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Table 1 RR/OR of IHD/AMI for current (vs. never) snus use in never smoking Swedish men

From: Epidemiological evidence relating snus to health – an updated review based on recent publications

Source Study Typea Periodb Casesc End-pointd RR/OR (95% CI) Adjustment factorse
Bolinder et al. [41] Construction Workers PC 1971-74/1985 172 F 1.35 (1.13-1.62)f age, res
Haglund et al. [42] Survey of living conditions PC 1988-89/2003 28 F + NF 0.77 (0.51-1.15)g,h age, exe, hea, ill, res, ses
Wennberg et al. [43] VIPi and MONICAj NCC 1985-99/1999 21 F + NF 0.82 (0.46-1.43) age, bmi, cho, edu, lei, phy
Huhtasaari et al. [44] 1st MONICAj study CC 1989-91 59 F + NF 0.89 (0.62-1.29)g,h age
Huhtasaari et al. [45] 2nd MONICAj study CC 1991-93 59 F + NF 0.93 (0.65-1.34)f,h none
Hergens et al. [46] Two counties CC 1992-94 10 F + NF 0.73 (0.35-1.50) age, res
Hansson et al. [20] Construction Workersk PC 1978-93/20y 309 F + NF 1.01 (0.90-1.14) age
  Malmö diet and cancerl PC 1991-96/13y 4 F + NF 1.00 (0.37-2.70) age
  MONICA N.Sweden PC 1986-2004/11y 7 F + NF 0.77 (0.35-1.69) age
  National March Cohort PC 1997/9y 0 F + NF - age
  SALTm PC 1998-2002/8y 21 F + NF 1.56 (0.98-2.48) age
  Stockholm Public Health PC 2002/5y 5 F + NF 1.21 (0.48-3.08) age
  Scania Public Health PC 1991-2000/8y 8 F + NF 1.90 (0.90-4.00) age
  WOLFn PC 1992-98/9y 2 F + NF 3.30 (0.63-17.1) age
Total 13 estimates     Fixedo 1.07 (0.98-1.16) Het p = 0.06
      Randomp 1.06 (0.91-1.23)  
Excluding [41] 12 estimates     Fixedo 1.00 (0.91-1.10) Het p = 0.34
      Randomp 1.00 (0.88-1.13)  
  1. aPC = prospective cohort, NCC = nested case-control, CC = case-control.
  2. bFor case-control studies, the period of interviewing is shown. For prospective cohort or nested case-control studies, the baseline period is shown before the /, and either the final year of follow-up or, where this is not available, the mean person-years of follow-up after the /.
  3. cThe number of cases exposed to snus.
  4. dF = fatal, NF = non-fatal.
  5. eAbbreviations used: bmi body mass index, cho cholesterol level, edu education, exe exercise, hea self reported health, ill longstanding illness, lei leisure time, phy physical activity, res area of residence, ses socioeconomic status.
  6. fEstimated from data in source article.
  7. gEstimate is for current v non-current snus users.
  8. hEstimate is for non-current smokers.
  9. iVIP = Vasterbötten Intervention Program.
  10. j MONICA = Multinational Monitoring of trends and determinants in Cardiovascular disease.
  11. kResults supersede those reported earlier [38].
  12. lResults supersede those reported earlier [39].
  13. mSALT = Screening across the lifespan twin study, results supersede those reported earlier [40].
  14. nWOLF = Work, lipids and fibrinogen.
  15. o“Fixed” – the result of the fixed effect meta-analysis is shown on the right followed by the between-study heterogeneity p value (“Het p”).
  16. p“Random” – the result of the random-effects meta-analysis is shown on the right.