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  1. The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated unprecedented changes in the way that health, social, and housing services are delivered to individuals experiencing homelessness and problem substance use. Protecting th...

    Authors: Tessa Parkes, Hannah Carver, Wendy Masterton, Danilo Falzon, Joshua Dumbrell, Susan Grant and Iain Wilson

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:64

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Studies have suggested that the injection drug use (IDU) was no longer the main transmission route of HIV/AIDS in China. However, there has never been a study to assess the national HIV epidemic among persons ...

    Authors: Bo Zhang, Xiangyu Yan, Yongjie Li, He Zhu, Zhimin Liu, Zuhong Lu and Zhongwei Jia

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:63

    Content type: Research

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  3. Drug use is a growing concern in Ghana. People who inject drugs (PWID) are highly vulnerable to HIV and other infectious diseases. Ghana’s National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS 2016–2020 identifies PWID as a ke...

    Authors: Lisa J. Messersmith, Rose Adjei, Jennifer Beard, Angela R. Bazzi, Joel J. Earlywine, Edwin Darko, Thomas Agyarko-Poku, Mabel Kissiwah Asafo, Sherry Adoma Bempah and Yaw Adu-Sarkodie

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:62

    Content type: Research

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  4. With legal access to medical cannabis in Canada since 2001, there is a need to fully characterize its use at both the individual and population levels. We draw on data from Canada’s largest cohort study of med...

    Authors: Cerina Lee, Jessica M. Round, Scott Klarenbach, John G. Hanlon, Elaine Hyshka, Jason R. B. Dyck and Dean T. Eurich

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:61

    Content type: Research

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  5. The inclusion of people with lived and living experience of substance use is essential to effective and client-centered harm reduction services and strategies. The aim of this study is to critically examine an...

    Authors: A. Greer, J. A. Buxton, B. Pauly and V. Bungay

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:60

    Content type: Research

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  6. Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed in prisons amidst the controversies surrounding their potential role in causing behavioral disinhibition and aggressive behavior and their association with use and traff...

    Authors: Stéphanie Baggio, Vladan Starcevic, Patrick Heller, Karen Brändle, Irina Franke, Andreas Schneeberger, Anna Buadze, Alex Gamma, Roman Schleifer, Laurent Gétaz, Hans Wolff and Michael Liebrenz

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:58

    Content type: Research

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  7. For people with opioid use disorder who are not responding to oral opioid agonist treatment, evidence supports the effectiveness of injectable opioid agonist treatment with injectable hydromorphone (an opioid ...

    Authors: Heather Palis, Scott MacDonald, Jennifer Jun and Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:57

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  8. Digital harm-reduction interventions typically focus on people with severe drug-use problems, yet these interventions have moderate effectiveness on drug-users with lower levels of risk of harm. The difference...

    Authors: Vasilis S. Vasiliou, Samantha Dockray, Samantha Dick, Martin P. Davoren, Ciara Heavin, Conor Linehan and Michael Byrne

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:56

    Content type: Research

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  9. Alcohol use is a common practice of almost all communities worldwide and it is more common among persons with HIV infection. Alcohol consumption among people with HIV/AIDS may result in poor treatment adherenc...

    Authors: Birhanie Mekuriaw, Zelalem Belayneh, Alemayehu Molla and Tsegaye Mehare

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:55

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  10. Targeted screening for hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection is not yet widely executed in Belgium. When performed in people who use drugs (PWUD), it is mainly focused on those receiving opiate agonist therapy (OA...

    Authors: Dana Busschots, Cécile Kremer, Rob Bielen, Özgür Muhammet Koc, Leen Heyens, Eefje Dercon, Rita Verrando, Tessa Windelinckx, Griet Maertens, Stefan Bourgeois, Niel Hens, Catharina Matheï and Geert Robaeys

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:54

    Content type: Research

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  11. There is concern that cannabis use negatively affects vulnerable groups such as youth; however, the relationship between cannabis use and health care utilization has not been well characterized in this populat...

    Authors: Hudson Reddon, M.-J. Milloy, Evan Wood, Ekaterina Nosova, Thomas Kerr and Kora DeBeck

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:53

    Content type: Research

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  12. People who inject drugs may be particularly vulnerable to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) due to underlying health problems, stigma and social vulnerabilities. Harm reduction s...

    Authors: K. Lindqvist, C. Wallmofeldt, E. Holmén, A. Hammarberg and M. Kåberg

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:52

    Content type: Research

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  13. Female sexual partners of men who inject drugs (MWID) living with HIV are at risk of HIV transmission. HIV prevalence estimates among non-drug using female sex partners of MWID are scarce, with no studies docu...

    Authors: Jenny Iversen, Salman ul H Qureshi, Malika Zafar, Machteld Busz and Lisa Maher

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:51

    Content type: Research

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  14. Despite the popularity of dating apps, there remain scarce data on the motivations, consequences and their influence on sexual behaviour change in the Australian population.

    Authors: Shirali Garga, Meryl T. Thomas, Ashneet Bhatia, Aidan Sullivan, Franklin John-Leader and Sabrina W. Pit

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:49

    Content type: Research

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  15. Prior research examining the relationship between cannabis use, sedentary behavior, and physical activity has generated conflicting findings, potentially due to biases in the self-reported measures used to ass...

    Authors: Lydia Q. Ong, John Bellettiere, Citlali Alvarado, Paul Chavez and Vincent Berardi

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:48

    Content type: Research

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  16. Naloxone distribution programs have been a cornerstone of the public health response to the overdose crisis in the USA. Yet people who use opioids (PWUO) continue to face a number of barriers accessing naloxon...

    Authors: Kristin E. Schneider, Glenna J. Urquhart, Saba Rouhani, Ju Nyeong Park, Miles Morris, Sean T. Allen and Susan G. Sherman

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:47

    Content type: Brief report

    Published on:

  17. With direct-acting antivirals dramatically reshaping the public health response to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), prisons are set to play a critical role in elimination efforts. Despite the theoretical demonstra...

    Authors: Jake Rance, Lise Lafferty and Carla Treloar

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:46

    Content type: Research

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  18. Injection drug use drives HIV transmission in Southeast Asia, where around a quarter of users are living with HIV. Vietnam developed Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) programs to reduce unsafe drug abuse. Co...

    Authors: Anisa Y. Mughal, Melissa Ann Stockton, Quynh Bui, Vivian Go, Brian W. Pence, Tran Viet Ha and Bradley N. Gaynes

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:45

    Content type: Research

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  19. Infectious complications of injection drug use (IDU) often require lengthy inpatient treatment. Our objective was to identify the number of admissions related to IDU in Regina, Canada, as well as describe pati...

    Authors: Polina Tsybina, Sandy Kassir, Megan Clark and Stuart Skinner

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:44

    Content type: Research

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  20. Harm perceptions of tobacco and nicotine products can influence their use and could be targeted by policies to change behaviour. IQOS was introduced to the UK in 2016, and there is little independent qualitati...

    Authors: Katherine A. East, Charlotte N. E. Tompkins, Ann McNeill and Sara C. Hitchman

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:42

    Content type: Research

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  21. Methadone and buprenorphine are the most prevalent types of opioid maintenance programs in Andalusia. The main objective is comparing the functional status of patients with pharmacological opioid maintenance t...

    Authors: Juan J. Ruíz Ruíz, José M. Martinez Delgado and Nuria García-Marchena

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:41

    Content type: Research

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  22. Psychedelic-assisted therapy may represent an upcoming paradigm shift in the treatment of mental health problems as recent clinical trials have demonstrated strong evidence of their therapeutic benefits. While...

    Authors: Brian Pilecki, Jason B. Luoma, Geoff J. Bathje, Joseph Rhea and Vilmarie Fraguada Narloch

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:40

    Content type: Opinion

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  23. Between December 2018 and January of 2019, we evaluated the accuracy of the point-of-care Hepatitis C (HCV) antibody test (POC; OraQuick HCV) used at a community-based needle and syringe exchange program servi...

    Authors: Anneli Uusküla, Ave Talu, Jürgen Rannap, David M. Barnes and Don Des Jarlais

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:39

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  24. The social determinants of health that influence steps in the entire Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) treatment cascade must be identified to achieve HCV elimination goals. This project aimed to evaluate the associatio...

    Authors: Jacob Ziff, Trang Vu, Danielle Dvir, Farah Riazi, Wilma Toribio, Scott Oster, Keith Sigel and Jeffrey Weiss

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:38

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. The smoking of illicit drugs presents a serious social and economic burden in Canada. People who smoke drugs (PWSD) are at increased risk of contracting multiple infections through risky drug practices. Peer-l...

    Authors: Sulaf Elkhalifa, Ehsan Jozaghi, Samona Marsh, Erica Thomson, Delilah Gregg, Jane Buxton and Ann Jolly

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:37

    Content type: Research

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  26. Indigenous communities in Canada face significant challenges with intergenerational trauma, which manifests in substance use disorders. There is consensus that connecting treatment approaches to culture, land,...

    Authors: T. N. Marsh, C. Eshakakogan, J. K. Eibl, M. Spence, K. A. Morin, G. J. Gauthier and D. C. Marsh

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:35

    Content type: Methodology

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  27. The use of psychoactive substances frequently starts at a younger age than adulthood. Considering the perspective of young people, this retrospective study tried to provide them with a role in identifying thei...

    Authors: Gabriela Almeida Pinto da Silva, Catarina Pinto Pereira and Marta Sofia de Sousa Pinto

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:34

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. Street-based female sex workers (FSWs) are highly at risk of HIV and other harms associated with sex work. We assessed the prevalence of non-injection and injection drug use and their associated factors among ...

    Authors: Payam Roshanfekr, Mehrdad Khezri, Salah Eddin Karimi, Meroe Vameghi, Delaram Ali, Sina Ahmadi, Elahe Ahounbar, Kambiz Mahzari, Mohsen Roshanpajouh, Mehdi Noroozi, Mostafa Shokoohi and Ali Mirzazadeh

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:33

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. Prisoners report much higher prevalence rates of drug use and more harmful consumption patterns than the general population. People who use drugs have above-average experiences with the criminal justice system...

    Authors: Daniela Jamin, Wouter Vanderplasschen, Orphée Sys, Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Laurent Michel, Philippe Trouiller, Andreia Neisa, Mariana Homen, Vânia Mendes and Heino Stöver

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:32

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. In preparation for the 2021 revision of the European Union Tobacco Products Directive, the Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks (SCHEER) has posted its Preliminary Opinion on Electroni...

    Authors: Renée O’Leary, Riccardo Polosa and Giovanni Li Volti

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:31

    Content type: Opinion

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  31. The opioid epidemic has caused an increase in overdose deaths which can be attributed to fentanyl combined with various illicit substances. Drug checking programs have been started by many harm reduction group...

    Authors: Tracy-Lynn E. Lockwood, Alexandra Vervoordt and Marya Lieberman

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:30

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. Smoking or inhaling illicit drugs can lead to a variety of negative health outcomes, including overdose. However, most overdose prevention interventions, such as supervised consumption services (SCS), prohibit...

    Authors: Geoff Bardwell, Tamar Austin, Lisa Maher and Jade Boyd

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:29

    Content type: Research

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  33. This interventional-cohort study tried to answer if people who smoke and choose an e-cigarette in the context of smoking cessation treatment by tobacco counselors in Flanders are achieving smoking abstinence a...

    Authors: Karolien Adriaens, Eline Belmans, Dinska Van Gucht and Frank Baeyens

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:28

    Content type: Research

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  34. Higher smoking prevalence in people with serious psychological distress (SPD) is well-recognized. However, gender and age differences in the association between heaviness of cigarette smoking and SPD have not ...

    Authors: Kimiko Tomioka, Midori Shima and Keigo Saeki

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:27

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated unprecedented changes in the way that services are delivered to individuals experiencing homelessness and problem substance use. Protecting those at high risk of infectio...

    Authors: Tessa Parkes, Hannah Carver, Wendy Masterton, Danilo Falzon, Josh Dumbrell, Susan Grant and Iain Wilson

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:26

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Retention in care is a prerequisite for successful recovery, especially for a chronic condition like opioid dependence. Though retention varies greatly depending on the different substitution medication and tr...

    Authors: Martin Busch, Charlotte Klein, Alfred Uhl, Hans Haltmayer, Maurice Cabanis, Jean Nicolas Westenberg, Marc Vogel and R. Michael Krausz

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:25

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. With the ongoing opioid crisis and policy changes regarding legalization of cannabis occurring around the world, it is necessary to consider cannabis use in the context of opioid use disorder (OUD) and its tre...

    Authors: Tea Rosic, Raveena Kapoor, Balpreet Panesar, Leen Naji, Darren B. Chai, Nitika Sanger, David C. Marsh, Andrew Worster, Lehana Thabane and Zainab Samaan

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:24

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Salim Mezaache, Patrizia Carrieri, Laelia Briand‑Madrid, Virginie Laporte, Alain Morel, Daniela Rojas Castro and Perrine Roux

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:23

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:11

  39. Experiencing a nonfatal overdose (NFOD) is a significant risk factor for a subsequent nonfatal or fatal overdose. Overdose mortality rates in rural Appalachian states are some of the highest in the USA, but li...

    Authors: N. Jia Ahmad, Sean T. Allen, Rebecca Hamilton White, Kristin E. Schneider, Allison O’Rourke, Michelle Perdue, Charles Babcock, Michael E. Kilkenny and Susan G. Sherman

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:22

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Since the start of the opioid epidemic in 2016, the Downtown Eastside community of Vancouver, Canada, has lost many pioneering leaders, activists and visionaries to the war on drugs. The Vancouver Area Network...

    Authors: Russ Maynard and Ehsan Jozaghi

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:21

    Content type: Commentary

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  41. The COVID-19 crisis has had profound impacts on health service provision, particularly those providing client facing services. Supervised injecting facilities and drug consumption rooms across the world have b...

    Authors: Amanda Roxburgh, Marianne Jauncey, Carolyn Day, Mark Bartlett, Shelley Cogger, Paul Dietze, Suzanne Nielsen, Julie Latimer and Nico Clark

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:20

    Content type: Opinion

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  42. Peer workers or “peers” (workers with past or present drug use experience) are at the forefront of overdose response initiatives, and their role is essential in creating safe spaces for people who use drugs (P...

    Authors: Zahra Mamdani, Sophie McKenzie, Bernadette Pauly, Fred Cameron, Jennifer Conway-Brown, Denice Edwards, Amy Howell, Tracy Scott, Ryan Seguin, Peter Woodrow and Jane A. Buxton

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:18

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. After publication of the original article [1], the authors identified an error in the author name of Marlene Janzen Le Ber. The given name and family name were erroneously transposed.

    Authors: Abe Oudshoorn, Michelle Sangster Bouck, Melissa McCann, Shamiram Zendo, Helene Berman, Jordan Banninga, Marlene Janzen Le Ber and Zayya Zendo

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:16

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:6

  44. Peer involvement of people who use drugs within HIV and harm reduction services is widely promoted yet under-utilised. Alongside political and financial barriers is a limited understanding of the roles, impact...

    Authors: Judy Chang, Shaun Shelly, Machteld Busz, Claudia Stoicescu, Arif Rachman Iryawan, Dinara Madybaeva, Yuri de Boer and Andy Guise

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:15

    Content type: Review

    Published on: