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Table 4 Associations of wave 1 cigarette/e-cigarette use state with wave 2 state: adjusted odds ratio* (aOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI)

From: The impact of cigarette and e-cigarette use history on transition patterns: a longitudinal analysis of the population assessment of tobacco and health (PATH) study, 2013–2015

Model Wave 1 subgroup Wave 2 product use state
Exclusive cigarette smoking aOR (95% CI) Dual use aOR (95% CI) Exclusive e-cigarette use aOR (95% CI) Neither aOR (95% CI)
Model A1. Exclusive cigarette smoker group (n = 8613) 1.2. Established cigarette smoker without a history of e-cigarette use 4.04 (2.19, 7.45) 4.34 (1.87, 10.10) 1 [Reference] 0.52 (0.28, 0.97)
1.3. Established cigarette smoker with a history of e-cigarette use 1.60 (0.68, 3.74) 9.73 (3.39, 27.92) 1 [Reference] 0.14 (0.05, 0.39)
Model B2. Exclusive e-cigarette user group (n = 580) 2.2. Experimental e-cigarette user with a history of cigarette smoking 5.36 (0.82, 35.14) 2.63 (0.22, 31.62) 1 [Reference] 0.55 (0.16, 1.87)
2.3. Established e-cigarette user without a history of cigarette smoking 0.13 (0.02, 0.87) 0.53 (0.05, 6.25) 1 [Reference] 0.05 (0.02, 0.17)
2.4. Established e-cigarette user with a history of cigarette smoking 0.27 (0.07, 1.06) 2.03 (0.30, 13.84) 1 [Reference] 0.02 (0.01, 0.06)
Model C3. Dual user group (n = 2132) 3.2. Established dual user 0.30 (0.20, 0.46) 2.43 (1.59, 3.73) 1 [Reference] 0.31 (0.19, 0.51)
  1. *Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were estimated by multinomial logistic regression models adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education background, poverty level, user subgroups (i.e., defined in Table 1), and years of smoking cigarettes fairly regularly (for respondents who have smoked fairly regularly).
  2. 1Model A reference group: group 1.1. experimental cigarette smoker
  3. 2Model B reference group: group 2.1. experimental e-cigarette user without a history of cigarette smoking
  4. 3Model C reference group: group 3.1. experimental dual user
  5. p < 0.05
  6. p < 0.01