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Table 1 Injecting behaviors among male injecting drugs by provinces, 2012 and 2013

From: Social marketing of low dead space syringes in Vietnam: findings from a 1-year pilot program in Hanoi, Thai Nguyen, and Ho Chi Minh City

Indicators Hanoi HCMC Thai Nguyen p value between cities in 2013 samples
2012
n = 300
2013
n = 400
p value 2012
n = 300
2013
n = 400
p value 2013
n = 280
Awareness of LDSS (ever seen or heard about LDSS) 16.5 43.2 0.000 96.8 99 .008 60.7 0.000
Awareness about LDSS benefits:
 Aware that using LDSS may reduce the risks of HIV and HCV infection NA 12.0   NA 31.4   62.2 0.000
 Aware that LDSS can minimize risk of drug lose   14.6    94.4   56.6 0.000
 Aware that LDSS can reduce pain   12.0    96.4   57.5 0.000
 Aware that LDSS can reduce scarring   11.7    95.7   58.0 0.000
Use of LDSS:
 Ever used LDSS 0.3 5.8 0.000 100 100 1 57.9 0.000
 Used LDSS in the last 1 month 0.1 4.3 0.000 93.0 98.7 0.001 33.8 0.000
 Consistently use in the last 1 month 0.1 2.3 0.021 88.0 93.2 0.023 8.1 0.000
Reasons for not using LDSS in the last 1 month among those who did not use LDSS n = 299 n = 384   n = 28 n = 6   n = 113  
 Unaware of LDSS 83.5 45.6 0.000 0 0   34.4 0.000
 Unaware of outlets selling LDSS 16.3 4.1 0.000 0 0   64.1 0.000
 No outlet selling LDSS close to injecting sites 6.8 2.0 0.001 58.3 33.3 0.265 11.2 0.000
 LDSS is too expensive 1.2 0 0.031 16.7 16.6   0.7 0.000
 LDSS size is not big enough 4.9 3.6 0.399 0 0 1 11.4 0.000
 It is difficult to share drug with LDSS 2.8 2.7 1 0 0   5.1 0.015
 It is difficult to find LDSS at night 1.7 0 0.010 31.4 16.6 0.459 0  
Needle-sharing behavior
 Sharing needle in the last 12 months 11.3 3.5 0.000 19.1 12.9 0.030 7.8 0.000
 Sharing needle in the last 1 month 5.1 2.3 0.028 14.8 8.2 0.003 5.5 0.001