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  1. Grounded in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework, the PROUD (Participatory Research in Ottawa: Understanding Drugs) Study aims to better understand HIV risk and prevalence among people who...

    Authors: Lisa Lazarus, Ashley Shaw, Sean LeBlanc, Alana Martin, Zack Marshall, Kristen Weersink, Dolly Lin, Kira Mandryk and Mark W Tyndall
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:26
  2. Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is regarded as a crime control measure. Yet, some individuals are charged with violent criminal offenses while enrolled in OMT. This article aims to generate nuanced knowledg...

    Authors: Ingrid Amalia Havnes, Thomas Clausen, Christina Brux and Anne-Lise Middelthon
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:24
  3. The use of cigarettes, alcohol, khat, and other substances is a worldwide threat which especially affects young people and which is also common among the youth of Ethiopia. However, its prevalence and associat...

    Authors: Nagasa Dida, Yibeltal Kassa, Teshome Sirak, Ephrem Zerga and Tariku Dessalegn
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:21
  4. Methadone maintenance treatment is the most widely prescribed treatment for opiate dependence with proven benefits for patients. In naïve users or in case of recreational misuse, methadone can be a source of p...

    Authors: Gaël Dupuy, Lia Cavalcanti, Emmanuel Bourgogne, Clara Brichant-Petitjean, Léon Gomberoff, Vanessa Bloch, Frank Bellivier, Jean-Pierre Lépine, Olivier Laprévote and Florence Vorspan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:20
  5. Data of the Central Bureau of Statistic of Nepal from 2008 show a total of more than 46,000 illegal drug users, out of which 61% are injecting drug users (IDU). An injecting mix of medicines like opioids, benz...

    Authors: Saroj Prasad Ojha, Suraj Sigdel, Hans-Günter Meyer-Thompson, Harald Oechsler and Uwe Verthein
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:17
  6. HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) is high in Yunnan and Guangxi provinces in southwest China. To address this epidemic, Population Services International (PSI) and four cooperating agencies...

    Authors: Kai Wang, Hongyun Fu, Kim Longfield, Shilpa Modi, Gary Mundy and Rebecca Firestone
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:15
  7. Tobacco smoking is the main health-care problem in the world. Evaluation of scientific output in the field of tobacco use has been poorly explored in Middle Eastern Arab (MEA) countries to date, and there are ...

    Authors: Sa'ed H Zyoud, Samah W Al-Jabi, Waleed M Sweileh and Rahmat Awang
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:14
  8. Among a cohort of drug-using street-involved youth, we sought to identify the prevalence of reporting increases and decreases in illicit drug use due to their current housing status and to identify factors ass...

    Authors: Tessa Cheng, Evan Wood, Paul Nguyen, Thomas Kerr and Kora DeBeck
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:12
  9. Correctional centre populations are one of the populations most at risk of contracting HIV infection for many reasons, such as unprotected sex, violence, rape and tattooing with contaminated equipment. Specifi...

    Authors: Monika ML dos Santos, Franz Trautmann, Gustaaf Wolvaardt and Romeo Palakatsela
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:11
  10. Few studies have investigated the service needs of persons who inject drugs (PWID) who live in less populated regions of Canada. With access to fewer treatment and harm reduction services than those in more ur...

    Authors: Jessica M McCutcheon and Melanie A Morrison
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:10
  11. Population size estimation is critical for planning public health programmes for injection drug users. Estimation is difficult, as these populations are considered 'hidden’ or 'hard to reach’. The currently ac...

    Authors: Yuan Xu, Murray Fyfe, Liz Walker and Laura LE Cowen
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:9
  12. Cigarette smoking habit usually begins in adolescence. The developing countries in South Asia like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Nepal, where the largest segment of the population is comprised of adolescent...

    Authors: Saadiyah Rao, Syeda Kanwal Aslam, Sidra Zaheer and Kashif Shafique
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:8
  13. There has been widespread support for harm reduction programs as an essential component for responding to the HIV and illicit drug use epidemics. However, despite the growing international acceptance of harm r...

    Authors: Lianping Ti and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:7
  14. Injecting drug users are at increased risk for harmful effects compared to non-injecting drug users. Some studies have focused on differences in characteristics between these two groups (e.g., housing, overall...

    Authors: Petra Havinga, Claudia van der Velden, Anouk de Gee and Agnes van der Poel
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:6
  15. In the context of increasing HIV prevalence among women in regular sexual partnerships, this paper examines the relationship between male injecting drug users' (IDUs) risky injecting practices and sexual risk ...

    Authors: Ritu Kumar Mishra, Deepika Ganju, Sowmya Ramesh, Melody Lalmuanpuii, Langkham Biangtung, Chumben Humtsoe and Niranjan Saggurti
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:5
  16. Policymakers and researchers seek answers to how liberalized drug policies affect people who inject drugs (PWID). In response to concerns about the failing “war on drugs,” Mexico recently implemented drug poli...

    Authors: Angela M Robertson, Richard S Garfein, Karla D Wagner, Sanjay R Mehta, Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, Jazmine Cuevas-Mota, Patricia Gonzalez Moreno-Zuniga and Steffanie A Strathdee
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:4
  17. For the past two decades, there has been an enduring HIV epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs) in India, and the Indian national AIDS control program (NACP) led by the National AIDS Control Organization (...

    Authors: Bindya Jain, Suneeta Krishnan, Sowmya Ramesh, Shrutika Sabarwal, Vijay Garg and Neeraj Dhingra
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:3
  18. Research demonstrates that tobacco packaging elements (including health warning labels, descriptive characteristics, and corporate branding) are associated with knowledge of health risks and product appeal wit...

    Authors: Sarah E Adkison, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Danielle M Smith, Richard J O’Connor and Andrew J Hyland
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:2
  19. People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk of contracting and transmitting and hepatitis C virus (HCV). While accurate screening tests and effective treatment are increasingly available, prior research in...

    Authors: Joshua A Barocas, Meghan B Brennan, Shawnika J Hull, Scott Stokes, John J Fangman and Ryan P Westergaard
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:1
  20. Transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among incarcerated injection drug users (IDU) is a health epidemic in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Triangular clinics (TCs) were established in prisons a...

    Authors: Rahim Taghizadeh Asl, Babak Eshrati, Colleen Anne Dell, Kelli Taylor, Parviz Afshar, Mohammad Kamali and Ali Mirzazadeh
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:41
  21. In the 20th century, 100 million people across the globe lost their lives due to consumption of tobacco. Every year 15,000 deaths in Nepal are attributable to tobacco smoking and using other products of tobacc...

    Authors: Vishnu Khanal, Mandira Adhikari and Sujan Karki
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:40
  22. We report on an in-depth qualitative study of 28 active and former substance addicted women of low or marginal income on the core components of a harm reduction-based addiction recovery program. These women vo...

    Authors: Edward Kruk and Kathryn Sandberg
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:39
  23. Addiction treatment faces high pretreatment and treatment dropout rates, especially among Aboriginals. In this study we examined characteristic differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients accessi...

    Authors: Xin Li, Huiying Sun, David C Marsh and Aslam H Anis
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:38
  24. Quality of life (QOL) is an important outcome measure in the treatment of heroin addiction. The Taiwan version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL-BREF [TW]) has been developed ...

    Authors: Tiffany Szu-Ting Fu, Yung-Change Tuan, Muh-Yong Yen, Wei-Hsin Wu, Chun-Wei Huang, Wei-Ti Chen, Chiang-Shan R Li and Tony Szu-Hsien Lee
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:37
  25. Contradictory evidence on cannabis adds to the climate of confusion regarding the health harms related to use. This is particularly true for young people as they encounter and make sense of opposing informatio...

    Authors: Barbara M Moffat, Emily K Jenkins and Joy L Johnson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:34
  26. A syndemic conjoins injection drug use, incarceration, and HIV in Vietnam, where there is a need for programs that empower people who use drugs to minimize the harms thereby produced. Here we present a post-ho...

    Authors: Eleanor Hayes-Larson, Lauretta E Grau, Kaveh Khoshnood, Russell Barbour, Oanh Thi Hai Khuat and Robert Heimer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:33
  27. Alternative cigarette-like nicotine delivery systems have been met with diverse opinions. One concern has been for the effect on children. We investigate whether children can differentiate tobacco cigarette sm...

    Authors: Julienne Faletau, Marewa Glover, Vili Nosa and Fiona Pienaar
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:30
  28. While crack cocaine has been associated with elevated sexual risks and transmission of HIV/STIs, particularly in the context of street-based sex work, few empirical studies have examined correlates of direct s...

    Authors: Putu Duff, Mark Tyndall, Jane Buxton, Ruth Zhang, Thomas Kerr and Kate Shannon
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:29
  29. Areca (Betel Nut) is the fourth most commonly used psychoactive drug throughout the world and is legal in U.S. It is carcinogenic. Within a health program in the Federated States of Micronesia we surveyed use ...

    Authors: Peter Milgrom, Ohnmar K Tut, John Gilmatam, Marcelle Gallen and Donald L Chi
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:26
  30. Despite progressive population health policies to reduce tobacco harm, smoking prevalence continues to be inequitable amongst key ethnic groups in New Zealand. The purpose of this study is to describe the pred...

    Authors: Tasileta Teevale, Simon Denny, Vili Nosa and Janie Sheridan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:25
  31. Blue lights are sometimes placed in public washrooms to discourage injection drug use. Their effectiveness has been questioned and concerns raised that they are harmful but formal research on the issue is limi...

    Authors: Alexis Crabtree, Gareth Mercer, Robert Horan, Shannon Grant, Tracy Tan and Jane A Buxton
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:22
  32. For decades, Thailand has experienced high rates of illicit drug use and related harms. In response, the Thai government has relied on drug law enforcement to address this problem. Despite these efforts, high ...

    Authors: Kanna Hayashi, Lianping Ti, Nadia Fairbairn, Karyn Kaplan, Paisan Suwannawong, Evan Wood and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:21
  33. HIV infection among people who inject drugs (IDU) remains a major global public health challenge. However, among IDU, access to essential HIV-related services remains unacceptably low, especially in settings w...

    Authors: Lianping Ti and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:20
  34. Smokers of any age can reap substantial health benefits by quitting. In fact, no other single public health effort is likely to achieve a benefit comparable to large-scale smoking cessation. Surveys document t...

    Authors: Riccardo Polosa, Brad Rodu, Pasquale Caponnetto, Marilena Maglia and Cirino Raciti
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:19