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  1. During the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a surprisingly low incidence of SARS-CoV-2 among People Who Use Drugs (PWUD) in Oslo, Norway, despite their heightened vulnerability regarding risk o...

    Authors: Linda Elise Couëssurel Wüsthoff, Fridtjof Lund-Johansen, Kathleen Henriksen, Gull Wildendahl, Jon-Aksel Jacobsen, Leni Gomes, Hina Sarwar Anjum, Regine Barlinn, Anne-Marte Bakken Kran, Ludvig Andre Munthe and John T. Vaage
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:120
  2. The current fourth wave of the United States opioid overdose epidemic is characterized by the co-use of opioids and stimulants, including illicit opioids and methamphetamine. The co-use of these two drugs, kno...

    Authors: Rachel Sun, Tonazzina H. Sauda and Rachel A. Hoopsick
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:119
  3. Gambling and gambling-related harm attract significant researcher and policy attention. The liberalisation of gambling in most western countries is strongly associated with a marked rise in gambling activity a...

    Authors: Samantha Clune, Deepika Ratnaike, Vanessa White, Alex Donaldson, Erica Randle, Paul O’Halloran and Virginia Lewis
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:118
  4. Policies to address substance use differ greatly between settings, where goals may range from zero-tolerance to harm reduction. Different approaches impact formats of care, policing, and even interpersonal int...

    Authors: Julie Holeksa
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:117
  5. People who use drugs (PWUD) are at increased risk for HIV infection. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is a promising method for identifying new infections, but optimal distribution strategies remain understudied.

    Authors: William H. Eger, Alexa Mutchler, Tim Santamour, Shelby Meaders, Heather A. Pines, Angela R. Bazzi, Hansel E. Tookes and Tyler S. Bartholomew
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:116
  6. Fentanyl test strips (FTS) are lateral flow immunoassay strips designed for detection of ng/mL levels of fentanyl in urine. In 2021, the US Centers for Disease Control and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health...

    Authors: Marya Lieberman, Adina Badea, Charlie Desnoyers, Kathleen Hayes and Ju Nyeong Park
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:115
  7. As the opioid public health crisis evolves to include fentanyl and other potent synthetic opioids, more patients are admitted to the hospital with serious complications of drug use and frequently require highe...

    Authors: Laura Szczesniak, Sarah Britton, Theresa Baxter RN and Ross Sullivan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:114
  8. Globally, non-fatal overdose (NFOD) rates consequent to drug use, typically opioids, continue increasing at a startling rate. Existing quantitative research has revealed myriad factors and characteristics link...

    Authors: Christopher J. Byrne, Fabio Sani, Teresa Flynn and Amy Malaguti
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:112
  9. In response to the devastating drug toxicity crisis in Canada driven by an unregulated opioid supply predominantly composed of fentanyl and analogues, safer supply programs have been introduced. These programs...

    Authors: Gillian Kolla, Bernie Pauly, Fred Cameron, Heather Hobbs, Corey Ranger, Jane McCall, Jerry Majalahti, Kim Toombs, Jack LeMaistre, Marion Selfridge and Karen Urbanoski
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:111
  10. Drug-involved individuals who contact treatment services in Taiwan are mostly driven by criminal justice systems either as an alternative or adjunct to criminal sanctions for a drug offence. With a focus on ju...

    Authors: Chuan-Yu Chen, Tan-Wen Hsieh, Wenmay Rei, Cheng-Hsiung Huang and Sheng-Chang Wang
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:109
  11. Syringe services programs (SSPs) are critical healthcare access points for people with opioid use disorder (OUD) who face treatment utilization barriers. Co-locating care for common psychiatric comorbidities, ...

    Authors: Teresa López-Castro, Nancy Sohler, Lindsey Riback, Gina Bravo, Eric Ohlendorf, Megan Ghiroli and Aaron D. Fox
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:108
  12. Efforts to distribute naloxone have equipped more people with the ability to reverse opioid overdoses but people who use drugs are often reluctant to call 911 due to concerns for legal repercussions. Rural com...

    Authors: Robin Baker, Rob J Fredericksen, Abby E Rudolph, Thomas J Stopka, Suzan M Walters, Monica Fadanelli, Rebecca S Bolinski, Adams L Sibley, Erin Stack, Heidi M Crane, P Todd Korthuis and David W Seal
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:107
  13. In an era of escalating and intersectional crises, the toxic drug poisoning crisis stands out as a devastating and persistent phenomenon. Where we write from in British Columbia (BC), Canada, over 13,000 death...

    Authors: Trevor Wideman and Sharon Karsten
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:106
  14. Australia prohibits the sale of nicotine-vaping products unless prescribed by medical practitioners. Significant policy reforms were announced on the 28th of November 2023 including a ban on single-use disposa...

    Authors: Carmen C.W. Lim, Tianze Sun, Giang Vu, Gary C.K. Chan and Janni Leung
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:105
  15. Cannabis was legalised for medical purposes in 2016. Uptake was initially slow, but since 2019 there has been a large increase in the number of Australians who have been prescribed cannabis for medical reasons...

    Authors: Llewellyn Mills, Jonathon C. Arnold, Anastasia Suraev, Sarah V. Abelev, Cilla Zhou, Thomas R. Arkell, Iain S. McGregor and Nicholas Lintzeris
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:104
  16. People in Connecticut are now more likely to die of a drug-related overdose than a traffic accident. While Connecticut has had some success in slowing the rise in overdose death rates, substantial additional p...

    Authors: Joy D. Scheidell, Tarlise N. Townsend, Qinlian Zhou, Prima Manandhar-Sasaki, Ramon Rodriguez-Santana, Mark Jenkins, Marianne Buchelli, Dyanna L. Charles, Jillian M. Frechette, Jasmine I-Shin Su and R. Scott Braithwaite
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:103
  17. The opioid epidemic remains one of the largest public health crises in North America to date. While there have been many diverse strategies developed to reduce the harms associated with substance use, these ar...

    Authors: William Rioux, Pamela Taplay, Lisa Morris-Miller and S. Monty Ghosh
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:102
  18. Individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) often have concurrent use of non-opioid substances. When patients enter opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), less is known about outcomes regarding the use of other ty...

    Authors: Endre Dahlen Bjørnestad, John-Kåre Vederhus and Thomas Clausen
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:101
  19. The rapid increase in e-cigarette use over the past decade has triggered an important public health question on the potential association between e-cigarette use and combustible cigarette smoking. Following AM...

    Authors: Mimi M. Kim, Isabella Steffensen, Red Thaddeus D. Miguel, Tanja Babic and Julien Carlone
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:99
  20. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people who inject drugs in the state of Manipur, India, is 43%; however, access to care is poor. We piloted a Community-led and comprehensive hepatitis car...

    Authors: Nalinikanta Rajkumar, Lokeshwar Singh Khumukcham, Dhabali Thangjam, Surender Singh, Giten Khwairakpam, Sonjelle Shilton and Amit Goel
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:98
  21. Structural harm reduction is an approach to care for people who use drugs (PWUD) that incorporates services and resources (e.g., naloxone, sterile syringes). As conceptualized in our previous research, harm re...

    Authors: Emma Sophia Kay, Stephanie L. Creasy, Jessica Townsend and Mary Hawk
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:97
  22. Research regarding the contribution of specific psychoactive substances to suicidality has yielded equivocal results. The present study examined the prevalence and factors associated with suicidal thoughts and...

    Authors: Ramin Shiraly, Seyed Amin Jazayeri, Asal Seifaei, Ali Khani Jeihooni and Mark D. Griffiths
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:96
  23. The use of stimulants and other substances with the purpose of enhancing, maintaining, and prolonging sexual activity is known as sexualized substance use. Also known as chemsex, this pattern of use has been m...

    Authors: Claudia Rafful, Ricardo Orozco, Daniela Peralta, Leonardo Jiménez-Rivagorza, María Elena Medina-Mora, Nely Gutiérrez and Missael Morales-Gutierrez
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:95
  24. The COVID-19 pandemic had a disproportionate impact on the health and wellbeing of people who use drugs (PWUD) in Canada. However less is known about jurisdictional commonalities and differences in COVID-19 ex...

    Authors: Sanjana Mitra, Zachary Bouck, Sarah Larney, Camille Zolopa, Stine Høj, Nanor Minoyan, Katie Upham, Indhu Rammohan, Wing Yin Mok, Kanna Hayashi, M-J Milloy, Kora DeBeck, Ayden Scheim and Dan Werb
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:94
  25. Naloxone is an effective FDA-approved opioid antagonist for reversing opioid overdoses. Naloxone is available to the public and can be administered through intramuscular (IM), intravenous (IV), and intranasal ...

    Authors: Paige M. Lemen, Daniel P. Garrett, Erin Thompson, Megan Aho, Christina Vasquez and Ju Nyeong Park
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:93
  26. Mortality related to opioid overdose in the U.S. has risen sharply in the past decade. In California, opioid overdose death rates more than tripled from 2018 to 2021, and deaths from synthetic opioids such as ...

    Authors: Lissa Moran, Jeff Ondocsin, Simon Outram, Daniel Ciccarone, Daniel Werb, Nicole Holm and Emily A. Arnold
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:92
  27. Substance use disorder treatment and recovery support services are critical for achieving and maintaining recovery. There are limited data on how structural and social changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic impa...

    Authors: Eshan U. Patel, Suzanne M. Grieb, Abigail K. Winiker, Jennifer Ching, Catherine G. Schluth, Shruti H. Mehta, Gregory D. Kirk and Becky L. Genberg
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:91
  28. Although electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) appear to be effective in helping people who smoke to stop smoking, concerns about use of e-cigarettes among young people have led to restrictions on non-tobacco f...

    Authors: Jasmine N. Khouja, Maddy L. Dyer, Michelle A. Havill, Martin J. Dockrell, Marcus R. Munafò and Angela S. Attwood
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:90
  29. In British Columbia, Canada, smoking is the most common modality of drug use among people who die of opioid toxicity. We aimed to assess oxygen saturation (SpO2) while people smoked opioids during a pilot study t...

    Authors: Jessica Moe, Jane A. Buxton, Yueqiao Elle Wang, Tamara Chavez, Damian Feldman-Kiss, Charotte Marr, Roy A. Purssell and Michael Otterstatter
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:89
  30. Barriers to access to hepatitis C treatment with direct-acting antivirals in people who inject drugs in the community setting. Qualitative study with prison population. Hepatitis C (HCV) treatments with direct...

    Authors: Elena Yela, Neus Solé, Lidia Puig, Darío López Gallegos and Rafael Clua-García
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:88
  31. In response to the overdose crisis, a collaborative group of two community-based organizations, a health authority and a research institute in Vancouver, Canada, implemented a pilot community-based drug checki...

    Authors: Pierre-julien Coulaud, Koharu Loulou Chayama, Cameron Schwartz, Aaron Purdie, Mark Lysyshyn, Lianping Ti and Rod Knight
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:87
  32. During the early period of the COVID-19 pandemic, public health orders disrupted income generation in numerous sectors and many governments provided emergency financial support. Access to government support an...

    Authors: Erica McAdam, Kanna Hayashi, Zishan Cui, Haleigh Anderson, Scarlett Nelson, M.-J. Milloy and Kora DeBeck
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:86
  33. During the COVID−19 pandemic, clinics offering medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) needed to rapidly introduce unsupervised take−home dosing, while relapsing patients and patients unable to enter treatme...

    Authors: Roberto Abadie and Celia B. Fisher
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:85
  34. A heated tobacco product (HTP) authorized for purchase in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration as a reduced harm product was removed from the market after about 2 years of sales. Adults who us...

    Authors: Brendan Noggle, Kevin M. Ball and Andrea Rae Vansickel
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:84

    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:110

  35. Recovery from addiction is frequently equated with abstinence. However, some individuals who resolve an addiction continue to use substances, including via substitution (i.e., increased use of one substance af...

    Authors: Corinne A. Beaugard, Alexander Y. Walley and Maryann Amodeo
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:83
  36. Cannabis use before the COVID-19 pandemic for many involved sharing prepared cannabis for inhalation, practices that were less prevalent during the pandemic. State-level COVID-19 containment policies may have ...

    Authors: Ryan D. Assaf, Rita Hamad, Marjan Javanbakht, Onyebuchi A. Arah, Steven J. Shoptaw, Ziva D. Cooper and Pamina M. Gorbach
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:82
  37. Psychological and social status, and environmental context, may mediate the likelihood of experiencing overdose subsequent to illicit drug use. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and synthesise ...

    Authors: Christopher J. Byrne, Fabio Sani, Donna Thain, Emma H. Fletcher and Amy Malaguti
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:81
  38. Buprenorphine is an effective treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD); however, buprenorphine initiation can be complicated by withdrawal symptoms including precipitated withdrawal. There has been increasing i...

    Authors: Benjamin L. H. Jones, Michelle Geier, John Neuhaus, Phillip O. Coffin, Hannah R. Snyder, Christine S. Soran, Kelly R. Knight and Leslie W. Suen
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:80
  39. People who nonmedically use drugs (PWUD) face intricate social issues that suppress self-actualization, communal integration, and overall health and wellness. “Strengths-based” approaches, an under-used pedago...

    Authors: Jerel M. Ezell, Mai T. Pho, Elinor Simek, Babatunde P. Ajayi, Netra Shetty and Suzan M. Walters
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:79
  40. As well as being associated with serious negative health outcomes, smoking has been reported to have an array of physiological and psychological effects, including effects on mood and cognitive function. Post-...

    Authors: Harry J. Green, Olivia K. O’Shea, Jack Cotter, Helen L. Philpott and Nik Newland
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:78
  41. Drug overdose deaths in the United States exceeded 100,000 in 2021 and 2022. Substance use stigma is a major barrier to treatment and harm reduction utilization and is a priority target in ending the overdose ...

    Authors: Adams L. Sibley, Emma Klein, Hannah L.F. Cooper, Melvin D. Livingston III, Robin Baker, Suzan M. Walters, Rachel E. Gicquelais, Stephanie A. Ruderman, Peter D. Friedmann, Wiley D. Jenkins, Vivian F. Go, William C. Miller, Ryan P. Westergaard and Heidi M Crane
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:77
  42. Understanding current substance use practices is critical to reduce and prevent overdose deaths among individuals at increased risk including persons who use and inject drugs. Because individuals participating...

    Authors: Tyler G. Erath, Rosalie LaCroix, Erin O’Keefe, Stephen T. Higgins and Richard A. Rawson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:76
  43. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health threat in Canada. In British Columbia (BC) province, 1.6% of the population had been exposed to HCV by 2012. Prevalence and incidence of HCV are very high in populatio...

    Authors: Nance E. Cunningham, Jessica Lamb, Amanda Staller, Mel Krajden, Robert S. Hogg, Angela Towle, Viviane Dias Lima and Kate Salters
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:75
  44. In recent years, stimulant use has increased among persons who use opioids in the rural U.S., leading to high rates of overdose and death. We sought to understand motivations and contexts for stimulant use amo...

    Authors: R. J. Fredericksen, R. Baker, A. Sibley, A. T. Estadt, D. Colston, L. S. Mixson, S. Walters, J. Bresett, X. A. Levander, G. Leichtling, T. Davy-Mendez, M. Powell, T. J. Stopka, M. Pho, J. Feinberg, J. Ezell…
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:74
  45. HIV-positive people who inject drugs (PWID) experience challenges in initiating and adhering to antiretroviral treatment (ART). Counselling using motivational interviewing (MI) techniques may help them formula...

    Authors: Lydia V. Wongso, Arie Rahadi, Evi Sukmaningrum, Miasari Handayani and Rudi Wisaksana
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:73
  46. People who use drugs experience pain at two to three times the rate of the general population and yet continue to face substantial barriers to accessing appropriate and adequate treatment for pain. In light of...

    Authors: Evelyne Marie Piret, M.-J. Milloy, Pauline Voon, JinCheol Choi, Kora DeBeck, Kanna Hayashi and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:72