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Table 1 Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of men who injected drugs in northwestern Vietnam

From: Prevalence and correlates of HIV infection among men who inject drugs in a remote area of Vietnam

Characteristics Total, n (%) Tuan Giao, n (%) Bat Xat, n (%) Lao Cai City, n (%) p valuea
Total 785 (100.0) 292 (37.2) 195 (24.9) 297 (37.9)
Demographics and lifetime behaviors
 Age groups      < 0.001
  18–28 206 (26.3) 97 (33.2) 30 (15.4) 79 (26.6)  
  29–35 214 (27.3) 87 (29.8) 46 (23.6) 81 (27.3)  
  36–41 168 (21.3) 51 (17.5) 45 (23.1) 71 (23.9)  
  42 or older 197 (25.1) 57 (19.5) 74 (38.0) 66 (22.2)  
 Education level      < 0.001
  No education 116 (14.8) 36 (12.3) 77 (39.5) 3 (1.0)  
  Grades 1–9 446 (56.8) 204 (69.9) 93 (47.7) 148 (49.8)  
  Grade 10 or higher 223 (28.4) 52 (17.8) 25 (12.8) 146 (49.2)  
 Ethnicity      < 0.001
  Kinh 388 (49.4) 59 (20.2) 58 (29.7) 271 (91.3)  
  Thai 194 (24.7) 192 (65.5) 2 (1.0) 0 (0.0)  
  H’mong 54 (6.9) 3 (1.0) 51 (26.2) 0 (0.0)  
  Dao 39 (5.0) 0 (0.0) 39 (20.0) 0 (0.0)  
  Others 110 (14.0) 38 (13.0) 45 (23.1) 26 (8.8)  
 Duration of injection drug use      
  ≤ 1 year 246 (31.4) 108 (37.0) 77 (39.5) 61 (20.5) < 0.001
  2–3 years 214 (27.2) 79 (27.1) 68 (34.9) 66 (22.2)  
  4–6 years 138 (17.6) 58 (19.9) 20 (10.3) 60 (20.2)  
  > 6 years 187 (23.9) 47 (16.1) 30 (15.4) 110 (37.0)  
 Ever gave or received used needles and/or syringes      < 0.001
  No 630 (80.3) 254 (87.0) 128 (66.0) 247 (83.2)  
  Yes 154 (19.7) 38 (13.0) 66 (34.0) 50 (16.8)  
Recent behaviors
 Gave or received used needles and/or syringes in the previous 6 months      < 0.001
  No 676 (86.3) 266 (91.1) 140 (72.2) 270 (90.9)  
  Yes 107 (13.7) 26 (8.9) 54 (27.8) 27 (9.1)  
 Frequency of injection drug use in the previous month      < 0.001
  ≤ 1 time/day 300 (38.4) 61 (21.0) 120 (61.5) 119 (40.2)  
  ≥ 2 times/day 483 (61.6) 230 (79.0) 75 (38.5) 177 (59.8)  
 Gave used needles and/or syringes in the previous month      < 0.001
  No 672 (91.2) 262 (93.6) 155 (85.2) 254 (92.7)  
  Yes 65 (8.8) 18 (6.4) 27 (14.8) 20 (7.3)  
 Received used needles and/or syringes in the previous month      < 0.001
  No 652 (88.5) 260 (92.9) 139 (76.4) 252 (92.0)  
  Yes 85 (11.6) 20 (7.1) 43 (23.6) 22 (8.0)  
 Went to a hotspot in the previous week      <  0.001
  No 299 (43.1) 187 (65.6) 62 (39.0) 49 (19.8)  
  Yes 393 (56.9) 98 (34.4) 97 (61.0) 198 (80.2)  
 Received free clean needles and syringes in the previous 6 months      < 0.001
  No 378 (48.2) 134 (45.9) 140 (71.8) 104 (35.0)  
  Yes 407 (51.8) 158 (54.1) 55 (28.2) 193 (65.0)  
 Number of sex partners in the previous 6 months      < 0.001
  1 234 (30.2) 143 (49.0) 125 (64.1) 181 (63.7)  
  0 449 (58.2) 119 (40.8) 51 (26.2) 63 (22.2)  
  Multiple 89 (11.5) 30 (10.3) 19 (9.7) 40 (14.1)  
HIV status      < 0.001
 HIV testing before this study      
  Ever tested and HIV+ 80 (11.7) 43 (16.9) 12 (9.0) 25 (8.6)  
  Ever tested and HIV− 166 (24.4) 62 (24.4) 19 (14.2) 84 (28.9)  
  Never tested 434 (63.8) 149 (58.7) 103 (76.9) 182 (62.5)  
 HIV prevalence (results from blood test for this study) 199 (25.4) 111 (37.9) 33 (16.9) 55 (18.5) < 0.001
  1. ap values for proportion comparison in each characteristics across three study sites