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Table 2 Bivariate and multivariable associations with injection initiation assistance among people who inject drugs in San Diego, USA; Tijuana, Mexico; and Vancouver, Canada

From: Gender differences in the provision of injection initiation assistance: a comparison of three North American settings

  San Diego (n = 347) Tijuana (n = 532) Vancouver (n = 1234)
Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age 0.97 (0.95–0.99)** 0.95 (0.92–0.98)** 1.00 (0.97–1.02) 0.97 (0.92–1.01) 0.98 (0.97–0.99)** 0.95 (0.93–0.97)***
Years since first injection 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 1.03 (0.99–1.06) 1.01 (0.99–1.04) 1.03 (0.98–1.07) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 1.04 (1.02–1.06)***
Gender
(ref = women)
1.18 (0.73–1.92) 1.29 (0.78–2.14) 2.07 (1.19–3.59)** 2.17 (1.22–3.84)* 0.99 (0.75–1.30) 1.10 (0.83–1.46)
Marital status (ref = other) 0.75 (0.37–1.51) 0.78 (0.48–1.28) 1.43 (1.00–2.05)
Housing status (ref = other) 0.67 (0.43–1.04) 1.06 (0.64–1.75) 1.21 (0.92–1.60)
Non-injected heroin use (ref = no) 1.03 (0.62–1.72) 1.63 (0.99–2.71)
Non-injected cocaine use (ref = no) 1.72 (0.74–3.99) 1.63 (0.93–2.86)
Non-injected methamphetamine use (ref = no) 1.72 (0.61–4.90) 1.19 (0.54–2.61)
Injected heroin use (ref = no) 1.04 (0.55–1.94)
Injected cocaine use (ref = no) 1.07 (0.65–1.76) 1.31 (0.79–2.19)
Injected methamphetamine use (ref = no) 2.07 (0.95–4.53) 3.55 (1.08–11.62)* 3.17 (0.96–10.52)
  1. Note: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. * p < .05, ** p < .01, ***p < .001
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