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Table 2 Evidence review of reviews results

From: Reducing Harm, Supporting Recovery: a partnership and evidence-informed approach to developing the new Irish health led, National Drug Strategy

May be effectiveUnlikely to be effectiveInconclusive/lacking
 Multi-component interventions set within multiple domains (e.g. school and community/family)Brief interventions in school settingsBrief/motivational interventions in healthcare settings
 Comprehensive school-based programmes (skills and social influence-based programmes)School-based programmes focussing on increasing knowledge aloneUniversal family-based interventions for drugs other than cannabis
 Skills-development school based programmesMass-media campaigns alone (not as part of a multicomponent intervention)Family-based interventions targeting high risk groups
 Universal family interventions including parents and children for cannabis use School-based programmes focussing on social influences alone
  Mentoring interventions
Harm reduction
 Needle and syringe programmes (enhanced by OST) in the community and prisons Education in recreational/nightlife settings
 Drug consumption rooms Pill testing in recreational/nightlife settings
 Overdose prevention with naloxone distribution Staff training interventions in recreational/nightlife settings
 Peer education training to prevent injection initiation Targeted case finding for BBV testing
 Multisession psychosocial/ educational interventions Provision of dry blood spot BBV testing
 Prison-based onsite HIV testing Media campaigns
  Education for sex workers
  HIV risk reduction in prisons
Treatment and rehabilitation
 OST (methadone, buprenorphine) in community and prison settingsPharmacological treatment for non-opiate drug useMindfulness-based treatments
 Naltrexone implantsCognitive behavioural therapyMotivational interviewing
 Multidimensional family therapy (young people’s cannabis use)Acupuncture (alone)Continuing care programmes
 Couples-based therapyHome visits and psychosocial interventions for pregnant womenResidential programmes (therapeutic community, 12-step)
 Contingency management (short-term only benefits) Physical activity interventions
 CBT for people with PTSD Boot camps for offenders
 Peer-supported recovery, e.g. peer-coaching, recovery hosing, mutual aid Drug diversion courts for offenders
 Prison-based therapeutic communities Psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental illness
  Pharmacological treatments for pregnant opiate users