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  1. Narghile is becoming the favorite form of tobacco use by youth globally. This problem has received more attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of narghil...

    Authors: Najla S Dar-Odeh, Faris G Bakri, Mahmoud K Al-Omiri, Hamzeh M Al-Mashni, Hazem A Eimar, Ameen S Khraisat, Shatha MK Abu-Hammad, Abdul-Aziz F Dudeen, Mohamed Nur Abdallah, Samer MZied Alkilani, Louai Al-Shami and Osama A Abu-Hammad
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:10
  2. Although previous studies have identified high levels of drug-related harm in Thailand, little is known about illicit drug overdose experiences among Thai drug users. We sought to investigate non-fatal overdos...

    Authors: M-J Milloy, Nadia Fairbairn, Kanna Hayashi, Paisan Suwannawong, Karyn Kaplan, Evan Wood and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:9
  3. Injection drug users continue to be at high risk of HIV and HCV. Research has shown that needle exchange programs (NEP) decrease injection frequency, reduce syringe reuse, and reduce needle sharing, though som...

    Authors: Andrea K Knittel, Patricia A Wren and Lemont Gore
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:8
  4. Reports from Thailand suggest that a growing number of people who inject drugs (IDU) are now injecting midazolam, a legal benzodiazepine with potent amnestic and ventilatory depressant effects. We therefore so...

    Authors: Thomas Kerr, Niyada Kiatying-Angsulee, Nadia Fairbairn, Kanna Hayashi, Paisan Suwannawong, Karyn Kaplan, Calvin Lai and Evan Wood
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:7
  5. Assisted injection and public injection have both been associated with a variety of individual harms including an increased risk of HIV infection. As a means of informing local IDU-driven interventions that ta...

    Authors: Elisa Lloyd-Smith, Beth S Rachlis, Diane Tobin, Dave Stone, Kathy Li, Will Small, Evan Wood and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:6
  6. We sought to explore the effect of crystal methamphetamine use on the risk of experiencing malnutrition among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Risk of malnutrition was defined as being hungry but no...

    Authors: Dan Werb, Thomas Kerr, Ruth Zhang, Julio SG Montaner and Evan Wood
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:5
  7. The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Cl...

    Authors: Ronald Swartz
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:3
  8. Our objective was to examine factors associated with distributive injection equipment sharing and how needle exchange programs (NEPs) can help reduce distributive sharing among injection drug users (IDUs).

    Authors: Carol Strike, Daniel Z Buchman, Russell C Callaghan, Cass Wender, Susan Anstice, Brian Lester, Nick Scrivo, Janine Luce and Margaret Millson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:2
  9. Needle exchange programs chase political as well as epidemiological dragons, carrying within them both implicit moral and political goals. In the exchange model of syringe distribution, injection drug users (I...

    Authors: Dan Small, Andrea Glickman, Galen Rigter and Thia Walter
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:1
  10. Injections of mixtures prepared from crushed tablets contain insoluble particles which can cause embolisms and other complications. Although many particles can be removed by filtration, many injecting drug use...

    Authors: Stuart McLean, Raimondo Bruno, Susan Brandon and Barbara de Graaff
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:37
  11. To redress gaps in injection drug users' (IDUs) knowledge about hepatitis risk and prevention, we developed a brief intervention to be delivered to IDUs at syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in three US cities. ...

    Authors: Lauretta E Grau, Traci C Green, Merrill Singer, Ricky N Bluthenthal, Patricia A Marshall and Robert Heimer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:36
  12. Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit) instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential;...

    Authors: Amanda Reiman
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:35
  13. Recent data suggest that globally, between 5% and 10% of all new HIV cases are the result of unsafe injecting practices, and experts agree that reducing these practices is key to tackling the spread of HIV. An...

    Authors: Daniel Werb and Evan Wood
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:33
  14. There is a need for services that effectively and comprehensively address the complex needs of women with substance use issues and their children. A growing body of literature supports the relevance of integra...

    Authors: Wendy Sword, Susan Jack, Alison Niccols, Karen Milligan, Joanna Henderson and Lehana Thabane
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:32
  15. Five cases of severe neutropenia (neutrophil counts < 0.5 per 109 cells/L) associated with exposure to cocaine and levamisole, an antihelimithic agent no longer available in Canada, were identified in Alberta in ...

    Authors: Lewinda Knowles, Jane A Buxton, Nataliya Skuridina, Ifeoma Achebe, Donald LeGatt, Shihe Fan, Nancy Yan Zhu and James Talbot
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:30
  16. Nicotine is so desirable to many people that when they are given only the options of consuming nicotine by smoking, with its high health costs, and not consuming nicotine at all, many opt for the former. Few s...

    Authors: Carl V Phillips
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:29
  17. In Indonesia, an ongoing government "war on drugs" has resulted in numerous arrests and anecdotal reports of abuse in detention, but to date there has been little documentation or analysis of this issue. JANGK...

    Authors: Sara LM Davis, Agus Triwahyuono and Risa Alexander
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:28
  18. Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than convent...

    Authors: Karen Bogen, Lois Biener, Catherine A Garrett, Jane Allen, K Michael Cummings, Anne Hartman, Stephen Marcus, Ann McNeill, Richard J O'Connor, Mark Parascandola and Linda Pederson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:27
  19. Naloxone has been evidenced widely as a means of reducing mortality resulting from opiate overdose, yet its distribution to drug users remains limited. However, it is drug users who are most likely to be avail...

    Authors: Romina Lopez Gaston, David Best, Victoria Manning and Ed Day
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:26
  20. Smoking cessation has important immediate health benefits. The comparative short-term effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions is not well known. We aimed to determine the relative effectiveness of nic...

    Authors: Edward J Mills, Ping Wu, Dean Spurden, Jon O Ebbert and Kumanan Wilson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:25
  21. Ukraine has experienced an increase in injection drug use since the 1990s. An increase in HIV and hepatitis C virus infections has followed, but not measures of prevalence and risk factors. The purposes of thi...

    Authors: Kostyantyn V Dumchev, Ruslan Soldyshev, Han-Zhu Qian, Olexandr O Zezyulin, Susan D Chandler, Pavel Slobodyanyuk, Larisa Moroz and Joseph E Schumacher
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:23
  22. The HIV epidemic in Russia has been driven by the unsafe injection of drugs, predominantly heroin and the ephedrine derived psychostimulants. Understanding differences in HIV risk behaviors among injectors ass...

    Authors: Gina Rae Kruse, Russell Barbour, Robert Heimer, Alla V Shaboltas, Olga V Toussova, Irving F Hoffman and Andrei P Kozlov
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:22
  23. The role of needle and syringe sharing behavior of injection drug users (IDUs) in spreading of blood-borne infections – specially HIV/AIDS – is well known. However, very little is known in this regard from Ira...

    Authors: Hassan Rafiey, Hooman Narenjiha, Peymaneh Shirinbayan, Roya Noori, Morteza Javadipour, Mohsen Roshanpajouh, Mercedeh Samiei and Shervin Assari
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:21
  24. The concept of risk dominates the HIV/AIDS literature pertaining to People Who Use Injection Drugs (PWUID). In contrast the associated concept of worry is infrequently applied, even though it can produce impor...

    Authors: Heidi Exner, Erin K Gibson, Ryan Stone, Jennifer Lindquist, Laura Cowen and Eric A Roth
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:20
  25. Among persons who inject drugs (IDU), illicit drug use often occurs in hospitals and contributes to patient expulsion and/or high rates of leaving against medical advice (AMA) when withdrawal is inadequately m...

    Authors: Beth S Rachlis, Thomas Kerr, Julio SG Montaner and Evan Wood
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:19
  26. Opioid overdose in Russia is a problem that has grown more severe as heroin abuse expanded over the past decade, yet few studies have explored it in detail. In order to gain a clearer understanding of the situ...

    Authors: Lauretta E Grau, Traci C Green, Mikhail Torban, Ksenia Blinnikova, Evgeny Krupitsky, Ruslan Ilyuk, Andrei P Kozlov and Robert Heimer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:17
  27. In light of overwhelming evidence that access to sterile injection equipment reduces incidence of injection-attributable bloodborne disease without encouraging drug use, many localities have authorized sterile...

    Authors: Corey S Davis and Leo Beletsky
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:16
  28. Although prevention of opiate overdose has been gaining attention as a harm reduction measure with community drug users, there is scarce information about drug overdose in prison. In correctional institutions ...

    Authors: Carmen E Albizu-García, Adriana Hernández-Viver, Jacqueline Feal and José F Rodríguez-Orengo
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:15
  29. Despite the well-known risks of smoking, policy, social pressure, and accessible cessation programs, tens of millions of North American adults continue smoking rather than quitting or switching to less harmful...

    Authors: Karyn K Heavner, Zale Rosenberg and Carl V Phillips
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:14
  30. Of the nearly 100,000 street-based IDUs in Pakistan, 20% have HIV. We investigated the recent rise in HIV prevalence from 12 to 52% among IDUs in Sargodha despite > 70% coverage with syringe exchanges.

    Authors: Adnan A Khan, Ahmad B Awan, Salman U Qureshi, Ali Razaque and Syed T Zafar
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:13
  31. Illicit drug overdose deaths (IDD) relate to individual drug dose and context of use, including use with other drugs and alcohol. IDD peaked in British Columbia (BC) in 1998 with 417 deaths, and continues to b...

    Authors: Jane A Buxton, Trevor Skutezky, Andrew W Tu, Bilal Waheed, Alex Wallace and Sunny Mak
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:9
  32. The prevalence of HIV in Vancouver, British Columbia was subject to two distinct periods of rapid increase. The first occurred in the 1980s due to high incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM), and the ...

    Authors: Colin W McInnes, Eric Druyts, Stephanie S Harvard, Mark Gilbert, Mark W Tyndall, Viviane D Lima, Evan Wood, Julio SG Montaner and Robert S Hogg
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:5
  33. Manipur and Nagaland in northeast India report an antenatal HIV prevalence of > 1% and the current HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 24% and 4.5% respectively. Through support from DFID's Challenge ...

    Authors: M Suresh Kumar, Richard D Natale, B Langkham, Charan Sharma, Rachel Kabi and Gordon Mortimore
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:4
  34. Both syringe exchange programs (SEPs) and pharmacy sales of syringes are available in Estonia, though the current high incidence and high prevalence of HIV among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tallinn, Estonia...

    Authors: Sigrid Vorobjov, Anneli Uusküla, Katri Abel-Ollo, Ave Talu, Kristi Rüütel and Don C Des Jarlais
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:3
  35. Opioid addiction is a chronic, relapsing disease and remains a major public health challenge. Despite important expansions of access to conventional treatments, there are still significant proportions of affec...

    Authors: Candice C Gartry, Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes, Nancy Laliberté and Martin T Schechter
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:2
  36. Programmatic data from New York City syringe exchange programs suggest that many clients visit the programs infrequently and take few syringes per transaction, while separate survey data from individuals using...

    Authors: Daliah I Heller, Denise Paone, Anne Siegler and Adam Karpati
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:1
  37. The BC Harm Reduction Strategies and Services (HRSS) policy states that each health authority (HA) and their community partners will provide a full range of harm reduction (HR) services to their jurisdictions ...

    Authors: Jane A Buxton, Emma C Preston, Sunny Mak, Stephanie Harvard and Jenny Barley
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:37
  38. The Mexico-U.S. border region is experiencing rising rates of blood-borne infections among injection drug users (IDUs), emphasizing the need for harm reduction interventions.

    Authors: Morgan M Philbin, Remedios Lozada, María Luisa Zúñiga, Andrea Mantsios, Patricia Case, Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, Carl A Latkin and Steffanie A Strathdee
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:36
  39. Aboriginal people experience a disproportionate burden of HIV infection among the adult population in Canada; however, less is known regarding the prevalence and characteristics of HIV positivity among drug-us...

    Authors: Brandon DL Marshall, Thomas Kerr, Chris Livingstone, Kathy Li, Julio SG Montaner and Evan Wood
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:35