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Table 1 Socio-demographic, medical and injection behaviors by age and chronic wound status †

From: Self-care and risk reduction habits in older injection drug users with chronic wounds: a cross-sectional study

  All participants Outcome group ≥45 years, with chronic wound Reference group #1 <45 years, no chronic wound Reference group #2 ≥45 years, no chronic wound Reference group #3 < 45 years, with chronic wound
Description No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) p a No. (%) p a No. (%) p a
N = 152 N = 18 N = 61 N = 61 N = 12
All participants (N = 152) 152 (100.0) 18 (11.8) 61 (40.1) 61 (40.1) 12 (7.9)
Ageb,c 45; (35–52) 55; (46–58) 33; (28–39) <0.001* 52; (49–57) 0.579 40; (35–42) <0.001*
Gender         
 Male 96 (63.2) 11 (61.1) 31 (50.8) 0.442 48 (78.7) 0.131 6 (50.0) 0.548
 Female 56 (36.8) 7 (38.9) 30 (49.2) 0.442 13 (21.3) 0.131 6 (50.0) 0.548
Race         
 Caucasian 75 (49.3) 4 (22.2) 47 (77.1) <0.001* 16 (26.2) 0.701 8 (66.7) 0.015*
 African American 68 (44.7) 13 (72.2) 9 (14.8) <0.001* 44 (72.1) 0.926 2 (16.7) 0.003*
 Native American 4 (2.6) 1 (5.6) 1 (1.6) 0.379 0 (0.0) 0.063 2 (16.7) 0.322
 Other or Multipled 5 (3.3) 0 (0.0) 4 (6.6) 0.263 1 (1.6) 0.589 0 (0.0)
Housinge         
 Stable 113 (74.3) 17 (94.4) 41 (67.2) 0.022* 47 (77.1) 0.100 8 (66.7) 0.046*
 Unstable 39 (25.7) 1 (5.6) 20 (32.8) 0.022* 14 (23.0) 0.100 4 (33.3) 0.046*
Exchange site         
 Site A 54 (35.5) 9 (50.0) 10 (16.4) 0.003* 34 (55.7) 0.670 1 (8.3) 0.018*
 Site B 72 (47.4) 5 (27.8) 40 (65.6) 0.004* 18 (29.5) 0.889 9 (75.0) 0.011*
 Site C 5 (3.3) 0 (0.0) 4 (6.6) 0.263 0 (0.0) 1 (8.3) 0.214
 Other 21 (13.8) 4 (22.2) 7 (11.5) 0.249 9 (14.8) 0.457 1 (8.3) 0.316
Jail/prison - past 6 months 45 (29.6) 1 (5.6) 28 (45.9) 0.002* 12 (19.7) 0.157 4 (33.3) 0.046*
Years injecting drugs         
 ≤2 15 (9.9) 0 (0.0) 12 (19.7) 0.041* 2 (3.3) 0.435 1 (8.3) 0.214
 3 – 8 25 (16.4) 0 (0.0) 18 (29.5) 0.009* 5 (8.2) 0.209 2 (16.7) 0.073
 9 – 14 20 (13.2) 1 (5.6) 12 (19.7) 0.157 5 (8.2) 0.715 2 (16.7) 0.322
 ≥15 92 (60.5) 17 (94.4) 19 (31.2) <0.001* 49 (80.3) 0.157 7 (58.3) 0.016*
Injection site location         
 Arm 92 (60.5) 7 (38.9) 38 (62.3) 0.078 39 (63.9) 0.059 8 (66.7) 0.136
 Leg 37 (24.3) 11 (61.1) 8 (13.1) <0.001* 16 (26.2) 0.006* 2 (16.7) 0.016*
 Neck 17 (11.2) 4 (22.2) 10 (16.4) 0.571 2 (3.3) 0.008* 1 (8.3) 0.317
Drug treatment programf 36 (23.7) 8 (53.3) 12 (20.7) 0.012* 15 (25.4) 0.037* 1 (11.1) 0.039*
Using cigarette filterg 65 (42.8) 2 (11.8) 31 (51.7) 0.003* 28 (46.7) 0.009* 4 (40.0) 0.089
Using needles (# of times)h 3; 1 – 4 1; 1 – 3 3; 2 – 7 <0.001* 2; 1 – 3 0.021* 3; 2 – 3 0.112
Clean needles upon reusei         
 Water 56 (50.5) 1 (12.5) 29 (60.4) 0.012* 23 (51.1) 0.043* 3 (30.0) 0.375
 Bleach 55 (49.5) 7 (87.5) 19 (39.6) 0.012* 22 (48.9) 0.043* 7 (70.0) 0.375
Cleaning injection sitej         
 Do not clean 35 (23.0) 4 (22.2) 13 (21.3) 0.935 12 (19.7) 0.817 6 (50.0) 0.114
 Water 12 (7.9) 0 (0.0) 4 (6.6) 0.263 7 (11.5) 0.132 1 (8.3) 0.214
 Soap/water 14 (9.2) 0 (0.0) 9 (14.8) 0.083 4 (6.6) 0.263 1 (8.3) 0.214
 Alcohol 83 (54.6) 13 (72.2) 33 (54.1) 0.171 34 (55.7) 0.210 3 (25.0) 0.011*
 Multiple or other 8 (5.3) 1 (5.6) 2 (3.3) 0.655 4 (6.6) 0.879 1 (8.3) 0.772
Medical care provider         
 Clinic 48 (31.6) 9 (50.0) 14 (23.0) 0.027* 23 (37.7) 0.350 2 (16.7) 0.064
 Private doctor 14 (9.2) 1 (5.6) 5 (8.2) 0.715 6 (9.8) 0.581 2 (16.7) 0.322
 Emergency room 85 (55.9) 8 (44.4) 42 (68.9) 0.058 28 (45.9) 0.911 7 (58.3) 0.456
 Other 5 (3.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (6.6) 0.263 1 (8.3) 0.214
  1. † All numbers have been rounded to nearest decimal place.
  2. ap values refer to the comparison between the Reference group and the Outcome Group. p value for "Age" was obtained using two-group mean comparison t-test. All other p values were obtained using two-group proportion t-test.
  3. bContinuous variable.
  4. cMedian; (Interquartile range).
  5. dHispanic, Asian, multiple.
  6. eUnstable includes living in a shelter, on the streets, in an abandoned unit, no set place, or multiple. Stable housing includes living in an owned/rented house, subsidized housing, with a friend, other (e.g. transitional house).
  7. fParticipant in a drug treatment program; Denominator changes where responses were missing: All: N = 152; Outcome group: N = 15; Reference group #1: N = 58; Reference group #2: 59; Reference group #3: N = 9.
  8. gUsing cigarette filters to draw up prepared drug; Denominator changes where responses were missing: All: N = 152; Outcome group: N = 17; Reference group #1: N = 60; Reference group #2: 60; Reference group #3: N = 10.
  9. hDenominator changes where responses were missing: All: N = 150; Outcome group: N = 17; Reference group #1: N = 61; Reference group #2: 60; Reference group #3: N = 12.
  10. iIncludes only participants who reported reusing needles. All: N = 111; Outcome group: N = 8; Reference group #1: N = 48; Reference group #2: 45; Reference group #3: N = 10.
  11. jMost frequent method of cleaning injection site before injection; "Other" includes bleach, saliva, baby wipe, multiple agents.
  12. *p ≤ 0.05.