Skip to main content

Table 3 Study outcomes and adjustments

From: Needle exchange programs for the prevention of hepatitis C virus infection in people who inject drugs: a systematic review with meta-analysis

      95% CI  
Study Outcome Adjusted Adjustments Estimate Lower Upper p
Hagan 1995 [40] Odds ratio y Sex, race/ethnicity, duration of drug injecting 0.14 0.03 0.62  
Hagan 2004 [41] Hazard ratio n   1.40 0.90 1.90  
Holtzman 2009 [42] Odds ratio y Sex, age in years, race/ethnicity, education, source of income, site, study time period, injection risk behaviors, and HIV serostatus 1.49 0.96 2.29  
Patrick 2001 [43] Hazard ratio y Not described 2.56 1.37 4.79  
Roy 2007 [44] hazard ratio n   3.02    0.18
Todd 2015 [45] Hazard ratio n   1.72 1.07 2.76