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Table 1 Sample characteristics: sociodemographics, drug use behavior, health status, and overdose experience

From: Assessment of health services for people who use drugs in Central Asia: findings of a quantitative survey in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

  Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan
Sociodemographics Group A (reg. PWUD) (%) Group B (non-reg. PWUD) (%) Group A (reg. PWUD) (%) Group B (non-reg. PWUD) (%)
  N = 301 N = 299 N = 450 N = 450
Male 76.4 75.3 87.8 71.6*
Age (years): mean (SD) 34.1 (7.8) 32.1 (8.3)* 39.5 (7.7) 36.3 (9.0)*
Nationality
 Russian 64.1 62.5 28.7 47.1*
 Kazakh 22.9 21.1 0.7 0.9
 Kyrgyz 1.0 2.0 18.2 18.0
 Uzbek 0.7 1.0 24.4 16.4*
 Others 17.2 14.7 28.0 19.4*
 Stable housinga 86.2 86.9 89.9 74.9*
 Stable partnershipb 53.2 56.6 65.4 62.3
 Living together with minor child/childrenc 58.0 60.5 72.5 80.7
 Education: secondary school completed or higher 89.0 90.6 81.9 78.4
Employment situation
 Regularly employedd 52.1 54.8 37.2 38.5
 Occasionally employed 29.1 28.6 39.1 53.5*
Drug use behavior
 Age at onset of regular use of heroin (years): mean (SD) 24.1 (7.0) 22.4* (7.9) 27.2 (7.6) 24.3* (5.7)
 Age at onset of i.v. use (years): mean (SD) 20.7 (4.7) 21.0 (5.2) 25.2 (7.8) 22.8* (5.6)
 i.v. use in the last 30 dayse 99.0 97.1 98.6 92.8
12-month prevalence
 Heroin 93.2 94.5 50.8 94.4*
 Opium 34.9 34.5 4.5 5.6
 Cannabis 48.8 49.0 13.6 29.8*
 Alcohol 76.3 83.6* 43.6 72.0*
30-day prevalence
 Heroin 68.8 70.2 15.3 83.8*
 Opium 22.3 17.1 0.9 2.0
 Cannabis 43.5 44.8 11.1 26.0*
 Alcohol 71.4 77.9 39.6 69.1*
Health status and overdose experience     
 Physical health score, mean (SD)f 14.2 (9.1) 11.9* (8.5) 11.5 (9.5) 9.4* (7.7)
 Mental health score, mean (SD)f 11.7 (8.0) 10.3* (8.1) 9.9 (8.8) 8.5* (8.0)
 HIV diagnosed (ever) 19.0 12.7 12.5 9.8
 HCV diagnosed (ever) 56.3 30.4* 23.1 19.3
 TB diagnosed (ever) 23.5 13.4* 13.3 20.1*
 Opioid-related overdose (ever) 57.7 38.6* 48.7 68.9*
  1. PWUD people who use drugs
  2. *Indicates a significant result (p = 0.05 or smaller) between group A and group B in each country
  3. aStable accommodation includes living in own, parents’, or spouse’s apartment
  4. bStable partnership is based on the judgment of the respondent
  5. cDatabase: only person with children
  6. dRegularly employed includes regular, full-time, or part-time work as well as students
  7. eOnly people who consumed opioids in the last 30 days: KAZ: N GroupA = 207, N GroupB = 210; KRG: N GroupA = 69, N GroupB = 375
  8. fBased on MAP: the sum score can range from 0 (very good) to 40 (very bad)