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Table 2 Participant characteristics

From: Identification of factors influencing tampering of codeine-containing medicines in England: a qualitative study

  Participants using CCM
n = 5
(%)
Participants using CCM and heroin
n = 9
(%)
All participants
n = 14
(%)
Gender
 Male 3 (60.0) 8 (88.9) 11 (78.6)
 Female 2 (40.0) 1 (11.1) 3 (21.4)
Mean age in years (range) 29.4 (18–42) 32.7 (26–38) 31.5 (18–42)
Mean length of time between initial codeine use and last time used in years (range)a 4.2 (1.5–9) 9.7 (1–16) 7.7 (1–16)
CWE, route of administration
 Drinking the solution 2 (40.0) 4 (44.4) 6 (42.9)
 Injecting the solution 0 (0.0) 3 (33.3) 3 (21.4)
 Snorting crushed codeine tablets 0 (0.0) 2 (22.2) 2 (14.3)
CWE, reasons for use
 To make codeine work quicker 1 (20.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (7.1)
 To feel euphoric 2 (40.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (14.3)
 To prevent withdrawal symptoms 1 (20.0) 2 (22.2) 3 (21.4)
  1. aFor participants reporting current use the length of time was calculated as the difference between initial use and the date the interview was conducted