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  1. Overdose-associated deaths and morbidity related to substance use is a global public health emergency with devastating social and economic costs. Complications of substance use are most pronounced among people...

    Authors: Jocelyn Chase, Melissa Nicholson, Elizabeth Dogherty, Emma Garrod, Jocelyn Hill, Rupinder Brar, Victoria Weaver and William J. Connors
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:130
  2. While natural disasters like hurricanes are increasingly common, their long-term effects on people who inject drugs are not well understood. Although brief in duration, natural disasters can radically transfor...

    Authors: Roberto Abadie, Manuel Cano, Patrick Habecker and Camila Gelpí-Acosta
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:129
  3. Chronic health conditions associated with long-term drug use may pose additional risks to people who use drugs (PWUD) when coupled with COVID-19 infection. Despite this, PWUD, especially those living in rural ...

    Authors: Alex Rains, Mary York, Rebecca Bolinski, Jerel Ezell, Lawrence J. Ouellet, Wiley D. Jenkins and Mai T. Pho
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:128
  4. The overdose crisis in Canada has worsened since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although this trend is thought to be driven in part by closures or reduced capacity of supervised consumption services (...

    Authors: Rachel Cassie, Kanna Hayashi, Kora DeBeck, M.-J. Milloy, Zishan Cui, Carol Strike, Jeff West and Mary Clare Kennedy
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:126
  5. Settings throughout Canada and the USA continue to experience crises of overdose death due to the toxic unregulated drug supply. Injecting drugs alone limits the potential for intervention and has accounted fo...

    Authors: Alexa Norton, Kanna Hayashi, Cheyenne Johnson, JinCheol Choi, M-J Milloy and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:125
  6. Hospital-based harm reduction services are needed to reduce drug-related harms, facilitate retention in care, and increase medical treatment adherence for people who use drugs. Philanthropic donor support play...

    Authors: Katherine Rudzinski, Soo Chan Carusone, Andre Ceranto, Francisco Ibáñez-Carrasco, Lisa McDonald, Dean Valentine, Adrian Guta, Elaine Hyshka, William O’Leary, Andra Cardow and Carol Strike
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:124
  7. To counteract the spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and to prevent the emergence of novel substances, specifically designed as a response to the legal control of individual substances, a new law was ...

    Authors: Regina Kühnl, Darya Aydin, Sabine Horn, Sally Olderbak, Uwe Verthein and Ludwig Kraus
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:122
  8. The incidence of HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in the USA has been increasing since 2014, signaling the need to identify effective ways to engage PWID in HIV prevention services, namely pre-exposur...

    Authors: Michael P. Barry, Elizabeth J. Austin, Elenore P. Bhatraju, Sara N. Glick, Joanne D. Stekler, Elyse L. Tung, Ryan N. Hansen, Emily C. Williams, Alexander J. Gojic, Eleanor I. Pickering and Judith I. Tsui
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:121
  9. Preventing HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a key element of the US Ending the HIV Epidemic strategy and includes both pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and medications for opioid use dis...

    Authors: William H. Eger, Frederick L. Altice, Jessica Lee, David Vlahov, Antoine Khati, Sydney Osborne, Jeffrey A. Wickersham, Terry Bohonnon, Lindsay Powell and Roman Shrestha
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:120
  10. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) is associated with reduced injection, reduced HCV transmission, and more opportunities to initiate hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment in people who use drugs (PWUD). We aimed to stu...

    Authors: Benjamin Rolland, Caroline Lions, Vincent Di Beo, Patrizia Carrieri, Nicolas Authier, Tangui Barré, Jessica Delorme, Philippe Mathurin, François Bailly, Camelia Protopopescu and Fabienne Marcellin
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:119
  11. Harm reduction services and professionals have had to reorganise and adapt to COVID-19 prevention measures while still ensuring health and social services for people who use drugs (PUD).

    Authors: Mar Bosch-Arís, Laia Gasulla, Teresa de Gispert, Lidia Segura and Joan Colom
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:118
  12. Opioid overdose epidemic is hitting record highs worldwide, accounting for 76% of mortality related to substance use. Take-home naloxone (THN) strategies are being implemented in many developed countries that ...

    Authors: Hawraa Sameer Sajwani and Anna V Williams
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:117
  13. Narrow or non-existent Good Samaritan Law protections and harsh drug selling statutes in the USA have been shown to deter bystanders from seeking medical assistance for overdoses. Additionally, little is known...

    Authors: Alexandria Macmadu, Annajane Yolken, Lisa Frueh, Jai’el R. Toussaint, Roxxanne Newman, Brendan P. Jacka, Alexandra B. Collins and Brandon D. L. Marshall
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:116
  14. Transactional sex is an important driver of HIV risk among people who use drugs in the USA, but there is a dearth of research characterizing men’s selling and trading of sex in the context of opioid use. To id...

    Authors: Joseph G. Rosen, Kristin E. Schneider, Sean T. Allen, Miles Morris, Glenna J. Urquhart, Saba Rouhani and Susan G. Sherman
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:115
  15. Given the ongoing opioid crisis, novel interventions to treat severe opioid use disorder (OUD) are urgently needed. Injectable opioid agonist therapy (iOAT) with diacetylmorphine or hydromorphone is effective ...

    Authors: Nikki Bozinoff, Vitor Soares Tardelli, Dafna Sara Rubin-Kahana and Bernard Le Foll
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:113

    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:123

  16. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s (SAMHSA) Harm Reduction grant program expanded access to several harm reduction strategies to mitigate opioid overdose fatalities, including expa...

    Authors: Matthew R. Filteau, Brandn Green, Frances Kim and Ki-Ai McBride
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:111
  17. Opioid-related overdose death is a public health epidemic in much of the USA, yet little is known about how people who use opioids (PWUO) experience overdose deaths in their social networks. We explore these e...

    Authors: Allison V. Schlosser and Lee D. Hoffer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:110
  18. Existing research in urban areas has documented a multitude of ways in which law enforcement may affect risks for bloodborne infectious disease acquisition among people who inject drugs (PWID), such as via syr...

    Authors: Sean T. Allen, Sarah Danforth, Suzanne M. Grieb, Jennifer L. Glick, Samantha J. Harris, Catherine Tomko and Susan G. Sherman
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:109
  19. Injection drug use and needle sharing remains a public health concern due to the associated risk of HIV, HCV and skin and soft tissue infections. Studies have shown gendered differences in the risk environment...

    Authors: Katherine M. Rich, Julia Zubiago, Meghan Murphy, Rubeen Guardado and Alysse G. Wurcel
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:108
  20. Access to sterile needles, syringes and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is critical to reduce the prevalence of bloodborne virus infections among people who inject drugs (PWID). We aimed to explore the exp...

    Authors: Win Lei Yee, Bridget Draper, Kyi Thar Myint, Win Min, Hla Htay, Daniel O’Keefe and Margaret Hellard
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:107
  21. In 2016, the US state of North Carolina (NC) legalized syringe services programs (SSPs), providing limited immunity from misdemeanor syringe possession when law enforcement is presented documentation that syri...

    Authors: Brandon Morrissey, Tamera Hughes, Bayla Ostrach, Loftin Wilson, Reid Getty, Tonya L. Combs, Jesse Bennett and Jennifer J. Carroll
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:106
  22. The impact of policing practices on the engagement of people who use drugs (PWUD) with harm reduction services is well evidenced. Although the police have traditionally taken an enforcement role in responding ...

    Authors: Danilo Falzon, Elizabeth V. Aston, Hannah Carver, Wendy Masterton, Bruce Wallace, Harry Sumnall, Fiona Measham, Emma Fletcher, Rosalind Gittins, Saket Priyadarshi and Tessa Parkes
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:105
  23. Prescription opioids have been increasingly prescribed for chronic pain while the opioid-related death rates grow. Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, is increasingly recommended in these patients, yet there is li...

    Authors: Yinan Huang, Ning Lyu, Shrey Gohil, Shweta Bapat, E. James Essien and J. Douglas Thornton
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:104
  24. Heroin pipe distribution may encourage people who use heroin (PWUH) to transition from injecting to smoking heroin, reducing harms associated with injection drug use. A syringe services program (SSP) in Seattl...

    Authors: Thomas Fitzpatrick, Vanessa M. McMahan, Noah D. Frank, Sara N. Glick, Lauren R. Violette, Shantel Davis and Shilo Jama
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:103
  25. The COVID-19 pandemic has amplified the need for wide deployment of effective harm reduction strategies in preventing opioid overdose mortality. Placing naloxone in the hands of key responders, including law e...

    Authors: Elham Pourtaher, Emily R. Payne, Nicole Fera, Kirsten Rowe, Shu-Yin John Leung, Sharon Stancliff, Mark Hammer, Joshua Vinehout and Michael W. Dailey
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:102
  26. Australian harm reduction services are provided via a mix of modalities, including fixed-site needle and syringe programmes (NSP) and syringe-dispensing machines (SDMs). SDMs are cost-effective and provide 24-...

    Authors: Daniel O’Keefe, Michael Livingston, Reece D. Cossar, Phoebe Kerr, David Jacka and Paul Dietze
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:101
  27. Vaccine-hesitant persons who inject drugs are at increased risk for several vaccine-preventable diseases. However, vaccination rates among this population remain low. While syringe services programs (SSPs) are...

    Authors: Monique Carry, Danae Bixler, Mark K. Weng, Mona Doshani, Emma Roberts and Martha P. Montgomery
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:100
  28. People who use drugs in Scotland are currently experiencing disproportionately high rates of drug-related deaths. Drug consumption rooms (DCRs) are harm reduction services that offer a safe, hygienic environme...

    Authors: Tessa Parkes, Tracey Price, Rebecca Foster, Kirsten M. A. Trayner, Harry R. Sumnall, Wulf Livingston, Andy Perkins, Beth Cairns, Josh Dumbrell and James Nicholls
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:99
  29. In Scotland drug policy and consequently the progress of evidence-based treatment options has been struggling for many years. Political inaction is brought about by a complex chain of legal and operational obs...

    Authors: Catriona Matheson and Roy Robertson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:98
  30. Emergency departments (EDs) are important venues for the distribution of naloxone to patients at high risk of opioid overdose, but less is known about patient perceptions on naloxone or best practices for pati...

    Authors: Margaret Lowenstein, Hareena K. Sangha, Anthony Spadaro, Jeanmarie Perrone, M. Kit Delgado and Anish K. Agarwal
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:97
  31. Increased opioid-related morbidity and mortality in racialized communities has highlighted the intersectional nature of the drug policy crisis. Given the racist evolution of the war on drugs and the harm reduc...

    Authors: Parnika Godkhindi, Lisa Nussey and Tim O’Shea
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:96
  32. Substance use treatment and harm reduction services are essential components of comprehensive strategies for reducing the harms of drug use and overdose. However, these services have been historically siloed, ...

    Authors: Noa Krawczyk, Sean T. Allen, Kristin E. Schneider, Keisha Solomon, Hridika Shah, Miles Morris, Samantha J. Harris, Susan G. Sherman and Brendan Saloner
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:95
  33. Resilience is a commonly used construct in substance use and mental health research. Yet it is often narrowly defined by only its internal qualities (e.g., adaptability, hardiness) and overlooks its external q...

    Authors: Catherine Tomko, Danielle Friedman Nestadt, Noelle P. Weicker, Katherine Rudzinski, Carol Underwood, Michelle R. Kaufman and Susan G. Sherman
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:94
  34. Incarcerated people are at an increased risk of contracting HIV and transmitting it to the community post-release. In Iran, HIV epidemics inside prisons were first detected in the early 1990s. We assessed the ...

    Authors: Armita Shahesmaeili, Mohammad Karamouzian, Fatemeh Tavakoli, Mostafa Shokoohi, Ali Mirzazadeh, Samira Hosseini-Hooshyar, Saber Amirzadeh Googhari, Nima Ghalekhani, Razieh Khajehkazemi, Zahra Abdolahinia, Noushin Fahimfar, AliAkbar Haghdoost and Hamid Sharifi
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:93
  35. Authors: Jean Olivier Twahirwa Rwema, Vianney Nizeyimana, Neia M. Prata, Nneoma E. Okonkwo, Amelia A. Mazzei, Sulemani Muhirwa, Athanase Rukundo, Lisa Lucas, Audace Niyigena, Jean Damascene Makuza, Chris Beyrer, Stefan D. Baral and Aflodis Kagaba
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:91

    The original article was published in Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:130

  36. People who both smoke cigarettes and vape are often considered as a homogenous group even though multiple subgroups may exist. We examined biomarkers of exposure (BOE) and biomarkers of potential harm (BOPH) t...

    Authors: Pavel N. Lizhnyak, Brendan Noggle, Lai Wei, Jeffery Edmiston, Elizabeth Becker, Ryan A. Black and Mohamadi Sarkar
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:90
  37. Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) is the primary intervention for opioid use disorder (OUD) in Canada and the USA. Yet, a number of barriers contribute to sub-optimal treatment uptake and retention, including dai...

    Authors: Cayley Russell, Shannon Lange, Fiona Kouyoumdjian, Amanda Butler and Farihah Ali
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:89
  38. Australia has had a framework for legal medicinal cannabis since 2016, yet prior online surveys in 2016 and 2018 indicated that most consumers continued to use illicit medical cannabis products. Regulatory dat...

    Authors: Nicholas Lintzeris, Llewellyn Mills, Sarah V. Abelev, Anastasia Suraev, Jonathon C. Arnold and Iain S. McGregor
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:88
  39. Supervised injection facilities (SIFs) provide spaces where persons who inject drugs (PWID) can inject under medical supervision and access harm reduction services. Though SIFs are not currently sanctioned in ...

    Authors: Eliana Duncan, Sarah Shufelt, Meredith Barranco and Tomoko Udo
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:87
  40. Police action can increase risky substance use patterns by people who use drugs (PWUD), but it is not known how increased police presence affects utilization of low-barrier substance use disorder bridge clinic...

    Authors: Karrin Weisenthal, Simeon D. Kimmel, Jessica Kehoe, Marc R. Larochelle, Alexander Y. Walley and Jessica L. Taylor
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:86
  41. Authors: Alice Zhang, Joseph A. Balles, Jennifer E. Nyland, Thao H. Nguyen, Veronica M. White and Aleksandra E. Zgierska
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:85

    The original article was published in Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:67

  42. The meaningful inclusion of young people who use or have used drugs is a fundamental aspect of harm reduction, including in program design, research, service provision, and advocacy efforts. However, there are...

    Authors: M-J Stowe, Orsi Feher, Beatrix Vas, Sangeet Kayastha and Alissa Greer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:83
  43. Internationally, strategies focusing on reducing alcohol-related harms in homeless populations with severe alcohol use disorder (AUD) continue to gain acceptance, especially when conventional modalities focuse...

    Authors: Shannon M. Smith-Bernardin, Leslie W. Suen, Jill Barr-Walker, Isabel Arrellano Cuervo and Margaret A. Handley
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:82