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  1. Only July 1, 2017, Nevada became the fifth US state to allow the legal sale of recreational cannabis products for adults ages of 21 and over. This study investigates young adults’ cannabis-related attitudes, p...

    Authors: Nada Amroussia, Mika Watanabe and Jennifer L. Pearson

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:92

    Content type: Research

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  2. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are widely promoted as harm-reduction products for smokers, and smokers commonly perceive them as less harmful than combustible cigarettes. One of the key questions regardi...

    Authors: Maciej L. Goniewicz, Connor R. Miller, Edward Sutanto and Dongmei Li

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:91

    Content type: Review

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  3. North American communities are severely impacted by the overdose crisis, particularly in British Columbia (BC), which has the highest toxic drug overdose death rate in Canada. Most fatal overdoses in BC occurr...

    Authors: Kristi Papamihali, Minha Yoon, Brittany Graham, Mohammad Karamouzian, Amanda K. Slaunwhite, Vivian Tsang, Sara Young and Jane A. Buxton

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:90

    Content type: Research

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  4. People who inject drugs (PWID) account for the majority of new cases of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Europe; however, HCV testing, and treatment for PWID remain suboptimal. With the advent of direct ac...

    Authors: M. Maticic, Z. Pirnat, A. Leicht, R. Zimmermann, T. Windelinck, M. Jauffret-Roustide, E. Duffell, T. Tammi and E. Schatz

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:89

    Content type: Research

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  5. The COVID-19 pandemic led to the closure of the IDEA syringe services program medical student-run free clinic in Miami, Florida. In an effort to continue to serve the community of people who inject drugs and p...

    Authors: Marcus Castillo, Brianna Conte, Sam Hinkes, Megan Mathew, C. J. Na, Ainhoa Norindr, David P. Serota, David W. Forrest, Amar R. Deshpande, Tyler S. Bartholomew and Hansel E. Tookes

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:88

    Content type: Brief report

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  6. Containment policies and other restrictions introduced by the Spanish government in response to the COVID-19 pandemic present challenges for marginalised populations, such as people who use drugs. Harm reducti...

    Authors: Camila A. Picchio, Jorge Valencia, Jason Doran, Tracy Swan, Marta Pastor, Elisa Martró, Joan Colom and Jeffrey V. Lazarus

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:87

    Content type: Research

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  7. To reduce opioid dependence and HIV transmission, Kyrgyzstan has introduced methadone maintenance therapy and needle/syringe programs into prisons. Illicit injection of diphenhydramine, an antihistamine brande...

    Authors: Jaimie P. Meyer, Gabriel J. Culbert, Lyuba Azbel, Chethan Bachireddy, Ainura Kurmanalieva, Tim Rhodes and Frederick L. Altice

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:86

    Content type: Research

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  8. Sharing drug injection equipment has been associated with the transmission of HCV among PWID through blood contained in the cooker and cotton used to prepare and divide up the drug solution. While epidemiologi...

    Authors: R. Abadie and K. Dombrowski

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:85

    Content type: Research

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  9. Women who inject drugs (WWID) show higher levels of injecting risk behaviour compared to men, putting them at risk of contracting HIV and hepatitis C (HCV). Compared to men, WWID are also less present in harm ...

    Authors: Malin Värmå Falk, Susanne Strömdahl, Anna Mia Ekström, Martin Kåberg, Niklas Karlsson, Helena Dahlborn and Anders Hammarberg

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:84

    Content type: Research

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  10. The harm reduction (HR) approach to injecting drug use was rapidly adopted in Central Europe following the fall of the Iron Curtain. The associated social and economic transformation had significant consequenc...

    Authors: Michal Miovský, Silvia Miklíková, Viktor Mravčík, Jean-Paul Grund and Tereza Černíková

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:83

    Content type: Research

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  11. People who use drugs (PWUD) are considered as one of the main at-risk populations for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We conducted a systematic review on the prevalence of HBV infection among PWUD in Iran.

    Authors: Yasna Rostam-Abadi, Hossein Rafiemanesh, Jaleh Gholami, Behrang Shadloo, Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili and Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:81

    Content type: Review

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  12. People with criminal justice involvement contribute remarkably to the rising hepatitis C virus (HCV) burden; however, the continuum of care is a major barrier to prison-based programs. We aimed to evaluate a c...

    Authors: Sanam Hariri, Heidar Sharafi, Mahdi Sheikh, Shahin Merat, Farnaz Hashemi, Fatemeh Azimian, Babak Tamadoni, Rashid Ramazani, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Behzad Abbasi, Mehrzad Tashakorian, Ramin Alasvand, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Hossein Poustchi and Reza Malekzadeh

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:80

    Content type: Research

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  13. The article discusses and analyzes the changes that have taken place since 2016 in Israeli policy with regard to the treatment, diagnosis and detection of hepatitis C (HCV) in prison settings. The article find...

    Authors: Niv Michaeli, Anat Litvin and Nadav Davidovitch

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:79

    Content type: Review

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  14. There are an estimated 3.2 million women who inject drugs worldwide, constituting 20% of all people who inject drugs. The limited data that are available suggest that women who inject drugs are at greater risk...

    Authors: Sam Shirley-Beavan, Aura Roig, Naomi Burke-Shyne, Colleen Daniels and Robert Csak

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:78

    Content type: Research

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  15. We characterized the extent and quality of respiratory sensations and sensory-related smoking cues associated with e-cigarette use among those who failed to quit combustible tobacco cigarette (CTC) use with tr...

    Authors: J. DiPiazza, P. Caponnetto, G. Askin, P. Christos, M. Lyc Psych Maglia, R. Gautam, S. Roche and R. Polosa

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:75

    Content type: Research

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  16. In the context of the current US opioid crisis and the compelling fact that a quarter to a third of all those addicted to heroin pass through its prisons and jails each year, the care of incarcerated opioid-us...

    Authors: Michael Liebrenz, Alex Gamma, Anna Buadze, Roman Schleifer, Stéphanie Baggio, Bruce Schwartz, Andres Schneeberger and Ambros Uchtenhagen

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:67

    Content type: Research

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  17. Smoking is endemic amongst people accessing homeless services, and they are disproportionately affected by smoking-related diseases. This paper reports on the results of a 3-month small scale intervention whic...

    Authors: Florian Scheibein, Kevin McGirr, Andy Morrison, Warren Roche and John Stephen Gary Wells

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:73

    Content type: Research

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  18. Most of the existing research on supervised consumption services (SCS) is focused on injection drug use. Less is known about the applicability of SCS for people who consume drugs orally, intranasally, or throu...

    Authors: Kelsey A. Speed, Nicole D. Gehring, Katherine Launier, Daniel O’Brien, Sandy Campbell and Elaine Hyshka

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:72

    Content type: Review

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  19. E-cigarettes are the most popular aid to smoking cessation attempts in England and the USA. This research examined associations between e-cigarette device characteristics and patterns of use, tobacco-smoking r...

    Authors: Sarah Victoria Gentry, Emma Ward, Lynne Dawkins, Richard Holland and Caitlin Notley

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:70

    Content type: Research

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  20. Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) is an effective method of addiction treatment and HIV prevention. However, globally, people who inject drugs (PWID) have insufficient OAT uptake. To expand OAT access and uptake,...

    Authors: Tetiana Kiriazova, Vivian F. Go, Rebecca B. Hershow, Erica L. Hamilton, Riza Sarasvita, Quynh Bui, Kathryn E. Lancaster, Kostyantyn Dumchev, Irving F. Hoffman, William C. Miller and Carl A. Latkin

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:69

    Content type: Research

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  21. Opioid substitution therapy (OST) with buprenorphine has been widely available in India since 2007, but the introduction of methadone occurred much later in 2012, and availability remains limited. Illicit inje...

    Authors: Michelle Kermode, Robedi Sharma Choudhurimayum, Lenin Singh Rajkumar, Tilahun Haregu and Greg Armstrong

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:68

    Content type: Research

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  22. Understanding the association between methamphetamine (MA) use and HIV risk behavior among people who inject drugs (PWID) will assist policy-makers and program managers to sharpen the focus of HIV prevention i...

    Authors: Mehdi Noroozi, Peter Higgs, Alireza Noroozi, Bahram Armoon, Bentolhoda Mousavi, Rosa Alikhani, Mohammad Rafi Bazrafshan, Ali Nazeri Astaneh, Azadeh Bayani and Ladan Fattah Moghaddam

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:66

    Content type: Research

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  23. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been characterised as significantly less harmful than cigarettes by many health agencies and regulators globally. In this study, we examined to what extent perceived r...

    Authors: Layla Malt, Thomas Verron, Xavier Cahours, Mengran Guo, Sarah Weaver, Tanvir Walele and Grant O’Connell

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:65

    Content type: Research

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  24. Most people diagnosed with hepatitis C virus (HCV) have not linked to care, despite the availability of safe and effective treatment. We aimed to understand why people diagnosed with HCV have not pursued care ...

    Authors: Jacqueline E. Sherbuk, Alexa Tabackman, Kathleen A. McManus, Terry Kemp Knick, Julie Schexnayder, Tabor E. Flickinger and Rebecca Dillingham

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:64

    Content type: Research

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  25. Tampering of psychoactive medicines presents challenges to regulation and public health. However, little is currently known about what influences the decisions to treat codeine-containing medicines (CCM) with ...

    Authors: Andreas Kimergård, Stephen Parkin, Stacey Jennings, Eileen Brobbin and Paolo Deluca

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:63

    Content type: Research

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  26. Injecting drug use is known to contribute significantly to the spread of the HIV epidemic in many parts of the developing world. Due to the hidden nature and stigma of the problem, it is difficult to study usi...

    Authors: Negussie Deyessa, Bekele Senbete, Aman Abdo and Bernard M. Mundia

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:61

    Content type: Research

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  27. Caledonian Stadium, the main mass temporary shelter for homeless people in the City of Tshwane, was created as a local response to the imperatives of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) National State of ...

    Authors: Tessa S. Marcus, Jan Heese, Andrew Scheibe, Shaun Shelly, Sasha X. Lalla and Jannie F. Hugo

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:60

    Content type: Research

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  28. Despite multiple harm reduction (HR) programmes worldwide, there are still an important number of people who use drugs (PWUD) who do not access those services. Their difficulties to obtain HR tools are due to ...

    Authors: Magally Torres-Leguizamon, Emmanuel G. Reynaud, Thomas Néfau and Catherine Duplessy

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:59

    Content type: Research

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  29. People who smoke drugs (PWSD) are at high risk of both infectious disease and overdose. Harm reduction activities organized by their peers in the community can reduce risk by providing education, safer smoking...

    Authors: Sulaf Elkhalifa, Ehsan Jozaghi, Samona Marsh, Erica Thomson, Delilah Gregg, Jane Buxton and Ann Jolly

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:57

    Content type: Research

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  30. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is among the highest priority diseases in custodial settings; however, the diagnosis remains suboptimal among people in custody. This study aimed to validate a short survey for identify...

    Authors: Sanam Hariri, Maryam Sharafkhah, Maryam Alavi, Gholamreza Roshandel, Abdolreza Fazel, Taghi Amiriani, Nazgol Motamed-Gorji, Abolfazl Bazazan, Shahin Merat, Hossein Poustchi and Reza Malekzadeh

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:56

    Content type: Research

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  31. After the collapse of the Soviet Union at the beginning of the 1990s, people who inject drugs spiked in Eastern Europe. Facing local repression and an array of factors encouraging emigration, some users have m...

    Authors: Yaël Tibi-Lévy, Daria Serebryakova and Marie Jauffret-Roustide

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:55

    Content type: Research

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  32. People who inject drugs (PWID) are a medically and socially vulnerable population with a high incidence of overdose, mental illness, and infections like HIV and hepatitis C. Existing literature describes socia...

    Authors: Brandon Muncan, Suzan M. Walters, Jerel Ezell and Danielle C. Ompad

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:53

    Content type: Research

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  33. Few data on motivations for using new psychoactive substances (NPS) are available. However, the cost, the legal status, and their accessibility through channels like internet contributed to the popularity of N...

    Authors: Sarah Simonis, Michaël Canfyn, Anton Van Dijck, Tina Van Havere, Eric Deconinck, Peter Blanckaert and Lies Gremeaux

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:52

    Content type: Research

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  34. Due to the high prevalence of mental disorders among people with opioid use disorder, the objective of this study was to determine the association between concurrent mental disorders, mortality, morbidity, and...

    Authors: Kristen A. Morin, Joseph K. Eibl, Graham Gauthier, Brian Rush, Christopher Mushquash, Nancy E. Lightfoot and David C. Marsh

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:51

    Content type: Research

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  35. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) uptake has been associated with multiple positive health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). This study evaluated the pattern of OAT uptake among PWID in two consecutive...

    Authors: Mehran Nakhaeizadeh, Zahra Abdolahinia, Hamid Sharifi, Ali Mirzazadeh, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mostafa Shokoohi, Stefan Baral, Mohammad Karamouzian and Armita Shahesmaeili

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:50

    Content type: Research

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  36. Needle syringe programs (NSPs), a proven harm reduction strategy for people who inject drugs, frequently offer limited healthcare services for their clients. Women who inject drugs face multiple barriers to ac...

    Authors: Lauren Owens, Kelly Gilmore, Mishka Terplan, Sarah Prager and Elizabeth Micks

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:47

    Content type: Research

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  37. Switching from smoking to using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or heated tobacco products can reduce tobacco-related health risks. However, not all smokers in Great Br...

    Authors: Erikas Simonavicius, Ann McNeill, Hazel Cheeseman, Deborah Arnott and Leonie S. Brose

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:46

    Content type: Brief report

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  38. Population models have been developed to evaluate the impact of new tobacco products on the overall population. Reliable input parameters such as longitudinal tobacco use transitions are needed to quantify the...

    Authors: Lai Wei, Raheema S. Muhammad-Kah, Thaddaeus Hannel, Yezdi B. Pithawalla, Maria Gogova, Simeon Chow and Ryan A. Black

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:45

    Content type: Research

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  39. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Marcus Castillo, Margaret E. C. Ginoza, Tyler S. Bartholomew, David W. Forrest, Costaki Greven, David P. Serota and Hansel E. Tookes

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:44

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:34

  40. Research suggests sexual minority female sex workers (SM-FSW) face elevated structural vulnerability and HIV risk compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Structural vulnerabilities reflect societal level ...

    Authors: Jennifer L. Glick, Sahnah Lim, S. Wilson Beckham, Catherine Tomko, Ju Nyeong Park and Susan G. Sherman

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:43

    Content type: Research

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