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Table 2 Bivariable and multivariable GEE analyses of factors associated with hospitalization among street-involved youth: At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), Vancouver, British Columbia, 2005–2016 (n = 1216)

From: Hospitalization among street-involved youth who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada: a longitudinal analysis

Characteristic Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) p value
Age (per year older) 1.00 (0.97–1.02)   
Female gender 0.90 (0.72–1.13)   
Caucasian ethnicity 1.11 (0.88–1.40)   
Identified as LGBT 0.89 (0.68–1.18)   
Mental illness history 1.87 (1.50–2.35) 1.85 (1.47–2.33) < 0.001*
Any injection drug use 1.29 (1.05–1.57)   
Daily heroin use 1.11 (0.87–1.41)   
Daily prescription opioid use 1.46 (0.88–2.42)   
Daily crystal meth use 1.13 (0.88–1.45)   
Daily cocaine use 2.36 (1.50–3.70) 2.15 (1.37–3.37) 0.001*
Daily crack use 1.13 (0.84–1.50)   
Non-fatal overdose 1.98 (1.55–2.51) 1.76 (1.37–2.25) < 0.001*
Homeless 1.41 (1.18–1.68) 1.40 (1.16–1.68) < 0.001*
Living in the DTES 1.11 (0.90–1.36)   
Incarceration 1.11 (0.87–1.43)   
  1. *p < 0.05
  2. Variables significant at p < 0.10 in bivariate models were eligible for possible inclusion in the multivariable model; variables included in the final multivariable model were identified using a backward selection approach to minimize the Quasi-likelihood under the Independent model Criterion (QIC)
  3. During the preceding 6 months