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  1. Opioid substitution therapy (OST) with buprenorphine has been widely available in India since 2007, but the introduction of methadone occurred much later in 2012, and availability remains limited. Illicit inje...

    Authors: Michelle Kermode, Robedi Sharma Choudhurimayum, Lenin Singh Rajkumar, Tilahun Haregu and Greg Armstrong

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:68

    Content type: Research

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  2. Understanding the association between methamphetamine (MA) use and HIV risk behavior among people who inject drugs (PWID) will assist policy-makers and program managers to sharpen the focus of HIV prevention i...

    Authors: Mehdi Noroozi, Peter Higgs, Alireza Noroozi, Bahram Armoon, Bentolhoda Mousavi, Rosa Alikhani, Mohammad Rafi Bazrafshan, Ali Nazeri Astaneh, Azadeh Bayani and Ladan Fattah Moghaddam

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:66

    Content type: Research

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  3. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been characterised as significantly less harmful than cigarettes by many health agencies and regulators globally. In this study, we examined to what extent perceived r...

    Authors: Layla Malt, Thomas Verron, Xavier Cahours, Mengran Guo, Sarah Weaver, Tanvir Walele and Grant O’Connell

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:65

    Content type: Research

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  4. Most people diagnosed with hepatitis C virus (HCV) have not linked to care, despite the availability of safe and effective treatment. We aimed to understand why people diagnosed with HCV have not pursued care ...

    Authors: Jacqueline E. Sherbuk, Alexa Tabackman, Kathleen A. McManus, Terry Kemp Knick, Julie Schexnayder, Tabor E. Flickinger and Rebecca Dillingham

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:64

    Content type: Research

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  5. Tampering of psychoactive medicines presents challenges to regulation and public health. However, little is currently known about what influences the decisions to treat codeine-containing medicines (CCM) with ...

    Authors: Andreas Kimergård, Stephen Parkin, Stacey Jennings, Eileen Brobbin and Paolo Deluca

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:63

    Content type: Research

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  6. Injecting drug use is known to contribute significantly to the spread of the HIV epidemic in many parts of the developing world. Due to the hidden nature and stigma of the problem, it is difficult to study usi...

    Authors: Negussie Deyessa, Bekele Senbete, Aman Abdo and Bernard M. Mundia

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:61

    Content type: Research

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  7. Caledonian Stadium, the main mass temporary shelter for homeless people in the City of Tshwane, was created as a local response to the imperatives of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) National State of ...

    Authors: Tessa S. Marcus, Jan Heese, Andrew Scheibe, Shaun Shelly, Sasha X. Lalla and Jannie F. Hugo

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:60

    Content type: Research

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  8. Despite multiple harm reduction (HR) programmes worldwide, there are still an important number of people who use drugs (PWUD) who do not access those services. Their difficulties to obtain HR tools are due to ...

    Authors: Magally Torres-Leguizamon, Emmanuel G. Reynaud, Thomas Néfau and Catherine Duplessy

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:59

    Content type: Research

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  9. People who smoke drugs (PWSD) are at high risk of both infectious disease and overdose. Harm reduction activities organized by their peers in the community can reduce risk by providing education, safer smoking...

    Authors: Sulaf Elkhalifa, Ehsan Jozaghi, Samona Marsh, Erica Thomson, Delilah Gregg, Jane Buxton and Ann Jolly

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:57

    Content type: Research

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  10. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is among the highest priority diseases in custodial settings; however, the diagnosis remains suboptimal among people in custody. This study aimed to validate a short survey for identify...

    Authors: Sanam Hariri, Maryam Sharafkhah, Maryam Alavi, Gholamreza Roshandel, Abdolreza Fazel, Taghi Amiriani, Nazgol Motamed-Gorji, Abolfazl Bazazan, Shahin Merat, Hossein Poustchi and Reza Malekzadeh

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:56

    Content type: Research

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  11. After the collapse of the Soviet Union at the beginning of the 1990s, people who inject drugs spiked in Eastern Europe. Facing local repression and an array of factors encouraging emigration, some users have m...

    Authors: Yaël Tibi-Lévy, Daria Serebryakova and Marie Jauffret-Roustide

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:55

    Content type: Research

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  12. People who inject drugs (PWID) are a medically and socially vulnerable population with a high incidence of overdose, mental illness, and infections like HIV and hepatitis C. Existing literature describes socia...

    Authors: Brandon Muncan, Suzan M. Walters, Jerel Ezell and Danielle C. Ompad

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:53

    Content type: Research

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  13. Few data on motivations for using new psychoactive substances (NPS) are available. However, the cost, the legal status, and their accessibility through channels like internet contributed to the popularity of N...

    Authors: Sarah Simonis, Michaël Canfyn, Anton Van Dijck, Tina Van Havere, Eric Deconinck, Peter Blanckaert and Lies Gremeaux

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:52

    Content type: Research

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  14. Due to the high prevalence of mental disorders among people with opioid use disorder, the objective of this study was to determine the association between concurrent mental disorders, mortality, morbidity, and...

    Authors: Kristen A. Morin, Joseph K. Eibl, Graham Gauthier, Brian Rush, Christopher Mushquash, Nancy E. Lightfoot and David C. Marsh

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:51

    Content type: Research

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  15. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) uptake has been associated with multiple positive health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). This study evaluated the pattern of OAT uptake among PWID in two consecutive...

    Authors: Mehran Nakhaeizadeh, Zahra Abdolahinia, Hamid Sharifi, Ali Mirzazadeh, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mostafa Shokoohi, Stefan Baral, Mohammad Karamouzian and Armita Shahesmaeili

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:50

    Content type: Research

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  16. Needle syringe programs (NSPs), a proven harm reduction strategy for people who inject drugs, frequently offer limited healthcare services for their clients. Women who inject drugs face multiple barriers to ac...

    Authors: Lauren Owens, Kelly Gilmore, Mishka Terplan, Sarah Prager and Elizabeth Micks

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:47

    Content type: Research

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  17. Switching from smoking to using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or heated tobacco products can reduce tobacco-related health risks. However, not all smokers in Great Br...

    Authors: Erikas Simonavicius, Ann McNeill, Hazel Cheeseman, Deborah Arnott and Leonie S. Brose

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:46

    Content type: Brief report

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  18. Population models have been developed to evaluate the impact of new tobacco products on the overall population. Reliable input parameters such as longitudinal tobacco use transitions are needed to quantify the...

    Authors: Lai Wei, Raheema S. Muhammad-Kah, Thaddaeus Hannel, Yezdi B. Pithawalla, Maria Gogova, Simeon Chow and Ryan A. Black

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:45

    Content type: Research

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  19. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Marcus Castillo, Margaret E. C. Ginoza, Tyler S. Bartholomew, David W. Forrest, Costaki Greven, David P. Serota and Hansel E. Tookes

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:44

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:34

  20. Research suggests sexual minority female sex workers (SM-FSW) face elevated structural vulnerability and HIV risk compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Structural vulnerabilities reflect societal level ...

    Authors: Jennifer L. Glick, Sahnah Lim, S. Wilson Beckham, Catherine Tomko, Ju Nyeong Park and Susan G. Sherman

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:43

    Content type: Research

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  21. A primary consequence of illicit drug markets and the absence of regulation is the variable quality or purity of the final product. Analysis of anabolic-androgenic steroid seizures shows that these products ca...

    Authors: Evelyn Frude, Fiona H. McKay and Matthew Dunn

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:42

    Content type: Research

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  22. Methamphetamine use poses a barrier to antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men living with HIV (PLWH) shoulder much of the health burden resulting from the methamph...

    Authors: Elizabeth C. Pasipanodya, Maulika Kohli, Celia B. Fisher, David J. Moore and Brenda Curtis

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:41

    Content type: Research

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  23. Blood-borne viral infections, such as HIV and hepatitis C (HCV), are common infections among people who inject drugs (PWID). This study aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and HCV infection among PWID acce...

    Authors: Tyler S. Bartholomew, Jason Onugha, Corinne Bullock, Carolina Scaramutti, Hardik Patel, David W. Forrest, Daniel J. Feaster and Hansel E. Tookes

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:40

    Content type: Research

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  24. Treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a critical component of efforts to eliminate viral hepatitis. A recent study found high HCV prevalence among PWID in two cities, Pretoria ...

    Authors: Anna Versfeld, Angela McBride, Andrew Scheibe and C. Wendy Spearman

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:39

    Content type: Research

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  25. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Magdalena Harris, Jenny Scott, Vivian Hope, Talen Wright, Catherine McGowan and Daniel Ciccarone

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:38

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:24

  26. In 2016, the Australian federal government passed legislation enabling a range of cannabis-based products to be prescribed to patients by registered healthcare professionals. An online survey conducted immedia...

    Authors: Nicholas Lintzeris, Llewellyn Mills, Anastasia Suraev, Maria Bravo, Thomas Arkell, Jonathon C. Arnold, Melissa J. Benson and Iain S. McGregor

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:37

    Content type: Research

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  27. Using snus (Swedish moist snuff) is less harmful than smoking, but health warning labels (HWLs) on snus products do not reflect this relation. There are few studies on the effects of comparative risk informati...

    Authors: Connie Villemo Nilsen, Torleif Halkjelsvik and Frode Svartdal

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:36

    Content type: Research

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  28. The rising incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) among people who inject drugs (PWID) has been a major concern across North America. The coincident rise in IE and change of drug preference to hydromorphone ...

    Authors: Meera Shah, Ryan Wong, Laura Ball, Klajdi Puka, Charlie Tan, Esfandiar Shojaei, Sharon Koivu and Michael Silverman

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:35

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. Syringe services programs (SSPs) are able to offer wrap-around services for people who inject drugs (PWID) and improve health outcomes.

    Authors: Marcus Castillo, Margaret E. C. Ginoza, Tyler S. Bartholomew, David W. Forrest, Costaki Greven, David P. Serota and Hansel E. Tookes

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:34

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:44

  30. For novel tobacco products that potentially reduce the risk of tobacco harm, post-market surveillance is important to observe population usage and behaviours associated with everyday use. This pilot study was ...

    Authors: Jason Adamson, Claudia Kanitscheider, Krishna Prasad, Oscar M. Camacho, Elisabeth Beyerlein, Yoga Keralapura Bhagavan, Christopher Proctor and James Murphy

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:32

    Content type: Research

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  31. With a worldwide prevalence of 15.4%, hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been estimated to be the most prevalent major infectious disease in prisons. The exceptionally high prevalence of HCV in prisons is attributabl...

    Authors: Babak Moazen, Heino Stöver, Kate Dolan, Albrecht Jahn and Florian Neuhann

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:33

    Content type: Commentary

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  32. Naloxone is a safe and effective medication to help reverse opioid overdose. Providing take-home naloxone to patients in opioid treatment settings is a critical step to reducing opioid overdose deaths. In New ...

    Authors: Julie G. Salvador, Andrew L. Sussman, Mikiko Y. Takeda, William G. Katzman, Monica Moya Balasch and Joanna G. Katzman

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:31

    Content type: Research

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  33. Syringe services programs (SSPs) are an evidence-based harm reduction strategy that reduces dangerous sequelae of injection drug use among people who inject drugs (PWID) such as overdose. SSP services include ...

    Authors: K. J. Bornstein, A. E. Coye, J. E. St. Onge, H. Li, A. Muller, T. S. Bartholomew and H. E. Tookes

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:30

    Content type: Brief report

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  34. The current illicit drug overdose crisis within North America and other countries requires expanded and new responses to address unpredictable and potentially lethal substances, including fentanyl analogues, i...

    Authors: Bruce Wallace, Thea van Roode, Flora Pagan, Paige Phillips, Hailly Wagner, Shane Calder, Jarred Aasen, Bernie Pauly and Dennis Hore

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:29

    Content type: Research

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  35. Managed alcohol programs are a harm reduction approach for people with severe alcohol use disorder that provide alcohol in a structured setting. We examined the patient experience of receiving alcohol after th...

    Authors: Beena P. Parappilly, Emma Garrod, Ryan Longoz, Eric Eligh, Holly van Heukelom, Christopher Kit Fairgrieve and Bernadette Pauly

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:28

    Content type: Research

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  36. The impact of COVID-19 across health services, including treatment services for people who use drugs, is emerging but likely to have a high impact. Treatment services for people who use drugs provide essential...

    Authors: Adrian Dunlop, Buddhima Lokuge, Debbie Masters, Marcia Sequeira, Peter Saul, Grace Dunlop, John Ryan, Michelle Hall, Nadine Ezard, Paul Haber, Nicholas Lintzeris and Lisa Maher

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:26

    Content type: Opinion

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  37. Moral conservatism within government and communities has resulted in a reluctance to support the provision of opioid agonist therapy for people with opioid use disorders in South Africa. In April 2017, South A...

    Authors: Monique Marks, Andrew Scheibe and Shaun Shelly

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:25

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. The United Kingdom is experiencing an increase in drug-related deaths and serious bacterial infections among its most vulnerable citizens. Cuts to essential services, coupled with a growing homeless population...

    Authors: Magdalena Harris, Jenny Scott, Vivian Hope, Talen Wright, Catherine McGowan and Daniel Ciccarone

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:24

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:38

  39. North America and other parts of the globe are in the midst of a public health emergency related to opioid overdoses and a highly contaminated illicit drug supply. Unfortunately, there is a substantial gap in ...

    Authors: Trevor Goodyear, Caroline Mniszak, Emily Jenkins, Danya Fast and Rod Knight

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:23

    Content type: Research

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  40. Evidence is emerging that prescription opioid (PO) injection is associated with increased health risks. This mixed-methods study compares the mechanics of PO and heroin injection and examines the demographic a...

    Authors: Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Honoria Guarino, Jon E. Zibbell, Jennifer Teubl, Chunki Fong, Elizabeth Goodbody, Brian Edlin, Carli Salvati and Samuel R. Friedman

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:22

    Content type: Research

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  41. Tobacco smoking is one of the biggest and avoidable public health threats in the world, especially in low- and middle-income countries. India represents a highly complex public health environment due to the la...

    Authors: Rajeshwar Nath Sharan, Tongbram Malemnganbi Chanu, Tapan Kumar Chakrabarty and Konstantinos Farsalinos

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:21

    Content type: Research

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  42. Mozambique has one of the highest burdens of HIV globally, and people who inject drugs (PWID) have one of the highest HIV infection rates in Africa. After the implementation of the first Biological Behavioral ...

    Authors: Cynthia Semá Baltazar, Makini Boothe and Timothy Kellogg

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:20

    Content type: Commentary

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  43. In Canada, and elsewhere, indigenous peoples who use illicit drugs and/or alcohol (IPWUID/A) commonly experience vulnerability and a disproportionate burden of harm related to substance use. In Vancouver, Cana...

    Authors: Jennifer Lavalley, Shelda Kastor, Malcolm Tourangeau, Ashley Goodman and Thomas Kerr

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:19

    Content type: Research

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  44. Prevalence of HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) has been reported to be higher than that of the general population. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection and asso...

    Authors: Samuel Lazarus Likindikoki, Elia John Mmbaga, Germana Henry Leyna, Kåre Moen, Neema Makyao, Mucho Mizinduko, Alex Ishungisa Mwijage, Diana Faini, Melkizedeck Thomas Leshabari and Dan Wolf Meyrowitsch

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:18

    Content type: Research

    Published on: