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Table 5 Risk of Cancer in Various Sites Associated with ST Use and Smoking

From: Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

Cancer Site Risks from ST Use* Risks from Smoking**
Pharynx No relationship RR= 5–11
Larynx No relationship 13–15
Lung Inadequate 13–23
Stomach Not persuasive 1.4–2.0
Kidney No association 1.3–3.7
Esophagus Not persuasive 7–8
Pancreatic cancer Inconclusive 2.3
Bladder cancer None 2.2–3.3
  1. * From [94].
  2. ** Among current smokers (men and women), used by the CDC for national estimates of smoking-attributable mortality [96].