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  1. Since the start of the opioid epidemic in 2016, the Downtown Eastside community of Vancouver, Canada, has lost many pioneering leaders, activists and visionaries to the war on drugs. The Vancouver Area Network...

    Authors: Russ Maynard and Ehsan Jozaghi

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:21

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  2. The COVID-19 crisis has had profound impacts on health service provision, particularly those providing client facing services. Supervised injecting facilities and drug consumption rooms across the world have b...

    Authors: Amanda Roxburgh, Marianne Jauncey, Carolyn Day, Mark Bartlett, Shelley Cogger, Paul Dietze, Suzanne Nielsen, Julie Latimer and Nico Clark

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:20

    Content type: Opinion

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  3. Peer workers or “peers” (workers with past or present drug use experience) are at the forefront of overdose response initiatives, and their role is essential in creating safe spaces for people who use drugs (P...

    Authors: Zahra Mamdani, Sophie McKenzie, Bernadette Pauly, Fred Cameron, Jennifer Conway-Brown, Denice Edwards, Amy Howell, Tracy Scott, Ryan Seguin, Peter Woodrow and Jane A. Buxton

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:18

    Content type: Research

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  4. After publication of the original article [1], the authors identified an error in the author name of Marlene Janzen Le Ber. The given name and family name were erroneously transposed.

    Authors: Abe Oudshoorn, Michelle Sangster Bouck, Melissa McCann, Shamiram Zendo, Helene Berman, Jordan Banninga, Marlene Janzen Le Ber and Zayya Zendo

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:16

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:6

  5. Peer involvement of people who use drugs within HIV and harm reduction services is widely promoted yet under-utilised. Alongside political and financial barriers is a limited understanding of the roles, impact...

    Authors: Judy Chang, Shaun Shelly, Machteld Busz, Claudia Stoicescu, Arif Rachman Iryawan, Dinara Madybaeva, Yuri de Boer and Andy Guise

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:15

    Content type: Review

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  6. Condom provision is one of the most effective harm reduction interventions to control sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS and viral hepatitis in prisons. Yet, very few countries around th...

    Authors: Babak Moazen, Joy Mauti, Paula Meireles, Tereza Černíková, Florian Neuhann, Albrecht Jahn and Heino Stöver

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:14

    Content type: Research

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  7. Four emergency shelters were instituted in Lisbon during COVID-19, and are still in operation. Between March and August 2020, they served over 600 people. The shelters host a diverse population, including peo...

    Authors: Ricardo Fuertes, Elsa Belo, Cristiana Merendeiro, Adriana Curado, Diana Gautier, Ana Neto and Hannah Taylor

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:13

    Content type: Commentary

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  8. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran is high. Since 2005, the Iranian government has implemented a harm reduction program to control HCV. We aimed to des...

    Authors: Abdolhalim Rajabi, Heidar Sharafi and Seyed Moayed Alavian

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:12

    Content type: Review

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  9. Some people do not benefit from oral administration of opioid agonist treatment, and an intravenous (IV) formulation may be more suitable. Our objective was to evaluate the willingness of people who regularly ...

    Authors: Salim Mezaache, Patrizia Carrieri, Laélia Briand-Madrid, Virginie Laporte, Alain Morel, Daniela Rojas Castro and Perrine Roux

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:11

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:23

  10. In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended for prison authorities to introduce prison needle and syringe programs (PNSP) if they have any evidence that injecting drug use is taking place in priso...

    Authors: Alexandra Dmitrieva, Vladimir Stepanov, Kateryna Svyrydova, Ievgeniia-Galyna Lukash, Svetlana Doltu, Mikhail Golichenko, Valeriy Kalivoshko, Evgeniy Khanyukov, Zhannat Kosmukhamedova, Oleh Torkunov and Oleksii Zagrebelnyi

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:10

    Content type: Research

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  11. There is a lot of debate about the effects of smoking on COVID-19. A recent fixed-effects meta-analysis found smoking to be associated with disease severity among hospitalized patients, but other studies repor...

    Authors: Konstantinos Farsalinos, Pantelis G. Bagos, Theodoros Giannouchos, Raymond Niaura, Anastasia Barbouni and Konstantinos Poulas

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:9

    Content type: Research

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  12. Reports from experienced heroin users about an alternative and appreciated but harmful so-called “Turkish” heroin preparation technic led to the chemical investigation of the compounds produced during this pro...

    Authors: Georges Dahm, Claudia Allar, Raoul Schaaf, Adèle Bourmaud and Serge Schneider

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:8

    Content type: Research

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  13. Cigars and cigarettes are both smoked, but much less is known about the former’s long-term health effects, due to its low prevalence and infrequent collection of cigar information in national surveys.

    Authors: Brad Rodu and Nantaporn Plurphanswat

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:7

    Content type: Research

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  14. Globally, communities are struggling to gain support for harm reduction strategies being implemented to address the impacts of substance use. A key part of this discussion is understanding and engaging with pe...

    Authors: Abe Oudshoorn, Michelle Sangster Bouck, Melissa McCann, Shamiram Zendo, Helene Berman, Jordan Banninga, Marlene Janzen Le Ber and Zayya Zendo

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:16

  15. Peer assistance is an emerging area of study in injection drug use. When Canada’s first supervised consumption site (SCS) opened in 2003 in Vancouver, Canada, clients were prohibited from injecting their peers...

    Authors: Em Pijl, Tracy Oosterbroek, Takara Motz, Erin Mason and Keltie Hamilton

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:5

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  16. To date, peer-reviewed research has found no evidence linking supervised consumptions sites (SCSs) to increased crime. Yet, in March 2020, a government Report released in the province of Alberta, Canada, prese...

    Authors: James D. Livingston

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:4

    Content type: Commentary

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  17. Civil society organisations (CSOs) play a vital role in developing and implementing effective measures to reduce the harms of drug use. They are also fundamental actors to monitor and evaluate programmes and p...

    Authors: Rafaela Rigoni, Tuukka Tammi, Daan van der Gouwe and Eberhard Schatz

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:3

    Content type: Methodology

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  18. The Netherlands is well known for its early adoption of harm reduction (HR) programs at the height of its heroin crisis in the 1970s/1980s, including the implementation of the first needle and syringe program ...

    Authors: Daniela K. van Santen, Roel A. Coutinho, Anneke van den Hoek, Giel van Brussel, Marcel Buster and Maria Prins

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:2

    Content type: Review

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  19. Ongoing legal and social discrimination, and stigmatization of people with lived experience of drug use (PWLE) continues to contribute to overdose-related deaths in Canada. The involvement of PWLE working in h...

    Authors: Tamar Austin and Jade Boyd

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:1

    Content type: Research

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  20. The United States and Canada are amidst an opioid overdose crisis, with the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC) among the hardest hit. In response, drug checking services (DCS) have been introduced in t...

    Authors: Viseth Long, Jaime Arredondo, Lianping Ti, Cameron Grant, Kora DeBeck, M-J Milloy, Mark Lysyshyn, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr and Kanna Hayashi

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:100

    Content type: Research

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  21. Recent research shows an increase in drug and alcohol-related hospitalizations in the USA, especially among older adults. However, no study examines trends in discharges to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) aft...

    Authors: Benjamin H. Han, Ellenie Tuazon, Hillary V. Kunins and Denise Paone

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:99

    Content type: Research

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  22. Harm reduction services to people who use drugs (PWUD) in Russia are insufficient in terms of quantity, government endorsement, and accessibility. The situation has recently deteriorated even further because o...

    Authors: Arsen Davitadze, Peter Meylakhs, Aleksey Lakhov and Elizabeth J. King

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:98

    Content type: Research

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  23. Drug-related deaths in the UK are at the highest level on record—the war on drugs has failed. A short film has been produced intended for public and professional audiences featuring academics, representatives ...

    Authors: Adam Holland

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:97

    Content type: Commentary

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  24. Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for people who inject drugs (PWID). Studies demonstrate that certain injection practices correlate with SSTI inci...

    Authors: Amelia Baltes, Wajiha Akhtar, Jen Birstler, Heidi Olson-Streed, Kellene Eagen, David Seal, Ryan Westergaard and Randall Brown

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:96

    Content type: Research

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  25. People who inject drugs are at increased health risk in a pandemic due to their greater susceptibility to severe disease and as a consequence of the restrictions put in place to halt the spread of infection. H...

    Authors: Rebecca Wilkinson, Lindsey Hines, Adam Holland, Sema Mandal and Emily Phipps

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:95

    Content type: Research

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  26. This study examines the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and the harm reduction response in six Eurasian countries: Belarus, Moldova, Serbia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia. The aim is to identify...

    Authors: Eliza Kurcevič and Rick Lines

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:94

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. We aim to describe the general characteristics of how the Canadian newspaper The Globe and Mail reports on opioid-related news, the opioid crisis and its victims, and explore how Canadians’ perceptions of the opi...

    Authors: Amanda My Linh Quan, Lindsay A. Wilson, Salima S. Mithani, David T. Zhu, A. Brianne Bota and Kumanan Wilson

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:93

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. Only July 1, 2017, Nevada became the fifth US state to allow the legal sale of recreational cannabis products for adults ages of 21 and over. This study investigates young adults’ cannabis-related attitudes, p...

    Authors: Nada Amroussia, Mika Watanabe and Jennifer L. Pearson

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:92

    Content type: Research

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  29. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are widely promoted as harm-reduction products for smokers, and smokers commonly perceive them as less harmful than combustible cigarettes. One of the key questions regardi...

    Authors: Maciej L. Goniewicz, Connor R. Miller, Edward Sutanto and Dongmei Li

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:91

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  30. North American communities are severely impacted by the overdose crisis, particularly in British Columbia (BC), which has the highest toxic drug overdose death rate in Canada. Most fatal overdoses in BC occurr...

    Authors: Kristi Papamihali, Minha Yoon, Brittany Graham, Mohammad Karamouzian, Amanda K. Slaunwhite, Vivian Tsang, Sara Young and Jane A. Buxton

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:90

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. People who inject drugs (PWID) account for the majority of new cases of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Europe; however, HCV testing, and treatment for PWID remain suboptimal. With the advent of direct ac...

    Authors: M. Maticic, Z. Pirnat, A. Leicht, R. Zimmermann, T. Windelinck, M. Jauffret-Roustide, E. Duffell, T. Tammi and E. Schatz

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:89

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. The COVID-19 pandemic led to the closure of the IDEA syringe services program medical student-run free clinic in Miami, Florida. In an effort to continue to serve the community of people who inject drugs and p...

    Authors: Marcus Castillo, Brianna Conte, Sam Hinkes, Megan Mathew, C. J. Na, Ainhoa Norindr, David P. Serota, David W. Forrest, Amar R. Deshpande, Tyler S. Bartholomew and Hansel E. Tookes

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:88

    Content type: Brief report

    Published on:

  33. Containment policies and other restrictions introduced by the Spanish government in response to the COVID-19 pandemic present challenges for marginalised populations, such as people who use drugs. Harm reducti...

    Authors: Camila A. Picchio, Jorge Valencia, Jason Doran, Tracy Swan, Marta Pastor, Elisa Martró, Joan Colom and Jeffrey V. Lazarus

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:87

    Content type: Research

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  34. To reduce opioid dependence and HIV transmission, Kyrgyzstan has introduced methadone maintenance therapy and needle/syringe programs into prisons. Illicit injection of diphenhydramine, an antihistamine brande...

    Authors: Jaimie P. Meyer, Gabriel J. Culbert, Lyuba Azbel, Chethan Bachireddy, Ainura Kurmanalieva, Tim Rhodes and Frederick L. Altice

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:86

    Content type: Research

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  35. Sharing drug injection equipment has been associated with the transmission of HCV among PWID through blood contained in the cooker and cotton used to prepare and divide up the drug solution. While epidemiologi...

    Authors: R. Abadie and K. Dombrowski

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:85

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Women who inject drugs (WWID) show higher levels of injecting risk behaviour compared to men, putting them at risk of contracting HIV and hepatitis C (HCV). Compared to men, WWID are also less present in harm ...

    Authors: Malin Värmå Falk, Susanne Strömdahl, Anna Mia Ekström, Martin Kåberg, Niklas Karlsson, Helena Dahlborn and Anders Hammarberg

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:84

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. The harm reduction (HR) approach to injecting drug use was rapidly adopted in Central Europe following the fall of the Iron Curtain. The associated social and economic transformation had significant consequenc...

    Authors: Michal Miovský, Silvia Miklíková, Viktor Mravčík, Jean-Paul Grund and Tereza Černíková

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:83

    Content type: Research

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  38. People who use drugs (PWUD) are considered as one of the main at-risk populations for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We conducted a systematic review on the prevalence of HBV infection among PWUD in Iran.

    Authors: Yasna Rostam-Abadi, Hossein Rafiemanesh, Jaleh Gholami, Behrang Shadloo, Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili and Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:81

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  39. People with criminal justice involvement contribute remarkably to the rising hepatitis C virus (HCV) burden; however, the continuum of care is a major barrier to prison-based programs. We aimed to evaluate a c...

    Authors: Sanam Hariri, Heidar Sharafi, Mahdi Sheikh, Shahin Merat, Farnaz Hashemi, Fatemeh Azimian, Babak Tamadoni, Rashid Ramazani, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Behzad Abbasi, Mehrzad Tashakorian, Ramin Alasvand, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Hossein Poustchi and Reza Malekzadeh

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:80

    Content type: Research

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  40. The article discusses and analyzes the changes that have taken place since 2016 in Israeli policy with regard to the treatment, diagnosis and detection of hepatitis C (HCV) in prison settings. The article find...

    Authors: Niv Michaeli, Anat Litvin and Nadav Davidovitch

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:79

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  41. There are an estimated 3.2 million women who inject drugs worldwide, constituting 20% of all people who inject drugs. The limited data that are available suggest that women who inject drugs are at greater risk...

    Authors: Sam Shirley-Beavan, Aura Roig, Naomi Burke-Shyne, Colleen Daniels and Robert Csak

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:78

    Content type: Research

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  42. We characterized the extent and quality of respiratory sensations and sensory-related smoking cues associated with e-cigarette use among those who failed to quit combustible tobacco cigarette (CTC) use with tr...

    Authors: J. DiPiazza, P. Caponnetto, G. Askin, P. Christos, M. Lyc Psych Maglia, R. Gautam, S. Roche and R. Polosa

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:75

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. In the context of the current US opioid crisis and the compelling fact that a quarter to a third of all those addicted to heroin pass through its prisons and jails each year, the care of incarcerated opioid-us...

    Authors: Michael Liebrenz, Alex Gamma, Anna Buadze, Roman Schleifer, Stéphanie Baggio, Bruce Schwartz, Andres Schneeberger and Ambros Uchtenhagen

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:67

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. West Virginia is a largely rural state with strong ties of kinship, mutual systems of support and charitable giving. At the same time, wealth inequalities are extreme and the state’s drug overdose fatality rat...

    Authors: Jeff Ondocsin, Sarah G. Mars, Mary Howe and Daniel Ciccarone

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:74

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:94

  45. Smoking is endemic amongst people accessing homeless services, and they are disproportionately affected by smoking-related diseases. This paper reports on the results of a 3-month small scale intervention whic...

    Authors: Florian Scheibein, Kevin McGirr, Andy Morrison, Warren Roche and John Stephen Gary Wells

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:73

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:113