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Table 5 Intention to treat analysis examining impact of OST participation on social and behavioral outcomes (with baseline replacement for lost to follow up)

From: Retention and outcomes for clients attending a methadone clinic in a resource-constrained setting: a mixed methods prospective cohort study in Imphal, Northeast India

  Baseline (T0) 6 weeks (T1) 6 months (T2) 12 months (T3) P valuea T0–T1 T0–T2 T0–T3
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Effect sizeb P valuec Effect sizeb P valuec Effect sizeb P valuec
Injecting drug use (past 4 weeks) 73 (98.7) 7 (9.5) 19 (25.7) 20 (27.0) 0.000 2.286 0.000 1.850 0.000 1.820 0.000
Shared needle for injection (past 4 weeks) 37 (50) 3 (4.1) 10 (13.5) 10 (13.5) 0.000 1.163 0.000 0.818 0.000 0.818 0.000
Property crime (past 4 weeks) 42 (56.8) 3 (4.1) 13 (17.6) 12 (16.2) 0.000 1.299 0.000 0.841 0.000 0.879 0.000
Anxiety symptoms (GAD-2: ≥ 3)d 30 (40.5) 3 (4.05) 9 (12.2) 11 (14.9) 0.000 0.975 0.000 0.667 0.000 0.588 0.000
Depression symptoms (PHQ-9: ≥ 10)e 55 (74.3) 4 (5.4) 22 (29.7) 16 (21.6) 0.000 1.609 0.000 0.926 0.000 1.112 0.000
Current suicidal ideation (PHQ-9: item 9)f 44 (59.5) 12 (16.2) 19 (25.7) 22 (29.7) 0.000 0.933 0.000 0.699 0.000 0.609 0.000
Poor physical health (self-perceived) 55 (74.3) 4 (5.4) 10 (13.5) 14 (18.9) 0.000 1.609 0.000 1.326 0.000 1.179 0.000
Poor family relationships 53 (71.6) 2 (2.7) 17 (23) 16 (21.6) 0.000 1.687 0.000 1.017 0.000 1.051 0.000
Very hopeful for future 9 (12.2) 16 (21.6) 28 (37.8) 32 (43.2) 0.000 0.253 0.127 0.611 0.000 0.721 0.000
Employment (employed) 42 (56.8) 38 (52.8) 43 (60.6) 53 (71.6) 0.007 0.080 0.439 0.077 0.832 0.310 0.016
Participation in family events 50 (67.6) 51 (68.9) 57 (77) 60 (81.1) 0.079 0.028 0.847 0.211 0.189 0.312 0.018
  1. aCochran chi square test for equality of proportions
  2. bEffect size was based on Cohen’s h (h = 0.2 is “small”, h = 0.5 is “medium”, and h = 0.8 is “large”)
  3. cMcNemar’s test for the difference between two proportions
  4. dGeneralised Anxiety Disorder (GAD-2) score of ≥ 3 represents the optimum cut-off when screening for anxiety
  5. ePatient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores of ≥ 10 represent the optimum cut-off when screening depression symptoms
  6. fAssessed using Item 9 of the PHQ-9