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  1. Buprenorphine is an effective treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD); however, buprenorphine initiation can be complicated by withdrawal symptoms including precipitated withdrawal. There has been increasing i...

    Authors: Benjamin L. H. Jones, Michelle Geier, John Neuhaus, Phillip O. Coffin, Hannah R. Snyder, Christine S. Soran, Kelly R. Knight and Leslie W. Suen
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:80
  2. People who nonmedically use drugs (PWUD) face intricate social issues that suppress self-actualization, communal integration, and overall health and wellness. “Strengths-based” approaches, an under-used pedago...

    Authors: Jerel M. Ezell, Mai T. Pho, Elinor Simek, Babatunde P. Ajayi, Netra Shetty and Suzan M. Walters
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:79
  3. As well as being associated with serious negative health outcomes, smoking has been reported to have an array of physiological and psychological effects, including effects on mood and cognitive function. Post-...

    Authors: Harry J. Green, Olivia K. O’Shea, Jack Cotter, Helen L. Philpott and Nik Newland
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:78
  4. Drug overdose deaths in the United States exceeded 100,000 in 2021 and 2022. Substance use stigma is a major barrier to treatment and harm reduction utilization and is a priority target in ending the overdose ...

    Authors: Adams L. Sibley, Emma Klein, Hannah L.F. Cooper, Melvin D. Livingston III, Robin Baker, Suzan M. Walters, Rachel E. Gicquelais, Stephanie A. Ruderman, Peter D. Friedmann, Wiley D. Jenkins, Vivian F. Go, William C. Miller, Ryan P. Westergaard and Heidi M Crane
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:77
  5. Understanding current substance use practices is critical to reduce and prevent overdose deaths among individuals at increased risk including persons who use and inject drugs. Because individuals participating...

    Authors: Tyler G. Erath, Rosalie LaCroix, Erin O’Keefe, Stephen T. Higgins and Richard A. Rawson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:76
  6. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health threat in Canada. In British Columbia (BC) province, 1.6% of the population had been exposed to HCV by 2012. Prevalence and incidence of HCV are very high in populatio...

    Authors: Nance E. Cunningham, Jessica Lamb, Amanda Staller, Mel Krajden, Robert S. Hogg, Angela Towle, Viviane Dias Lima and Kate Salters
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:75
  7. In recent years, stimulant use has increased among persons who use opioids in the rural U.S., leading to high rates of overdose and death. We sought to understand motivations and contexts for stimulant use amo...

    Authors: R. J. Fredericksen, R. Baker, A. Sibley, A. T. Estadt, D. Colston, L. S. Mixson, S. Walters, J. Bresett, X. A. Levander, G. Leichtling, T. Davy-Mendez, M. Powell, T. J. Stopka, M. Pho, J. Feinberg, J. Ezell…
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:74
  8. HIV-positive people who inject drugs (PWID) experience challenges in initiating and adhering to antiretroviral treatment (ART). Counselling using motivational interviewing (MI) techniques may help them formula...

    Authors: Lydia V. Wongso, Arie Rahadi, Evi Sukmaningrum, Miasari Handayani and Rudi Wisaksana
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:73
  9. People who use drugs experience pain at two to three times the rate of the general population and yet continue to face substantial barriers to accessing appropriate and adequate treatment for pain. In light of...

    Authors: Evelyne Marie Piret, M.-J. Milloy, Pauline Voon, JinCheol Choi, Kora DeBeck, Kanna Hayashi and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:72
  10. This study compares emergency department (ED) revisits for patients receiving hospital-based substance-use support compared to those who did not receive specialized addiction services at Health Sciences North ...

    Authors: Mark Tatangelo, Russell Landry, Denis Beaulieu, Catherine Watson, Shannon Knowlan, Alex Anawati, Adele Bodson, Natalie Aubin, David C. Marsh, Tara Leary and Kristen A. Morin
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:71
  11. Despite having a high risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections, people who inject drugs (PWID) often do not receive recommended HPV screenings due to barriers to healthcare. Guideline-based cervical H...

    Authors: Samuel Hinkes, Katrina Ciraldo, Erin Kobetz, Tyler S. Bartholomew, Sarah Rinehart, Nicolette Siringo, Rebecca Barnett, Neha Godbole, Frantzia Jeanty, Morgan Frederick and Hansel E. Tookes
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:70
  12. People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for opioid overdose and infectious diseases including HIV. We piloted PARTNER UP, a telemedicine-based program to provide PWID with medication for opioid use dis...

    Authors: Mehri S. McKellar, Andrea C. Des Marais, Hillary Chen, Yujung Choi, Rebecca Lilly, Denae Ayers, Jesse Bennett, Lauren Kestner, Brian Perry, Stephanie Poley, Amy Corneli, Christina S. Meade and Nidhi Sachdeva
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:69
  13. Long-acting injectable depot buprenorphine may increase access to opioid agonist treatment (OAT) for patients with opioid use disorder in different treatment phases. The aim of this study was to explore the ex...

    Authors: Björn Johnson, Bodil Monwell and Andrea Johansson Capusan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:68
  14. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is drug of high prevalence in Aotearoa New Zealand and is the primary drug analysed by legal drug checking services. We aimed to address the gap in literature pertainin...

    Authors: Jai Whelan, Geoff Noller and Ryan D. Ward
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:67
  15. Post-overdose outreach programs engage overdose survivors and their families soon after an overdose event. Staff implementing these programs are routinely exposed to others’ trauma, which makes them vulnerable...

    Authors: Samantha F. Schoenberger, Emily R. Cummins, Jennifer J. Carroll, Shapei Yan, Audrey Lambert, Sarah M. Bagley, Ziming Xuan, Traci C. Green, Franklin Cook, Amy M. Yule, Alexander Y. Walley and Scott W. Formica
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:66
  16. HIV prevalence among people who use drugs (PWUD) in Tanzania is 4–7 times higher than in the general population, underscoring an urgent need to increase HIV testing and treatment among PWUD. Drug use stigma wi...

    Authors: Linda B. Mlunde, Khalida Saalim, Jessie K. Mbwambo, Pfiriael Kiwia, Elizabeth Fitch, Willbrord Manyama, Isack Rugemalila, Sue Clay, Barrot H. Lambdin, Rachel D. Stelmach, Carla Bann and Laura Nyblade
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:65
  17. Xylazine is an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist that has emerged as a contaminant in the illicit drug supply of fentanyl. Xylazine use may be suspected in naloxone-resistant overdoses and atypical, chronic ...

    Authors: Peyton V. Warp, Maia Hauschild, David P. Serota, Katrina Ciraldo, Irasema Cruz, Tyler S. Bartholomew and Hansel E. Tookes
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:64
  18. Drug checking services aim to provide compositional information for the illicit drug supply and are being employed in public health responses to extreme rates of overdose associated with fentanyl within street...

    Authors: Lea Gozdzialski, Rebecca Louw, Collin Kielty, Ava Margolese, Eric Poarch, Miriam Sherman, Fred Cameron, Chris Gill, Bruce Wallace and Dennis Hore
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:63
  19. To reach the global elimination goals of viral hepatitis B and C (HBC, HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections as a public health threat by 2030, monitoring is needed...

    Authors: Amrei Krings, Gyde Steffen and Ruth Zimmermann
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:62
  20. While community pharmacies have been successful in providing harm reduction support for illicit substance consumers, little research has explored their role in addressing the needs of anabolic–androgenic stero...

    Authors: Timothy Piatkowski, Sarah Benn, Lkhagvadulam Ayurzana, Michelle King, Sara McMillan and Laetitia Hattingh
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:59
  21. The United States (US) continues to experience unprecedented rates of overdose mortality and there is increased need to identify effective harm reduction practices. Research from Canada describes cannabis dona...

    Authors: Sarah E. Duhart Clarke, Grant Victor, Pamela Lynch, Leslie W. Suen and Bradley Ray
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:58
  22. Co-use of methamphetamine (MA) and opioids (pharmaceutical pills, heroin and fentanyls) has increased in the United States and is represented in rising mortality. Although coinciding with the import of low cos...

    Authors: Sarah Mars, Jeff Ondocsin, Nicole Holm and Daniel Ciccarone
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:57
  23. Although harm reduction is highlighted as an effective intervention for alcohol and drug use, a funding gap for harm reduction interventions has been identified, mainly in low- and middle-income countries. In ...

    Authors: João Maurício Gimenes Pedroso, Cristiana Nelise de Paula Araujo and Clarissa Mendonça Corradi-Webster
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:56
  24. Overdose prevention centers (OPCs) are being implemented in the United States as a strategy to reduce drug-related mortality and morbidity. Previous studies have suggested that people who use drugs (PWUD) with...

    Authors: Michael Tan, Carolyn Park, Jacqueline Goldman, Katie B. Biello, Jane Buxton, Scott E. Hadland, Ju Nyeong Park, Susan G. Sherman, Alexandria Macmadu and Brandon D. L. Marshall
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:54
  25.  Individuals suffering with addiction have historically experienced disproportionally high levels of stigma. The process of inpatient care for those with substance abuse disorder (SUD) is multifaceted, shaped ...

    Authors: Maham Rehman, Leigh Chapman, Lisa Liu, Sara Calvert and Javeed Sukhera
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:53
  26. The United States is currently facing an opioid overdose crisis. Research suggests that multiple interventions are needed to reduce overdose deaths including increasing access and retention to medications to t...

    Authors: Julia Dickson-Gomez, Sarah Krechel, Jessica Ohlrich, Helena Danielle Green Montaque, Margaret Weeks, Jianghong Li, Jennifer Havens and Antoinette Spector
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:52
  27. Primary needle and syringe programs (NSPs) have been integral for the prevention of blood-borne virus (BBV) transmission among people who inject drugs. Despite this, many people who inject drugs face barriers ...

    Authors: Shelley Walker, Michael Curtis, Amy Kirwan, Rebecca Thatcher and Paul Dietze
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:51
  28. Tele-harm reduction (THR) is a telehealth-enhanced, peer-led, harm reduction intervention delivered within a trusted syringe services program (SSP) venue. The primary goal of THR is to facilitate linkage to ca...

    Authors: Carolina Scaramutti, Belén Hervera, Yanexy Rivera, Teresa A. Chueng, David W. Forrest, Edward Suarez Jr, David P. Serota,, Hatoun Alkamli, Katrina Ciraldo, Tyler S. Bartholomew and Hansel E. Tookes
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:50
  29. Pharmacies are critical healthcare partners in community efforts to eliminate bloodborne illnesses. Pharmacy sale of sterile syringes is central to this effort.

    Authors: Danielle M. Russell, Beth E. Meyerson, Arlene N. Mahoney, Irene Garnett, Chris Ferrell, Kylee Newgass, Jon D. Agley, Richard A. Crosby, Keith G. Bentele, Nina Vadiei, David Frank and Linnea B. Linde-Krieger
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:49
  30. Harm reduction (HR) is a critical response to the pronounced toxicity deaths being experienced in Canada. HR providers report many benefits of their jobs, but also encounter chronic stress from structural ineq...

    Authors: Sheena Taha, Samantha King, Sara Atif and Eliza Bate
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:48
  31. Harms associated with the use of alcohol and other drugs (AOD) in licensed entertainment settings (LES) and outdoor music festivals (OMF) are ongoing public health and criminal justice concerns. This systemati...

    Authors: Christopher Eassey, Caitlin E. Hughes, Phillip Wadds, Dominique de Andrade and Monica J. Barratt
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:47
  32. Xylazine is a dangerous veterinary sedative found mainly in illicit fentanyl in the Northeast and Midwest. Its role in the Deep South overdose crisis is not well-characterized.

    Authors: William Bradford, Mary Figgatt, Karen S. Scott, Stacy Marshall, Ellen F. Eaton and Daniel W. Dye
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:46
  33. Smoking is the most common mode of unregulated opioid consumption overall and implicated in fatal overdoses in British Columbia (BC). In part, perception of decreased risk (e.g., fewer who smoke carry naloxone...

    Authors: Jessica Moe, Tamara Chavez, Charotte Marr, Fred Cameron, Damian Feldman-Kiss, Yueqiao Elle Wang, Jessica C. Xavier, Zahra Mamdani, Roy A. Purssell, Amy Salmon and Jane A. Buxton
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:45
  34. In 2021–2022, encampments in a downtown Boston neighborhood reached record heights, increasing the visibility of drug use and homelessness in the city. In response, the city planned a “sweep” (i.e., eradicatio...

    Authors: Corinne A. Beaugard, Fay Khudairi, Oluwatoyin Yesufu, Andrea Farina and Jordana Laks
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:44
  35. In the Global South, young people who use drugs (YPWUD) are exposed to multiple interconnected social and health harms, with many low- and middle-income countries enforcing racist, prohibitionist-based drug po...

    Authors: M-J Stowe, Rita Gatonye, Ishwor Maharjan, Seyi Kehinde, Sidarth Arya, Jorge Herrera Valderrábano, Angela Mcbride, Florian Scheibein, Emmy Kageha Igonya and Danya Fast
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:43
  36. Immediate access to naloxone is needed to prevent fatal opioid-related overdoses in the presence of fentanyl analogs saturating the opioid supply. Peer models engage impacted populations who are not accessing ...

    Authors: Nikki M. Lewis, Rebecca P. Smeltzer, Trevor J. Baker, Andrea C. Sahovey, Justine Baez, Erika Hensel, Brandon Poole, Cecelia Stewart, Allyson G. Cogan, Mackenzie Bullard and Jessica L. Taylor
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:42
  37. Lebanon remains as one of the major sources of cannabis worldwide. In 2020, its government passed a legislation enabling the cultivation of local medicinal cannabis. This first study following the legislative ...

    Authors: Lilian Ghandour, Andre Slim, Nada Abbas and Joseph El-Khoury
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:41
  38. Overdose prevention centers (OPCs), also known as supervised injection facilities and safe consumption sites, are evidenced-based interventions for preventing overdose deaths and drug-related morbidities. The ...

    Authors: Joseph G. Rosen, Erin Thompson, Jessica Tardif, Alexandra B. Collins, Brandon D. L. Marshall and Ju Nyeong Park
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:40
  39. First responders [law enforcement officers (LEO) and Fire/Emergency Medical Services (EMS)] can play a vital prevention role, connecting overdose survivors to treatment and recovery services. This study was co...

    Authors: Saad T. Siddiqui, Anna La Manna, Elizabeth Connors, Ryan Smith, Kyle Vance, Zach Budesa, Jeremiah Goulka, Leo Beletsky, Claire A. Wood, Phillip Marotta and Rachel P. Winograd
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:39
  40. Human service settings not specifically focused on supporting people who use drugs (PWUD), especially those with a substance use disorder (SUD), such as probation and parole services, homeless shelters, and wo...

    Authors: Hope Worden Kenefick and Alexis Wing
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:38
  41. The rising prevalence of fast-acting opioids in the USA suggests the increased need for non-professional first responder administration of naloxone. Effective administration of naloxone during an overdose requ...

    Authors: Spencer Cooper-Ohm, Patrick Habecker, Ryan Humeniuk and Rick A. Bevins
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:37
  42. Despite recent financial and policy support for harm reduction in the USA, information on the types of workers within organizations who design, implement, and actualize harm reduction services remains nascent....

    Authors: Lisa de Saxe Zerden, Orrin D. Ware, Brooke N. Lombardi and Brianna M. Lombardi
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:36
  43. As part of its comprehensive plan to significantly reduce the harm from tobacco products, the US Food and Drug Administration is establishing a product standard to lower nicotine in conventional cigarettes to ...

    Authors: Mingda Zhang, Jingzhu Wang and Jeffery Edmiston
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:35
  44. Authors: Elena Cama, Kim Beadman, Mitch Beadman, Kerri-Anne Smith, Jade Christian, Aunty Clair Jackson, Beverley Tyson, Clayton Anderson, Larissa Smyth, Jennifer Heslop, Gary Gahan, Victor Tawil, Felicity Sheaves, Louise Maher, Julie Page, Donna Tilley…
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:34

    The original article was published in Harm Reduction Journal 2023 20:125

  45. According to a recently published study, approximately half of those who currently smoke in Norway have little or no desire to quit despite a hostile regulatory and socio-cultural climate for smoking. On this ...

    Authors: Karl Erik Lund and Gunnar Saebo
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:33
  46. In response to the exacerbated rates of morbidity and mortality associated with the overlapping overdose and COVID-19 epidemics, novel strategies have been developed, implemented, operationalized and scaled to...

    Authors: William Rioux, Adrian Teare, Nathan Rider, Stephanie Jones and S. Monty Ghosh
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:31