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  1. Hospital patients who use drugs may require prolonged parenteral antimicrobial therapy administered through a vascular access device (VAD). Clinicians’ concerns that patients may inject drugs into these device...

    Authors: Hannah L. Brooks, Ginetta Salvalaggio, Bernadette Pauly, Kathryn Dong, Tania Bubela, Marliss Taylor and Elaine Hyshka
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:54
  2. In Kyrgyzstan and other Eastern European and Central Asian countries, injection drug use and HIV-related intersectional stigma undermines HIV prevention efforts, fueling a rapidly expanding HIV epidemic. The K...

    Authors: Laramie R. Smith, Natalia Shumskaia, Ainura Kurmanalieva, Thomas L. Patterson, Dan Werb, Anna Blyum, Angel B. Algarin, Samantha Yeager and Javier Cepeda
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:53
  3. Worsening of the overdose crisis in the USA has been linked to the continuing proliferation of non-pharmaceutical fentanyl (NPF). The recent wave of NPF spread in the USA has been fueled by an increased presen...

    Authors: Raminta Daniulaityte, Kaylin Sweeney, Seol Ki, Bradley N. Doebbeling and Natasha Mendoza
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:52
  4. Despite recent rises in fatal overdoses involving multiple substances, there is a paucity of knowledge about stimulant co-use patterns among people who use opioids (PWUO) or people being treated with medicatio...

    Authors: Abeed Sarker, Mohammed Ali Al-Garadi, Yao Ge, Nisha Nataraj, Christopher M. Jones and Steven A. Sumner
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:51
  5. When the novel coronavirus pandemic emerged in March 2020, many settings across Canada and the USA were already contending with an existing crisis of drug overdoses due to the toxic unregulated drug supply. In...

    Authors: Mana Moshkforoush, Kora DeBeck, Rupinder Brar, Nadia Fairbairn, Zishan Cui, M.-J. Milloy, Jane Buxton, Tanis Oldenburger, Will McLellan, Perry Kendall, Kali Sedgemore, Dean Wilson, Thomas Kerr and Kanna Hayashi
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:50
  6. The increasing prevalence of highly potent, illicitly manufactured fentanyl and its analogues (IMF) in the USA is exacerbating the opioid epidemic which has worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic. Narcan® (nalo...

    Authors: Randa Abdelal, A. Raja Banerjee, Suzanne Carlberg-Racich, Neyla Darwaza, Diane Ito, Jessica Shoaff and Josh Epstein
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:49
  7. Police in Canada have become main responders to behavioural health concerns in the community—a role that disproportionately harms people who use drugs (PWUD). Recent calls to defund the police emphasize the ne...

    Authors: Amanda Butler, Naomi Zakimi and Alissa Greer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:48
  8. The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) exacerbated risks for adverse health consequences among people who inject drugs by reducing access to sterile injection equipment, HIV testing, and syringe services programs...

    Authors: Jennifer L. Glick, Suzanne M. Grieb, Samantha J. Harris, Brian W. Weir, Katherine C. Smith, Tyler Puryear, Rebecca Hamilton White and Sean T. Allen
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:47
  9. British Columbia (BC) has been in a state of public health emergency since 2016, due to the unprecedented numbers of fatal and non-fatal drug toxicity (i.e. overdose) events. Methamphetamine detection in illic...

    Authors: Jenny Corser, Heather Palis, Mathew Fleury, Jess Lamb, Kurt Lock, Jenny McDougall, Amiti Mehta, Cheri Newman, Heather Spence and Jane A. Buxton
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:46
  10. The emergence of widespread amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs) usage has created significant challenges for drug control and treatment policies in Southeast Asian countries. This study analyses the development...

    Authors: Mai Thi Ngoc Tran, Michael P. Dunne, Giang Minh Le, Hoe Dinh Han, Trang Thu Nguyen, Hai Thanh Luong, Quang Hung Luong, Ha Nguyen Pham and Philip Baker
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:45
  11. Vancouver, Canada, and Lisbon, Portugal, are both celebrated for their world-leading harm reduction policies and programs and regarded as models for other cities contending with the effects of increasing level...

    Authors: Joana Canêdo, Kali-olt Sedgemore, Kelly Ebbert, Haleigh Anderson, Rainbow Dykeman, Katey Kincaid, Claudia Dias, Diana Silva, Reith Charlesworth, Rod Knight and Danya Fast
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:43
  12. To offer a critical reflection on an impoverished neighborhood in Vancouver, Canada, and their access to oral health care. A review of how a lack of publicly funded oral health care affects the most vulnerable...

    Authors: Ehsan Jozaghi, Vandu, Russ Maynard, Yasaman Khoshnoudian and Mario A. Brondani
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:42
  13. In the context of the current U.S. injection drug use epidemic, targeted public health harm reduction strategies have traditionally focused on overdose prevention and reducing transmission of blood-borne viral...

    Authors: Alexander Hrycko, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Courtney Ciervo, Rebecca Linn-Walton and Benjamin Eckhardt
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:41
  14. This commentary explores the lessons learned during implementation of a peer-facilitated hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing and treatment access project called the Live Hep C Free (LHCF) project in contributing t...

    Authors: Julia A. Silano, Carla Treloar, Kyle Leadbeatter, Sandy Davidson and Justine Doidge
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:40
  15. Glassware can be an effective vehicle to recruit customers, revive brands, build profits and increase alcohol consumption by capitalising on the immediacy of glassware to the point of consumption. The design o...

    Authors: David M. Troy, Olivia M. Maynard, Matthew Hickman, Marcus R. Munafò and Angela S. Attwood
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:39
  16. People who use drugs (PWUD) are at high risk of experiencing indirect harms of measures implemented to curb the spread of COVID-19, given high reliance on services and social networks. This study aimed to docu...

    Authors: Nanor Minoyan, Stine Bordier Høj, Camille Zolopa, Dragos Vlad, Julie Bruneau and Sarah Larney
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:38
  17. Adolescence and young adulthood is an important period for substance use initiation and related harms. In the context of the ongoing opioid crisis, the risks for youth (ages 16–29) who use opioids are particul...

    Authors: Kirsten Marchand, Oonagh Fogarty, Katrina Marie Pellatt, Kayly Vig, Jordan Melnychuk, Christina Katan, Faria Khan, Roxanne Turuba, Linda Kongnetiman, Corinne Tallon, Jill Fairbank, Steve Mathias and Skye Barbic
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:37
  18. Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are globally widely used. Scientific literature generally defines four phases of substance use (initiation, continuation, increase and decrease); however, there is limited und...

    Authors: Nienke Liebregts, Rafaela Rigoni, Benjamin Petruželka, Miroslav Barták, Magdalena Rowicka, Heike Zurhold and Katrin Schiffer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:36
  19. Community-based harm reduction programs reduce morbidity and mortality associated with drug use. While hospital-based inpatient addiction consult services can also improve outcomes for patients using drugs, in...

    Authors: Ghulam Karim Khan, Leah Harvey, Samantha Johnson, Paul Long, Simeon Kimmel, Cassandra Pierre and Mari-Lynn Drainoni
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:35
  20. The harmful use of alcohol is one of the leading health risk factors for people’s health worldwide, but some populations, like people who experience homelessness, are more vulnerable to its detrimental effects...

    Authors: Rossio Motta-Ochoa, Natalia Incio-Serra, Hélène Poliquin, Sue-Ann MacDonald, Christophe Huỳnh, Philippe-Benoit Côté, Jean-Sébastien Fallu and Jorge Flores-Aranda
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:34
  21. Supervised consumption services (SCS), intended to reduce morbidity and mortality among people who inject drugs, have been implemented in a variety of delivery models. We describe and compare access to and upt...

    Authors: Tanner Nassau, Gillian Kolla, Kate Mason, Shaun Hopkins, Paula Tookey, Elizabeth McLean, Dan Werb and Ayden Scheim
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:33
  22. The resurgence of heroin use and the misuse of pharmaceutical opioids are some of the reasons for a worldwide increase in opioid dependence. Opioid Medication Therapies (OMT) have amply demonstrated their effi...

    Authors: Morgane Guillou Landreat, Antoine Dany, Gaelle Challet Bouju, Edouard-Jules Laforgue, J. Cholet, Juliette Leboucher, Jean Benoit Hardouin, Caroline Victorri Vigneau and Marie Grall Bronnec
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:31
  23. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is increasingly standard practice for critical qualitative health research with young people who use(d) drugs in Vancouver, Canada. One aim of CBPR in this context...

    Authors: Madison Thulien, Haleigh Anderson, Shane Douglas, Rainbow Dykeman, Amanda Horne, Ben Howard, Kali Sedgemore, Reith Charlesworth and Danya Fast
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:30
  24. Opioid-related harms, including fatal and non-fatal overdoses, rose dramatically during the COVID-19 pandemic and presented unique challenges during outbreaks in congregate settings such as shelters. People wh...

    Authors: Brendan Lew, Claire Bodkin, Robin Lennox, Timothy O’Shea, Gillian Wiwcharuk and Suzanne Turner
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:29
  25. Previous work has demonstrated that cannabis laws have had a disproportionate impact on Māori, the Indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand. In 2019, the New Zealand Government amended cannabis laws, providin...

    Authors: Wetini Rapana, Taylor Winter, Ririwai Fox, Benjamin C. Riordan, Rajas Kulkarni, Waikaremoana Waitoki and Damian Scarf
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:28
  26. Drug use is one of the most common public health problems globally. This study was done to analyze the agenda-setting of policies related to substance use disorder treatment in Iran since 1979.

    Authors: Saeid Mirzaei, Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Mohammad Hossein Mehrolhassani, Nouzar Nakhaee and Nadia Oroomiei
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:27
  27. Lockdown measures during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in France led to serious public health concerns over people who use illicit drugs, especially in terms of mental health. We assessed changes in ...

    Authors: Salim Mezaache, Cécile Donadille, Victor Martin, Maëla Le Brun Gadelius, Laurent Appel, Bruno Spire, Laelia Briand Madrid, Martin Bastien and Perrine Roux
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:26
  28. This study examines the effects of COVID-19 related restrictions on the supply of illicit drugs, drug-use behaviour among people who use drugs (PWUD) regularly (at least weekly), and drug-related service provi...

    Authors: David Otiashvili, Tamar Mgebrishvili, Ada Beselia, Irina Vardanashvili, Kostyantyn Dumchev, Tetiana Kiriazova and Irma Kirtadze
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:25
  29. Over the last decade, one-month alcohol abstinence campaigns (OMACs) have been implemented within the general population in an increasing number of countries. We identified the published studies reporting data...

    Authors: Julia de Ternay, Pierre Leblanc, Philippe Michel, Amine Benyamina, Mickael Naassila and Benjamin Rolland
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:24
  30. The development of harm reduction has been limited in many areas of Sweden. This study aims to understand the implications that this has for the life circumstances and risk management of people who use drugs i...

    Authors: Julie Holeksa
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:23
  31. Despite increased availability of take-home naloxone, many people who use opioids do so in unprotected contexts, with no other person who might administer naloxone present, increasing the likelihood that an ov...

    Authors: Alex S. Bennett, Joy Scheidell, Jeanette M. Bowles, Maria Khan, Alexis Roth, Lee Hoff, Christina Marini and Luther Elliott
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:20
  32. There is a need to improve retention and outcomes for treatment of problem gambling and gambling disorder. Contingency management (CM) is a behavioural intervention involving identification of target behaviour...

    Authors: Lucy Dorey, Darren R. Christensen, Richard May, Alice E. Hoon and Simon Dymond
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:19
  33. Naloxone-based interventions as part of health systems can reverse an opioid overdose. Previous systematic reviews have identified the effectiveness of naloxone; however, the role of context and mechanisms for...

    Authors: Nicole M. Miller, Bethany Waterhouse-Bradley, Claire Campbell and Gillian W. Shorter
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:18
  34. Drug overdoses occur when the amount of drug or combination of drugs consumed is toxic and negatively affects physiological functioning. Opioid overdoses are responsible for the majority of overdose deaths wor...

    Authors: Michael Wilson, Amanda Brumwell, M. J. Stowe, Shaun Shelly and Andrew Scheibe
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:17
  35. People who use, including those who inject, drugs in Indonesia are disproportionately affected by HIV, but tend to be diagnosed at a late stage of infection, delay initiation to and have poor rates of retentio...

    Authors: Arif Rachman Iryawan, Claudia Stoicescu, Faisyal Sjahrial, Kuntanto Nio and Alexa Dominich
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:16
  36. Access for legal minors to needle and syringe programmes raises a number of practical, legal and ethical challenges that traverse clinical practice, child protection and child rights. This article addresses th...

    Authors: Damon Barrett, Frida Petersson and Russell Turner
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:15
  37. Hospital-based addiction care focuses on assessing and diagnosing substance use disorders, managing withdrawal, and initiating medications for addiction treatment. Hospital harm reduction is generally limited ...

    Authors: Rachel Perera, Louise Stephan, Ayesha Appa, Ro Giuliano, Robert Hoffman, Paula Lum and Marlene Martin
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:14
  38. In May 2018, St. Paul’s Hospital (SPH) in Vancouver (Canada) opened an outdoor peer-led overdose prevention site (OPS) operated in partnership with Vancouver Coastal Health and RainCity Housing. At the end of ...

    Authors: Elizabeth Dogherty, Carlin Patterson, Marilou Gagnon, Scott Harrison, Jocelyn Chase, Jill Boerstler, Jennifer Gibson, Sam Gill, Seonaid Nolan and Andy Ryan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:13
  39. Dance festivals have been shown to be high-risk events for use of drugs such as ecstasy/MDMA and possible adverse effects associated with use. However, few studies have examined what makes festivals such risky...

    Authors: Joseph J. Palamar and İbrahim Sönmez
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:12
  40. Excessive alcohol consumption is an important risk factor for increased morbidity, mortality and other social harms globally. Televised sport allows the promotion of alcoholic drinks to a large and often young...

    Authors: Mulugeta Tamire, Alex Barker, Sefonias Getachew, Rachael L. Murray, Rihanna Amedala, John Britton, Wakgari Deressa and Andrew W. Fogarty
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:11
  41. For people experiencing homelessness and problem substance use, access to appropriate services can be challenging. There is evidence that the development of trusting relationships with non-judgemental staff ca...

    Authors: Tessa Parkes, Catriona Matheson, Hannah Carver, Rebecca Foster, John Budd, Dave Liddell, Jason Wallace, Bernie Pauly, Maria Fotopoulou, Adam Burley, Isobel Anderson, Tracey Price, Joe Schofield and Graeme MacLennan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:10
  42. Unpredictable fluctuations in the illicit drug market increase overdose risk. Drug checking, or the use of technology to provide insight into the contents of illicit drug products, is an overdose prevention st...

    Authors: Jennifer J. Carroll, Sarah Mackin, Clare Schmidt, Michelle McKenzie and Traci C. Green
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:9
  43. In this essay, I show that notwithstanding the undeniable colonial origins of punitive drug policies around the world, such policies have figured in nationalist projects and populist platforms in various postc...

    Authors: Gideon Lasco
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:8
  44. The COVID-19 outbreak disproportionally affects vulnerable populations including people who inject drugs (PWID). Social distancing and stay-at-home orders might result in a lack of access to medical and social...

    Authors: Trang Thu Nguyen, Giang Thi Hoang, Duc Quang Nguyen, Anh Huu Nguyen, Ngoc Anh Luong, Didier Laureillard, Nicolas Nagot, Don Des Jarlais, Huong Thi Duong, Thanh Thi Tuyet Nham, Oanh Thi Hai Khuat, Khue Minh Pham, Mai Sao Le, Laurent Michel, Delphine Rapoud and Giang Minh Le
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:6
  45. The opioid epidemic is a rapidly growing public health concern in the USA, as the number of overdose deaths continues to increase each year. One strategy for combating the rising number of overdoses is through...

    Authors: Nicholas Alexander Bascou, Benjamin Haslund-Gourley, Katrina Amber-Monta, Kyle Samson, Nathaniel Goss, Dakota Meredith, Andrew Friedman, Andrew Needleman, Vishnu K. Kumar and Bradford D. Fischer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:5