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  1. Injecting drug users (IDU) remain an important population at risk for blood-borne infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). In the Netherlands,...

    Authors: Imke Schreuder, Marianne AB van der Sande, Matty de Wit, Monique Bongaerts, Charles AB Boucher, Esther A Croes and Maaike G van Veen

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:25

    Content type: Brief report

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  2. Nonmedical prescription opioid use has emerged as a major public health concern in recent years, particularly in rural Appalachia. Little is known about the routes of administration (ROA) involved in nonmedica...

    Authors: April M Young, Jennifer R Havens and Carl G Leukefeld

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:24

    Content type: Brief report

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  3. There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and m...

    Authors: Anna Buadze, Rudolf Stohler, Beate Schulze, Michael Schaub and Michael Liebrenz

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:22

    Content type: Research

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  4. Many health professionals engage in providing health services for drug users; however, there is evidence of stigmatisation by some health professionals. Prescription drug misusers as a specific group, may also...

    Authors: Rachael Butler and Janie Sheridan

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:21

    Content type: Research

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  5. Injection drug users (IDU) commonly seek manual assistance with illicit drug injections, a practice known to be associated with various health-related harms. We investigated the social structural factors that ...

    Authors: Nadia Fairbairn, Will Small, Natasha Van Borek, Evan Wood and Thomas Kerr

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:20

    Content type: Research

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  6. Substance use during pregnancy often leads to involvement in the child welfare system, resulting in multiple social service systems and service providers working with families to achieve successful child welfa...

    Authors: Kenneth J McCann, Jean E Twomey, Donna Caldwell, Rosemary Soave, Lynne Andreozzi Fontaine and Barry M Lester

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:19

    Content type: Research

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  7. Tobacco retailers are potential public health partners for tobacco harm reduction (THR). THR is the substitution of highly reduced-risk nicotine products, such as smokeless tobacco (ST) or pharmaceutical nicot...

    Authors: Karyn K Heavner, Zale Rosenberg, Francis Tenorio and Carl V Phillips

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:18

    Content type: Research

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  8. Drug use is prevalent throughout prison populations, and, despite advances in drug treatment programmes for inmates, access to and the quality of these programmes remain substantially poorer than those availab...

    Authors: Heino Stöver and Ingo Ilja Michels

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:17

    Content type: Review

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  9. Solvent abuse is a particularly serious issue affecting Aboriginal people. Here we examine the association between solvent use and socio-demographic variables, drug-related risk factors, and pathogen prevalenc...

    Authors: Souradet Y Shaw, Kathleen N Deering, Ann M Jolly and John L Wylie

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:16

    Content type: Research

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  10. An important challenge in conducting social research of specific relevance to harm reduction programs is locating hidden populations of consumers of substances like cannabis who typically report few adverse or...

    Authors: Andrew D Hathaway, Elaine Hyshka, Patricia G Erickson, Mark Asbridge, Serge Brochu, Marie-Marthe Cousineau, Cameron Duff and David Marsh

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:15

    Content type: Research

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  11. Narghile is becoming the favorite form of tobacco use by youth globally. This problem has received more attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of narghil...

    Authors: Najla S Dar-Odeh, Faris G Bakri, Mahmoud K Al-Omiri, Hamzeh M Al-Mashni, Hazem A Eimar, Ameen S Khraisat, Shatha MK Abu-Hammad, Abdul-Aziz F Dudeen, Mohamed Nur Abdallah, Samer MZied Alkilani, Louai Al-Shami and Osama A Abu-Hammad

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:10

    Content type: Research

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  12. Although previous studies have identified high levels of drug-related harm in Thailand, little is known about illicit drug overdose experiences among Thai drug users. We sought to investigate non-fatal overdos...

    Authors: M-J Milloy, Nadia Fairbairn, Kanna Hayashi, Paisan Suwannawong, Karyn Kaplan, Evan Wood and Thomas Kerr

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:9

    Content type: Research

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  13. Injection drug users continue to be at high risk of HIV and HCV. Research has shown that needle exchange programs (NEP) decrease injection frequency, reduce syringe reuse, and reduce needle sharing, though som...

    Authors: Andrea K Knittel, Patricia A Wren and Lemont Gore

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:8

    Content type: Research

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  14. Reports from Thailand suggest that a growing number of people who inject drugs (IDU) are now injecting midazolam, a legal benzodiazepine with potent amnestic and ventilatory depressant effects. We therefore so...

    Authors: Thomas Kerr, Niyada Kiatying-Angsulee, Nadia Fairbairn, Kanna Hayashi, Paisan Suwannawong, Karyn Kaplan, Calvin Lai and Evan Wood

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:7

    Content type: Research

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  15. Assisted injection and public injection have both been associated with a variety of individual harms including an increased risk of HIV infection. As a means of informing local IDU-driven interventions that ta...

    Authors: Elisa Lloyd-Smith, Beth S Rachlis, Diane Tobin, Dave Stone, Kathy Li, Will Small, Evan Wood and Thomas Kerr

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:6

    Content type: Research

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  16. We sought to explore the effect of crystal methamphetamine use on the risk of experiencing malnutrition among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Risk of malnutrition was defined as being hungry but no...

    Authors: Dan Werb, Thomas Kerr, Ruth Zhang, Julio SG Montaner and Evan Wood

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:5

    Content type: Brief report

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  17. The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Cl...

    Authors: Ronald Swartz

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:3

    Content type: Brief report

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  18. Our objective was to examine factors associated with distributive injection equipment sharing and how needle exchange programs (NEPs) can help reduce distributive sharing among injection drug users (IDUs).

    Authors: Carol Strike, Daniel Z Buchman, Russell C Callaghan, Cass Wender, Susan Anstice, Brian Lester, Nick Scrivo, Janine Luce and Margaret Millson

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:2

    Content type: Research

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  19. Needle exchange programs chase political as well as epidemiological dragons, carrying within them both implicit moral and political goals. In the exchange model of syringe distribution, injection drug users (I...

    Authors: Dan Small, Andrea Glickman, Galen Rigter and Thia Walter

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:1

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Injections of mixtures prepared from crushed tablets contain insoluble particles which can cause embolisms and other complications. Although many particles can be removed by filtration, many injecting drug use...

    Authors: Stuart McLean, Raimondo Bruno, Susan Brandon and Barbara de Graaff

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:37

    Content type: Research

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  21. To redress gaps in injection drug users' (IDUs) knowledge about hepatitis risk and prevention, we developed a brief intervention to be delivered to IDUs at syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in three US cities. ...

    Authors: Lauretta E Grau, Traci C Green, Merrill Singer, Ricky N Bluthenthal, Patricia A Marshall and Robert Heimer

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:36

    Content type: Brief report

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  22. Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit) instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential;...

    Authors: Amanda Reiman

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:35

    Content type: Research

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  23. Recent data suggest that globally, between 5% and 10% of all new HIV cases are the result of unsafe injecting practices, and experts agree that reducing these practices is key to tackling the spread of HIV. An...

    Authors: Daniel Werb and Evan Wood

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:33

    Content type: Commentary

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  24. There is a need for services that effectively and comprehensively address the complex needs of women with substance use issues and their children. A growing body of literature supports the relevance of integra...

    Authors: Wendy Sword, Susan Jack, Alison Niccols, Karen Milligan, Joanna Henderson and Lehana Thabane

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:32

    Content type: Research

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  25. Five cases of severe neutropenia (neutrophil counts < 0.5 per 109 cells/L) associated with exposure to cocaine and levamisole, an antihelimithic agent no longer available in Canada, were identified in Alberta in ...

    Authors: Lewinda Knowles, Jane A Buxton, Nataliya Skuridina, Ifeoma Achebe, Donald LeGatt, Shihe Fan, Nancy Yan Zhu and James Talbot

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:30

    Content type: Case report

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  26. Nicotine is so desirable to many people that when they are given only the options of consuming nicotine by smoking, with its high health costs, and not consuming nicotine at all, many opt for the former. Few s...

    Authors: Carl V Phillips

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:29

    Content type: Analytic perspective

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  27. In Indonesia, an ongoing government "war on drugs" has resulted in numerous arrests and anecdotal reports of abuse in detention, but to date there has been little documentation or analysis of this issue. JANGK...

    Authors: Sara LM Davis, Agus Triwahyuono and Risa Alexander

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:28

    Content type: Brief report

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  28. Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than convent...

    Authors: Karen Bogen, Lois Biener, Catherine A Garrett, Jane Allen, K Michael Cummings, Anne Hartman, Stephen Marcus, Ann McNeill, Richard J O'Connor, Mark Parascandola and Linda Pederson

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:27

    Content type: Research

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  29. Naloxone has been evidenced widely as a means of reducing mortality resulting from opiate overdose, yet its distribution to drug users remains limited. However, it is drug users who are most likely to be avail...

    Authors: Romina Lopez Gaston, David Best, Victoria Manning and Ed Day

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:26

    Content type: Research

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  30. Smoking cessation has important immediate health benefits. The comparative short-term effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions is not well known. We aimed to determine the relative effectiveness of nic...

    Authors: Edward J Mills, Ping Wu, Dean Spurden, Jon O Ebbert and Kumanan Wilson

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:25

    Content type: Research

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  31. Ukraine has experienced an increase in injection drug use since the 1990s. An increase in HIV and hepatitis C virus infections has followed, but not measures of prevalence and risk factors. The purposes of thi...

    Authors: Kostyantyn V Dumchev, Ruslan Soldyshev, Han-Zhu Qian, Olexandr O Zezyulin, Susan D Chandler, Pavel Slobodyanyuk, Larisa Moroz and Joseph E Schumacher

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:23

    Content type: Research

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  32. The HIV epidemic in Russia has been driven by the unsafe injection of drugs, predominantly heroin and the ephedrine derived psychostimulants. Understanding differences in HIV risk behaviors among injectors ass...

    Authors: Gina Rae Kruse, Russell Barbour, Robert Heimer, Alla V Shaboltas, Olga V Toussova, Irving F Hoffman and Andrei P Kozlov

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:22

    Content type: Research

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  33. The role of needle and syringe sharing behavior of injection drug users (IDUs) in spreading of blood-borne infections – specially HIV/AIDS – is well known. However, very little is known in this regard from Ira...

    Authors: Hassan Rafiey, Hooman Narenjiha, Peymaneh Shirinbayan, Roya Noori, Morteza Javadipour, Mohsen Roshanpajouh, Mercedeh Samiei and Shervin Assari

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:21

    Content type: Research

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  34. The concept of risk dominates the HIV/AIDS literature pertaining to People Who Use Injection Drugs (PWUID). In contrast the associated concept of worry is infrequently applied, even though it can produce impor...

    Authors: Heidi Exner, Erin K Gibson, Ryan Stone, Jennifer Lindquist, Laura Cowen and Eric A Roth

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:20

    Content type: Research

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  35. Among persons who inject drugs (IDU), illicit drug use often occurs in hospitals and contributes to patient expulsion and/or high rates of leaving against medical advice (AMA) when withdrawal is inadequately m...

    Authors: Beth S Rachlis, Thomas Kerr, Julio SG Montaner and Evan Wood

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:19

    Content type: Commentary

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  36. Opioid overdose in Russia is a problem that has grown more severe as heroin abuse expanded over the past decade, yet few studies have explored it in detail. In order to gain a clearer understanding of the situ...

    Authors: Lauretta E Grau, Traci C Green, Mikhail Torban, Ksenia Blinnikova, Evgeny Krupitsky, Ruslan Ilyuk, Andrei P Kozlov and Robert Heimer

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:17

    Content type: Research

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  37. In light of overwhelming evidence that access to sterile injection equipment reduces incidence of injection-attributable bloodborne disease without encouraging drug use, many localities have authorized sterile...

    Authors: Corey S Davis and Leo Beletsky

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:16

    Content type: Case study

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  38. Although prevention of opiate overdose has been gaining attention as a harm reduction measure with community drug users, there is scarce information about drug overdose in prison. In correctional institutions ...

    Authors: Carmen E Albizu-García, Adriana Hernández-Viver, Jacqueline Feal and José F Rodríguez-Orengo

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:15

    Content type: Research

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  39. Despite the well-known risks of smoking, policy, social pressure, and accessible cessation programs, tens of millions of North American adults continue smoking rather than quitting or switching to less harmful...

    Authors: Karyn K Heavner, Zale Rosenberg and Carl V Phillips

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:14

    Content type: Research

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  40. Of the nearly 100,000 street-based IDUs in Pakistan, 20% have HIV. We investigated the recent rise in HIV prevalence from 12 to 52% among IDUs in Sargodha despite > 70% coverage with syringe exchanges.

    Authors: Adnan A Khan, Ahmad B Awan, Salman U Qureshi, Ali Razaque and Syed T Zafar

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:13

    Content type: Brief report

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