Skip to main content

Table 4 Bivariate analyses of risk factors for concurrent heroin use among MMT patients

From: Impact of a methadone maintenance therapy pilot in Vietnam and its role in a scaled-up response

  Hai Phong HCMC
  Unadjusted OR 95 % CI Unadjusted OR 95 % CI
Age (in 5-year units) 0.9 0.8–1.0 0.8 0.7–0.9
Gender (male is reference) 0.7 0.2–2.0 0.7 0.4–1.2
Ever been in an 06 center (yes/no) 1.0 0.7–1.5 1.1 0.8–1.5
Being employed full-time (yes/no) 1.1 0.9–1.4 0.7 0.6–0.9
Had problematic relation with family and/or community members (yes/no) 0.7 0.3–1.6 1.4 0.9–2.0
Had negative activities in family (yes/no) 2.0 1.0–4.0 1.9 1.3–2.7
Involved in criminal activities (yes/no) 1.2 0.6–2.2 1.6 0.6–4.2
Had PWID sex partners (yes/no) 1.2 0.4–3.6 1.3 0.9–1.8
Had PWID cohabitants (yes/no) 0.9 0.5–1.9 1.7 1.0–3.0
Methadone dosage (in 5-ml units) 1.2 1.0–1.3 1.2 1.1–1.3
Adherence to MMTa
 Good adherence 1
 Moderate adherence 1.5 1.2–1.8 1.5 1.2–1.9
 Poor adherence 1.9 0.8–4.5 3.5 1.7–7.1
Current ART (yes/no) 2.2 1.5–3.1 2.1 1.6–2.9
Current TB treatment (yes/no) 0.9 0.1–5.9 3.0 2.0–4.6
  1. aAdherence level was defined as the following: good: no dose missed; moderate: missed doses for 1 to 4 continuous days; poor: missed doses for 5 or more continuous days