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Table 2 Estimated mortality riska from specific malignant neoplasms according to cigarette or SLT use (NLMS data)

From: Smokeless tobacco mortality risks: an analysis of two contemporary nationally representative longitudinal mortality studies

Cause of death HR (95% CI)b [number of deaths]
Exclusive smokers (current smoker/never SLT: 38,076 observations) Exclusive SLT user (current SLT/never smoker: 1863 observations) Dual user (current smoker/current SLT: 657 observations)
Trachea, bronchus, and lung 11.52 (8.74–15.19)c [247] 2.982 (0.91–9.76) [3] 11.46 (3.31–39.6) [3]
Oral cavity, lip, and pharynx 6.33 (1.46–27.38) [9] NAd [0] NA [0]
All digestive organs 1.75 (1.31–2.34) [89] 1.01 (0.32–3.20) [3] NA [0]
Esophagus 2.31 (1.10–4.85) [16] 2.44 (0.31–19.1) [1] NA [0]
Pancreas 1.48 (0.86–2.56) [24] 1.36 (0.19–9.98) [1] NA [0]]
Colon, rectum, and anus 1.47 (0.91–2.35) [30] NA [0]] NA [0]]
Genitourinary system 2.10 (1.34–3.31) [37] 0.51 (0.07–3.78) [1] 2.77 (0.37–20.7) [1]
  1. aAnalysis included all respondents from NLMS public data version 5 and NHIS restricted access data
  2. bThe reference group comprised individuals who never used tobacco (according to survey defined parameters)
  3. cItalicized risk estimates denote statistical significance (CI estimates do not include 1.0)
  4. dNA not applicable
  5. CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, NHIS National Health Interview Survey; NLMS National Longitudinal Mortality Study, SLT smokeless tobacco