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  1. Opioid-related overdose is the leading cause of death for people recently released from incarceration, however treatment with medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) during incarceration can reduce the mort...

    Authors: Pryce S. Michener, Elyse Bianchet, Shannon Fox, Elizabeth A. Evans and Peter D. Friedmann
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:138
  2. In Pittsburgh, PA, legal changes in recent decades have set the stage for an expanded role for community pharmacists to provide harm reduction services, including distributing naloxone and non-prescription syr...

    Authors: Caitlin O’Brien, Stephanie Klipp, Raagini Jawa and J. Deanna Wilson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:137
  3. If US adults who smoke cigarettes are switching to e-cigarettes, the effect may be observable at the population level: smoking prevalence should decline as e-cigarette prevalence increases, especially in sub-p...

    Authors: Floe Foxon, Arielle Selya, Joe Gitchell and Saul Shiffman
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:136
  4. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a widely available cannabis product with many claims as to potential health benefits including alleviating symptoms related to opioid use disorder (OUD). However, little is known as to how...

    Authors: Christopher Kudrich, Rebecca Chen, Yuan Meng, Keren Bachi and Yasmin L. Hurd
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:135
  5. Drug overdose is a leading cause of death and opioid-related deaths increased by more than 300% from 2010 to 2020 in New York State. Experts holding a range of senior leadership positions from across New York ...

    Authors: Daniel J. Kruger, Hilary M. Kirk, Kenneth E. Leonard, Joshua J. Lynch, Nancy Nielsen, R. Lorraine Collins, Joseph W. Ditre, Debbian Fletcher-Blake, Susan A. Green, Aaron Hogue, Julia K. Hunter, John M. Marraffa and Brian M. Clemency
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:134
  6. The COVID-19 pandemic posed significant challenges for managers overseeing women's harm reduction centers. This study seeks to capture managers' perspectives on the service providing in women's harm reduction ...

    Authors: Azam Rahmani, Maryam Janatolmakan, Elham Rezaei and Malihe Tabaraei
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:133
  7. Harm reduction is a crucial approach in addressing the multifaceted challenges of injectable drug use. This paper presents an analysis and mapping of the existing literature on harm reduction research in the c...

    Authors: Waleed M. Sweileh
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:131
  8. New types of nicotine and tobacco products like electronic cigarettes (ECs), heated tobacco products or nicotine pouches have been discussed as less harmful alternatives to combustible cigarettes and other tox...

    Authors: Nikola Pluym, Therese Burkhardt, Gerhard Scherer and Max Scherer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:130
  9. Deaths due to drug overdose are an international issue, causing an estimated 128,000 global deaths in 2019. Scotland has the highest rate of drug-related deaths in Europe, with those in the most deprived areas...

    Authors: Graeme Strachan, Hadi Daneshvar, Hannah Carver, Jessica Greenhalgh and Catriona Matheson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:128
  10. Since late 2019, fortification of ‘regular’ cannabis plant material with synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) has become a notable phenomenon on the drug market. As many SCRAs pose a higher health r...

    Authors: Axelle Timmerman, Margot Balcaen, Vera Coopman, Maarten Degreef, Eline Pottie and Christophe P. Stove
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:127
  11. Needle and syringe programs (NSP) are effective harm-reduction strategies against HIV and hepatitis C. Although skin, soft tissue, and vascular infections (SSTVI) are the most common morbidities in people who ...

    Authors: Jihoon Lim, Mariam El-Sheikh, David L. Buckeridge and Dimitra Panagiotoglou
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:126
  12. Patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) experience various forms of stigma at the individual, public, and structural levels that can affect how they access and engage with healthcare, particularly with medicat...

    Authors: Jessica V. Couch, Mackenzie Whitcomb, Bradley M. Buchheit, David A. Dorr, Darren J. Malinoski, P. Todd Korthuis, Sarah S. Ono and Ximena A. Levander
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:125
  13. Good Samaritan Laws are a harm reduction policy intended to facilitate a reduction in fatal opioid overdoses by enabling bystanders, first responders, and health care providers to assist individuals experienci...

    Authors: Rachel L. Thompson, Nasim S. Sabounchi, Syed Shayan Ali, Robert Heimer, Gail D’Onofrio and Rebekah Heckmann
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:124
  14. People who inject drugs (PWID) are at risk of HIV acquisition. The number of PWID in South African cities is increasing, and in spite of an advanced HIV prevention and treatment programme, there are PWID who e...

    Authors: Cecilia Milford, Tammany Cavanagh, Shannon Bosman, Michael Wilson, Jennifer Smit and Brian Zanoni
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:123
  15. The present commentary highlights the pressing need for systematic research to assess the implementation and effectiveness of medications for opioid use disorder, used in conjunction with peer recovery support...

    Authors: Kimberly Horn, Stephanie M. Mathis, Lara Nagle, Angela Hagaman, Mary Beth Dunkenberger and Robert Pack
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:122
  16. During the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a surprisingly low incidence of SARS-CoV-2 among People Who Use Drugs (PWUD) in Oslo, Norway, despite their heightened vulnerability regarding risk o...

    Authors: Linda Elise Couëssurel Wüsthoff, Fridtjof Lund-Johansen, Kathleen Henriksen, Gull Wildendahl, Jon-Aksel Jacobsen, Leni Gomes, Hina Sarwar Anjum, Regine Barlinn, Anne-Marte Bakken Kran, Ludvig Andre Munthe and John T. Vaage
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:120
  17. The current fourth wave of the United States opioid overdose epidemic is characterized by the co-use of opioids and stimulants, including illicit opioids and methamphetamine. The co-use of these two drugs, kno...

    Authors: Rachel Sun, Tonazzina H. Sauda and Rachel A. Hoopsick
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:119
  18. Gambling and gambling-related harm attract significant researcher and policy attention. The liberalisation of gambling in most western countries is strongly associated with a marked rise in gambling activity a...

    Authors: Samantha Clune, Deepika Ratnaike, Vanessa White, Alex Donaldson, Erica Randle, Paul O’Halloran and Virginia Lewis
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:118
  19. Policies to address substance use differ greatly between settings, where goals may range from zero-tolerance to harm reduction. Different approaches impact formats of care, policing, and even interpersonal int...

    Authors: Julie Holeksa
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:117
  20. People who use drugs (PWUD) are at increased risk for HIV infection. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is a promising method for identifying new infections, but optimal distribution strategies remain understudied.

    Authors: William H. Eger, Alexa Mutchler, Tim Santamour, Shelby Meaders, Heather A. Pines, Angela R. Bazzi, Hansel E. Tookes and Tyler S. Bartholomew
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:116
  21. Fentanyl test strips (FTS) are lateral flow immunoassay strips designed for detection of ng/mL levels of fentanyl in urine. In 2021, the US Centers for Disease Control and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health...

    Authors: Marya Lieberman, Adina Badea, Charlie Desnoyers, Kathleen Hayes and Ju Nyeong Park
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:115
  22. As the opioid public health crisis evolves to include fentanyl and other potent synthetic opioids, more patients are admitted to the hospital with serious complications of drug use and frequently require highe...

    Authors: Laura Szczesniak, Sarah Britton, Theresa Baxter RN and Ross Sullivan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:114
  23. Globally, non-fatal overdose (NFOD) rates consequent to drug use, typically opioids, continue increasing at a startling rate. Existing quantitative research has revealed myriad factors and characteristics link...

    Authors: Christopher J. Byrne, Fabio Sani, Teresa Flynn and Amy Malaguti
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:112
  24. In response to the devastating drug toxicity crisis in Canada driven by an unregulated opioid supply predominantly composed of fentanyl and analogues, safer supply programs have been introduced. These programs...

    Authors: Gillian Kolla, Bernie Pauly, Fred Cameron, Heather Hobbs, Corey Ranger, Jane McCall, Jerry Majalahti, Kim Toombs, Jack LeMaistre, Marion Selfridge and Karen Urbanoski
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:111
  25. Drug-involved individuals who contact treatment services in Taiwan are mostly driven by criminal justice systems either as an alternative or adjunct to criminal sanctions for a drug offence. With a focus on ju...

    Authors: Chuan-Yu Chen, Tan-Wen Hsieh, Wenmay Rei, Cheng-Hsiung Huang and Sheng-Chang Wang
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:109
  26. Syringe services programs (SSPs) are critical healthcare access points for people with opioid use disorder (OUD) who face treatment utilization barriers. Co-locating care for common psychiatric comorbidities, ...

    Authors: Teresa López-Castro, Nancy Sohler, Lindsey Riback, Gina Bravo, Eric Ohlendorf, Megan Ghiroli and Aaron D. Fox
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:108
  27. Efforts to distribute naloxone have equipped more people with the ability to reverse opioid overdoses but people who use drugs are often reluctant to call 911 due to concerns for legal repercussions. Rural com...

    Authors: Robin Baker, Rob J Fredericksen, Abby E Rudolph, Thomas J Stopka, Suzan M Walters, Monica Fadanelli, Rebecca S Bolinski, Adams L Sibley, Erin Stack, Heidi M Crane, P Todd Korthuis and David W Seal
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:107
  28. In an era of escalating and intersectional crises, the toxic drug poisoning crisis stands out as a devastating and persistent phenomenon. Where we write from in British Columbia (BC), Canada, over 13,000 death...

    Authors: Trevor Wideman and Sharon Karsten
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:106
  29. Australia prohibits the sale of nicotine-vaping products unless prescribed by medical practitioners. Significant policy reforms were announced on the 28th of November 2023 including a ban on single-use disposa...

    Authors: Carmen C.W. Lim, Tianze Sun, Giang Vu, Gary C.K. Chan and Janni Leung
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:105
  30. Cannabis was legalised for medical purposes in 2016. Uptake was initially slow, but since 2019 there has been a large increase in the number of Australians who have been prescribed cannabis for medical reasons...

    Authors: Llewellyn Mills, Jonathon C. Arnold, Anastasia Suraev, Sarah V. Abelev, Cilla Zhou, Thomas R. Arkell, Iain S. McGregor and Nicholas Lintzeris
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:104
  31. People in Connecticut are now more likely to die of a drug-related overdose than a traffic accident. While Connecticut has had some success in slowing the rise in overdose death rates, substantial additional p...

    Authors: Joy D. Scheidell, Tarlise N. Townsend, Qinlian Zhou, Prima Manandhar-Sasaki, Ramon Rodriguez-Santana, Mark Jenkins, Marianne Buchelli, Dyanna L. Charles, Jillian M. Frechette, Jasmine I-Shin Su and R. Scott Braithwaite
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:103
  32. The opioid epidemic remains one of the largest public health crises in North America to date. While there have been many diverse strategies developed to reduce the harms associated with substance use, these ar...

    Authors: William Rioux, Pamela Taplay, Lisa Morris-Miller and S. Monty Ghosh
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:102
  33. Individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) often have concurrent use of non-opioid substances. When patients enter opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), less is known about outcomes regarding the use of other ty...

    Authors: Endre Dahlen Bjørnestad, John-Kåre Vederhus and Thomas Clausen
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:101
  34. The rapid increase in e-cigarette use over the past decade has triggered an important public health question on the potential association between e-cigarette use and combustible cigarette smoking. Following AM...

    Authors: Mimi M. Kim, Isabella Steffensen, Red Thaddeus D. Miguel, Tanja Babic and Julien Carlone
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:99
  35. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people who inject drugs in the state of Manipur, India, is 43%; however, access to care is poor. We piloted a Community-led and comprehensive hepatitis car...

    Authors: Nalinikanta Rajkumar, Lokeshwar Singh Khumukcham, Dhabali Thangjam, Surender Singh, Giten Khwairakpam, Sonjelle Shilton and Amit Goel
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:98
  36. Structural harm reduction is an approach to care for people who use drugs (PWUD) that incorporates services and resources (e.g., naloxone, sterile syringes). As conceptualized in our previous research, harm re...

    Authors: Emma Sophia Kay, Stephanie L. Creasy, Jessica Townsend and Mary Hawk
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:97
  37. Research regarding the contribution of specific psychoactive substances to suicidality has yielded equivocal results. The present study examined the prevalence and factors associated with suicidal thoughts and...

    Authors: Ramin Shiraly, Seyed Amin Jazayeri, Asal Seifaei, Ali Khani Jeihooni and Mark D. Griffiths
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:96
  38. The use of stimulants and other substances with the purpose of enhancing, maintaining, and prolonging sexual activity is known as sexualized substance use. Also known as chemsex, this pattern of use has been m...

    Authors: Claudia Rafful, Ricardo Orozco, Daniela Peralta, Leonardo Jiménez-Rivagorza, María Elena Medina-Mora, Nely Gutiérrez and Missael Morales-Gutierrez
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:95
  39. The COVID-19 pandemic had a disproportionate impact on the health and wellbeing of people who use drugs (PWUD) in Canada. However less is known about jurisdictional commonalities and differences in COVID-19 ex...

    Authors: Sanjana Mitra, Zachary Bouck, Sarah Larney, Camille Zolopa, Stine Høj, Nanor Minoyan, Katie Upham, Indhu Rammohan, Wing Yin Mok, Kanna Hayashi, M-J Milloy, Kora DeBeck, Ayden Scheim and Dan Werb
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:94
  40. Naloxone is an effective FDA-approved opioid antagonist for reversing opioid overdoses. Naloxone is available to the public and can be administered through intramuscular (IM), intravenous (IV), and intranasal ...

    Authors: Paige M. Lemen, Daniel P. Garrett, Erin Thompson, Megan Aho, Christina Vasquez and Ju Nyeong Park
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:93
  41. Mortality related to opioid overdose in the U.S. has risen sharply in the past decade. In California, opioid overdose death rates more than tripled from 2018 to 2021, and deaths from synthetic opioids such as ...

    Authors: Lissa Moran, Jeff Ondocsin, Simon Outram, Daniel Ciccarone, Daniel Werb, Nicole Holm and Emily A. Arnold
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:92
  42. Substance use disorder treatment and recovery support services are critical for achieving and maintaining recovery. There are limited data on how structural and social changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic impa...

    Authors: Eshan U. Patel, Suzanne M. Grieb, Abigail K. Winiker, Jennifer Ching, Catherine G. Schluth, Shruti H. Mehta, Gregory D. Kirk and Becky L. Genberg
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:91
  43. Although electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) appear to be effective in helping people who smoke to stop smoking, concerns about use of e-cigarettes among young people have led to restrictions on non-tobacco f...

    Authors: Jasmine N. Khouja, Maddy L. Dyer, Michelle A. Havill, Martin J. Dockrell, Marcus R. Munafò and Angela S. Attwood
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:90
  44. In British Columbia, Canada, smoking is the most common modality of drug use among people who die of opioid toxicity. We aimed to assess oxygen saturation (SpO2) while people smoked opioids during a pilot study t...

    Authors: Jessica Moe, Jane A. Buxton, Yueqiao Elle Wang, Tamara Chavez, Damian Feldman-Kiss, Charotte Marr, Roy A. Purssell and Michael Otterstatter
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:89