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Table 5 Pooled odds ratios for HBV infection in PWID

From: Hepatitis B virus infection among people who use drugs in Iran: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and trend analysis

Subgroup Studies (N) Pooled OR (%95 CI) p value I2 (%)
Recruitment setting 33    79.5
 Community   1   
 Drop-in setting   1.06 (0.33–3.44) 0.91  
 Treatment centre   2.24 (0.75–6.66) 0.14  
 Prison   1.49 (0.56–3.96) 0.41  
 Mixed settings   1.51 (0.48–4.68) 0.47  
Definition of PWID 33    82.3
 Current   1   
 Lifetime   0.61 (0.30–1.25) 0.17  
 Unknown   1.12 (0.61–2.06) 0.71  
Gender (male vs. female) 7 1.48 (0.80–2.73) 0.21 0
Age (youth vs. older) 3 0.46 (0.14–1.54) 0.21 0
Marital status (married vs. unmarried) 5 1.02 (0.78–1.34) 0.88 0
Employment status (employed vs. unemployed) 3 0.86 (0.49–1.50) 0.59 8.8
Residence (not homeless vs. homeless) 2 0.89 (0.68–1.16) 0.39 0
Lifetime history of imprisonment 6 1.72 (1.29–2.30) 0.000 0
Lifetime sharing needle and syringe 7 1.57 (0.82–3.01) 0.17 57.6
Hx of sharing needle and syringe in prison 2 3.98 (0.32–49.24) 0.28 80.9
Ever MSM 3 1.52 (0.12–19.94) 0.75 46.6
Extramarital relationship 2 0.96 (0.54–1.73) 0.90 6.6
Ever tattoo 4 1.58 (0.64–3.92) 0.32 0
  1. MSM Men having sex with men