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Table 2 Factors predictive of HCV and HIV among male injecting drug users in Kabul, Afghanistan, 2006–2009

From: Hepatitis C and HIV incidence and harm reduction program use in a conflict setting: an observational cohort of injecting drug users in Kabul, Afghanistan

Variable HCV (n = 191, 211 p-y) HCV HIV (n = 316, 391 p-y) HIV
  HR, (95 % CI) AHR, (95 % CI) HR, (95 % CI) AHR, (95 % CI)
Duration of injecting use    1.08, (1.00–1.17) 1.09, (1.01–1.17)a
Sharing of syringes/needles    11.23, (1.29–98.0) 10.08, (1.01–100.3)a
Sharing of injecting supplies 0.56, (0.35–0.90)    
Any NSP use during interval 1.72, (1.07–2.76)    
Interval NSP discontinuation 0.61, (0.38–0.98)    
Changed from injecting to smoking 0.47, (0.29–0.77) 0.53, (0.31–0.92)b 0.23, (0.03–1.93)  
Peak quarters of attack exposurec 0.65, (0.40–1.04)*    
  1. AHR adjusted hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, HCV hepatitis C virus, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, HR hazard ratio, NSP needle and syringe collection and distribution program, p-y person-years
  2. *Marginally significant (p = 0.07)
  3. aMultivariate analysis controlled for confounder interval NSP use (11.23 to 7.19)
  4. bAnalysis controlled for cofounder interval sharing injecting works (0.47 to 0.53)
  5. cPeak quarters of attack refer to quarters 5 and 9 of the study, the two quarters with the largest number (142/415 total) of insurgent attacks in Kabul province