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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI for the risk of groin injecting, micro/macroalbuminuria, diagnoses of DVT and septicaemia among high acidifier use

From: Injecting-related health harms and overuse of acidifiers among people who inject heroin and crack cocaine in London: a mixed-methods study

 Low acidifiera (%)High acidifierb (%)OR bivariate (95% CI)P valueAOR multivariatec (95% CI)P value
Ever injected in groin
 No168 (63%)70 (47%)11
 Yes100 (37%)80 (53%)1.92 (1.28, 2.88)0.002*1.95 (1.29, 2.95)0.002*
Ever diagnosed with DVT
 No213 (79%)102 (68%)11
 Yes55 (21%)48 (32%)1.82 (1.16, 2.87)0.010*1.87 (1.18, 2.97)0.008*
Current Micro/macroalbuminuriad
 No152 (64%)85 (36%)11
 Yes27 (49%)28 (51%)1.85 (1.03, 3.35)0.041*1.85 (1.02, 3.35)0.042*
Ever diagnosed Septicaemia
 No225 (84%)115 (77%)11
 Yes43 (16%)35 (23%)1.59 (0.97, 2.63)0.0681.60 (0.96, 2.67)0.070
Ever diagnosed Endocarditis
 No258 (96%)139 (93%)11
 Yes10 (4%)11 (7%)2.04 (0.85, 4.93)0.1132.27 (0.91, 5.66)0.077
  1. OR odds ratio, AOR adjusted odds ratio, DVT deep vein thrombosis
  2. aTypically uses half or less of acid in drug preparation
  3. bTypically uses more than half of acid in drug preparation
  4. cAdjusted for age, gender and injecting frequency per week
  5. d292/316 responses for acid use among those who provided urine samples
  6. *Significant at p < 0.05