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Table 2 Association of drug check results and overdose as well as naloxone administration among clients of Insite who used a fentanyl drug checking service in Vancouver, Canada

From: Evaluation of a fentanyl drug checking service for clients of a supervised injection facility, Vancouver, Canada

Drug check result Total Overdose
Yes; n (%)a
Overdose
No; n (%)
Odds ratio
(95% CI)
P valueb
 Overall
  Positive 1028 115 (11.19) 913 (88.81) 5.97 (2.41–14.78) 0.0001
  Negative 242 5 (2.07) 237 (97.93) Ref.  
 Pre-consumption
  Positive 357 7 (1.96) 350 (98.04) 4.60 (0.26–81.21)c 0.297
  Negative 107 0 (0.00) 107 (100.00) Ref.  
 Post-consumption
  Positive 649 108 (16.64) 541 (83.36) 4.95 (1.97–12.39) 0.0001
  Negative 129 5 (3.88) 124 (96.12) Ref.  
Drug check result Total Naloxone administered
Yes; n (%)
Naloxone administered
No; n (%)
Odds ratio
(95% CI)
P valueb
 Overall
  Positive 1026 87 (8.48) 939 (91.52) 4.42 (1.77–11.02) 0.001
  Negative 244 5 (2.05) 239 (97.95) Ref.  
 Pre-consumption
  Positive 355 3 (0.85) 352 (99.15) 1.83 (0.09–35.87)c 0.688
  Negative 109 0 (0.00) 92 (100.00) Ref.  
 Post-consumption
  Positive 649 84 (12.94) 565 (87.06) 3.68 (1.46–9.27) 0.003
  Negative 129 5 (3.88) 124 (96.12) Ref.  
  1. aAll percentages are row percentage. bP values based on chi-square and Fisher’s exact test as appropriate. cAs zeros caused problems with computation of the odds ratio or its confidence interval 0.5 added to all cells [36]