record high. Syringe services programs (SSPs) play a critical role in addressing this crisis by providing multiple services to people who use drugs (PWUD) that help prevent ov...

    Authors: Madeline C. Frost, Elizabeth J. Austin, Maria A. Corcorran, Elsa S. Briggs, Czarina N. Behrends, Alexa M. Juarez, Noah D. Frank, Elise Healy, Stephanie M. Prohaska, Paul A. LaKosky, Shashi N. Kapadia, David C. Perlman, Bruce R. Schackman, Don C. Des Jarlais, Emily C. Williams and Sara N. Glick
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:79
  11. Syringe service programs (SSPs) provide essential harm reduction and prevention services for people who inject drugs in the USA, where SSP coverage is expanding. During the COVID-19 pandemic, US SSPs underwent...

    Authors: Andrea Wang, Raagini Jawa, Sarah Mackin, Liz Whynott, Connor Buchholz, Ellen Childs and Angela R. Bazzi
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:78
  12. The dual COVID-19 and overdose emergencies amplified strain on healthcare systems tasked with responding to both. One downstream consequence of the pandemic in the USA and Canada was a surge in drug overdoses ...

    Authors: Karen McCrae, Stephanie Glegg, Marie-Éve Goyer, Bernard Le Foll, Rupi Brar, Christy Sutherland and Nadia Fairbairn
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:77
  13. Illicit fentanyl has contributed to a drastic increase in overdose drug deaths. While fentanyl has subsumed the drug supply in the Northeastern and Midwestern USA, it has more recently reached the Western USA....

    Authors: Sarah S. Shin, Kate LaForge, Erin Stack, Justine Pope, Gillian Leichtling, Jessica E. Larsen, Judith M. Leahy, Andrew Seaman, Daniel Hoover, Laura Chisholm, Christopher Blazes, Robin Baker, Mikaela Byers, Katie Branson and P. Todd Korthuis
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:76
  14. Syringe services programs (SSPs) hold promise for providing buprenorphine treatment access to people with opioid use disorder (OUD) who are reluctant to seek care elsewhere. In 2017, the New York City Departme...

    Authors: Andrea Jakubowski, Caroline Rath, Alex Harocopos, Monique Wright, Alice Welch, Jessica Kattan, Czarina Navos Behrends, Teresa Lopez-Castro and Aaron D. Fox
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:75
  15. Delivery of effective health care is hampered by stigma, the social processes that attach negative judgement and response to some attributes, conditions, practices and identities. Experiencing or anticipating ...

    Authors: Carla Treloar, Elena Cama, Kari Lancaster, Loren Brener, Timothy R. Broady, Aaron Cogle and Darryl O’Donnell
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:74
  16. Safe consumption sites (SCSs) serve diverse populations of people who use drugs (PWUD) and public health objectives. SCS implementation began in the 1980s, and today, there are at least 200 known SCSs operatin...

    Authors: Grace H. Yoon, Timothy W. Levengood, Melissa J. Davoust, Shannon N. Ogden, Alex H. Kral, Sean R. Cahill and Angela R. Bazzi
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:73
  17. Fatal drug overdoses in the USA hit historical records during the COVID-19 pandemic. Throughout the pandemic, people who used drugs had greater odds of contracting COVID-19, increased drug use due to COVID-rel...

    Authors: Fiona N. Conway, Jake Samora, Katlyn Brinkley, Haelim Jeong, Nina Clinton and Kasey R. Claborn
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:72
  18. Take-Home Naloxone (THN) is a core intervention aimed at addressing the toxic illicit opioid drug supply crisis. Although THN programs are available in all provinces and territories throughout Canada, there ar...

    Authors: Max Ferguson, Andrea Medley, Katherine Rittenbach, Thomas D. Brothers, Carol Strike, Justin Ng, Pamela Leece, Tara Elton-Marshall, Farihah Ali, Diane L. Lorenzetti and Jane A. Buxton
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:71
  19. The opioid epidemic is a progressively worsening public health crisis that continues to impact healthcare system strategies such as overdose reversal and destigmatization. Even among healthcare professionals, ...

    Authors: Reena K. Sandhu, Michael V. Heller, Jack Buckanavage, Benjamin Haslund-Gourley, Joshua Leckron, Brady Kupersmith, Nathaniel C. Goss, Kyle Samson and Annette B. Gadegbeku
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:70
  20. Buprenorphine and naloxone are first-line medications for people who use opioids (PWUO). Buprenorphine can reduce opioid use and cravings, help withdrawal symptoms, and reduce risk of opioid overdose. Naloxone...

    Authors: David Dadiomov, Maria Bolshakova, Melania Mikhaeilyan and Rebecca Trotzky-Sirr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:69
  21. Women who use heroin and other drugs (WWUD) are a key population with elevated risk of physical and sexual violence perpetrated by intimate partners and non-partners. While housing instability has been shown t...

    Authors: Claire Silberg, Samuel Likindikoki, Jessie Mbwambo, Kristin Mmari and Haneefa T. Saleem
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:68
  22. Individuals with substance use disorder often encounter law enforcement due to drug use-related criminal activity. Traditional policing approaches may not be effective for reducing recidivism and improving out...

    Authors: Alice Zhang, Joseph A. Balles, Jennifer E. Nyland, Thao H. Nguyen, Veronica M. White and Aleksandra E. Zgierska
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:67

    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:85

  23. The aim of this study was to critically analyse information concerning the relationship between alcohol and food consumption provided via alcohol industry (AI) funded and non-AI-funded health-oriented websites...

    Authors: Anna Ramsbottom, May C. I. van Schalkwyk, Lauren Carters-White, Yasmine Benylles and Mark Petticrew
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:66
  24. As the opioid overdose crisis persists and take-home naloxone (THN) programmes expand, it is important that the intervention is targeted towards those most likely to use it. We examined THN program participant...

    Authors: Desiree Eide, Philipp Lobmaier and Thomas Clausen
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:65
  25. Traditional heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland consists of oral and injectable diacetylmorphine (pharmaceutical heroin) administration. To date, no suitable treatment option is available for patients who...

    Authors: Maximilian Meyer, Jean N. Westenberg, Johannes Strasser, Kenneth M. Dürsteler, Undine E. Lang, Michael Krausz and Marc Vogel
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:63
  26. The overdose crisis in the USA remains a growing and urgent public health concern. Over 108,000 people died due to overdose during 2021. Fatal and non-fatal overdoses are under-reported in the USA due to curre...

    Authors: Kasey Claborn, Suzannah Creech, Fiona N. Conway, Nina M. Clinton, Katlyn T. Brinkley, Elizabeth Lippard, Tristan Ramos, Jake Samora, Aaron Miri and Justin Benzer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:62
  27. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using the HIV self-test in high-risk Iranian groups (MSM, FSWs, and TGs).

    Authors: Ghobad Moradi, Elnaz Ezzati Amini, Azam Valipour, Katayoon Tayeri, Parvin Afsar Kazerooni, Leila Molaeipour and Yousef Moradi
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:61
  28. Negative encounters with law enforcement—direct and vicarious—fuel mistrust. When considered as part of the ‘risk environment’ in public health and harm reduction research, law enforcement mistrust may have br...

    Authors: Laura M. Johnson, Paul G. Devereux and Karla D. Wagner
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:60
  29. People who inject drugs (PWID) may be at elevated risk of adverse outcomes from SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, data on COVID-19 vaccine uptake among PWID are scarce. This study aimed to determine COVID-19 vacc...

    Authors: Jenny Iversen, Handan Wand, Robert Kemp, Jude Bevan, Myf Briggs, Kate Patten, Sue Heard and Lisa Maher
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:59
  30. Hepatitis C (HCV) infection has been rising in the suburban and rural USA, mainly via injection-based transmission. Injection and sexual networks are recognized as an important element in fostering and prevent...

    Authors: Mary Ellen Mackesy-Amiti, Joshua Falk, Carl Latkin, Maggie Kaufmann, Leslie Williams and Basmattee Boodram
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:58
  31. Nicotine pharmacokinetic assessments of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are crucial to understand their ability to provide an alternative to cigarette smoking. Subjective effects data also strongly...

    Authors: Ian M. Fearon, Karin Gilligan, Ryan G. N. Seltzer and Willie McKinney
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:57
  32. Global commitment to achieving hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination has enhanced efforts in improving access to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatments for people who inject drugs (PWID). Scale-up of efforts t...

    Authors: Heidi Coupland, Charles Henderson, Janice Pritchard-Jones, Shih-Chi Kao, Sinead Sheils, Regina Nagy, Martin O’Donnell, Paul S. Haber and Carolyn A. Day
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:56
  33. Opioid-related overdose deaths have surged in the USA over the last two decades. Overdose fatalities are preventable with the timely administration of naloxone. Syringe service programs (SSP) have pioneered co...

    Authors: Lynn D. Wenger, Maya Doe-Simkins, Eliza Wheeler, Lee Ongais, Terry Morris, Ricky N. Bluthenthal, Alex H. Kral and Barrot H. Lambdin
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:55
  34. Hospital patients who use drugs may require prolonged parenteral antimicrobial therapy administered through a vascular access device (VAD). Clinicians’ concerns that patients may inject drugs into these device...

    Authors: Hannah L. Brooks, Ginetta Salvalaggio, Bernadette Pauly, Kathryn Dong, Tania Bubela, Marliss Taylor and Elaine Hyshka
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:54
  35. In Kyrgyzstan and other Eastern European and Central Asian countries, injection drug use and HIV-related intersectional stigma undermines HIV prevention efforts, fueling a rapidly expanding HIV epidemic. The K...

    Authors: Laramie R. Smith, Natalia Shumskaia, Ainura Kurmanalieva, Thomas L. Patterson, Dan Werb, Anna Blyum, Angel B. Algarin, Samantha Yeager and Javier Cepeda
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:53
  36. Worsening of the overdose crisis in the USA has been linked to the continuing proliferation of non-pharmaceutical fentanyl (NPF). The recent wave of NPF spread in the USA has been fueled by an increased presen...

    Authors: Raminta Daniulaityte, Kaylin Sweeney, Seol Ki, Bradley N. Doebbeling and Natasha Mendoza
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:52
  37. Despite recent rises in fatal overdoses involving multiple substances, there is a paucity of knowledge about stimulant co-use patterns among people who use opioids (PWUO) or people being treated with medicatio...

    Authors: Abeed Sarker, Mohammed Ali Al-Garadi, Yao Ge, Nisha Nataraj, Christopher M. Jones and Steven A. Sumner
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:51
  38. When the novel coronavirus pandemic emerged in March 2020, many settings across Canada and the USA were already contending with an existing crisis of drug overdoses due to the toxic unregulated drug supply. In...

    Authors: Mana Moshkforoush, Kora DeBeck, Rupinder Brar, Nadia Fairbairn, Zishan Cui, M.-J. Milloy, Jane Buxton, Tanis Oldenburger, Will McLellan, Perry Kendall, Kali Sedgemore, Dean Wilson, Thomas Kerr and Kanna Hayashi
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:50
  39. The increasing prevalence of highly potent, illicitly manufactured fentanyl and its analogues (IMF) in the USA is exacerbating the opioid epidemic which has worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic. Narcan® (nalo...

    Authors: Randa Abdelal, A. Raja Banerjee, Suzanne Carlberg-Racich, Neyla Darwaza, Diane Ito, Jessica Shoaff and Josh Epstein
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:49
  40. Police in Canada have become main responders to behavioural health concerns in the community—a role that disproportionately harms people who use drugs (PWUD). Recent calls to defund the police emphasize the ne...

    Authors: Amanda Butler, Naomi Zakimi and Alissa Greer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:48
  41. The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) exacerbated risks for adverse health consequences among people who inject drugs by reducing access to sterile injection equipment, HIV testing, and syringe services programs...

    Authors: Jennifer L. Glick, Suzanne M. Grieb, Samantha J. Harris, Brian W. Weir, Katherine C. Smith, Tyler Puryear, Rebecca Hamilton White and Sean T. Allen
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:47
  42. British Columbia (BC) has been in a state of public health emergency since 2016, due to the unprecedented numbers of fatal and non-fatal drug toxicity (i.e. overdose) events. Methamphetamine detection in illic...

    Authors: Jenny Corser, Heather Palis, Mathew Fleury, Jess Lamb, Kurt Lock, Jenny McDougall, Amiti Mehta, Cheri Newman, Heather Spence and Jane A. Buxton
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:46
  43. The emergence of widespread amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs) usage has created significant challenges for drug control and treatment policies in Southeast Asian countries. This study analyses the development...

    Authors: Mai Thi Ngoc Tran, Michael P. Dunne, Giang Minh Le, Hoe Dinh Han, Trang Thu Nguyen, Hai Thanh Luong, Quang Hung Luong, Ha Nguyen Pham and Philip Baker
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:45
  44. Vancouver, Canada, and Lisbon, Portugal, are both celebrated for their world-leading harm reduction policies and programs and regarded as models for other cities contending with the effects of increasing level...

    Authors: Joana Canêdo, Kali-olt Sedgemore, Kelly Ebbert, Haleigh Anderson, Rainbow Dykeman, Katey Kincaid, Claudia Dias, Diana Silva, Reith Charlesworth, Rod Knight and Danya Fast
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:43
  45. To offer a critical reflection on an impoverished neighborhood in Vancouver, Canada, and their access to oral health care. A review of how a lack of publicly funded oral health care affects the most vulnerable...

    Authors: Ehsan Jozaghi, Vandu, Russ Maynard, Yasaman Khoshnoudian and Mario A. Brondani
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:42
  46. In the context of the current U.S. injection drug use epidemic, targeted public health harm reduction strategies have traditionally focused on overdose prevention and reducing transmission of blood-borne viral...

    Authors: Alexander Hrycko, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Courtney Ciervo, Rebecca Linn-Walton and Benjamin Eckhardt
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:41