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Table 1 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, by opioid overdose history (N = 2360)

From: Factors associated with opioid overdose during medication-assisted treatment: How can we identify individuals at risk?

Characteristic Total sample
N = 2360
No reported overdoses
n = 1619 (68.6%)
Lifetime history of overdoses
n = 562 (23.8%)
ED visit for overdose in the last year
n = 179 (7.6%)
Sociodemographic
Age; mean (SD) 39.3 (10.9) 40.0 (10.8) 38.8 (11.1) 34.9(9.6)
Female sexa; n (%) 1046 (44.3%) 728 (45%) 245 (43.7%) 73(40.8%)
Ethnicity; n (%)
Caucasian
Other
1705 (72.3%)
655 (27.8%)
1154 (71.3%)
465 (28.7%)
422 (75.1%)
140 (24.9%)
129 (72.1%)
50 (27.9%) [3]
Married or common law; n (%) 691 (29.3%) 515 (31.8%) 135 (24%) 41 (22.9%)
High school education; n (%) 668 (28.3%) 473 (29.2%) 153 (27.2%) 42 (23.5%)
Children; n (%) 1615 (68.4%) 1132 (69.9%) 366 (65.1%) 117 (65.4%)
Currently working; n (%) 780(33.1%) 592 (36.6%) 158 (28.1%) 30 (16.8%)
Receiving social assistanceb; n (%) 1298 (55%) 827 (51.1%) 350 (62.3%) 121 (67.6%)
Treatment
Type of MATc; n (%)
Methadone
Suboxone
1868 (79.3%)
488 (20.7%)
1270 (78.6%)
346 (21.4%)
456 (81.3%)
105 (18.7%)
142 (79.3%)
37 (20.7%)
Dose; mean (SD)
Methadone
Suboxone
70.5 (40.6)
12.0 (6.8)
69.5(42.4)
11.9 (6.9)
76.9(37.1)
12.6 (6.4)
58.9 (31.5)
11.2 (6.4)
Years in treatment; median (Q1, Q3) 2.6 (0.8, 6) 3(1, 6.75) 2.4 (0.8, 7) 0.6(0.2,2)
Previous Treatment for Opioid Dependencea; n (%) 804 (34.1%) 500 (30.9%) 217 (38.6%) 87 (48.6%)
Abstinent from opioid use at study entryd; n(%) 732 (31.1%) 537 (33.3%) 166 (29.7%) 29 (16.3%)
Percentage of opioid-positive urine drug screens if non-abstinent at study entryd; mean (SD) 16.3 (23.3) 15.1 (22.9) 16.7 (22.8) 25.9 (25.9)
Substance use
Age start using opioids regularlya; mean (SD) 24.9 (9.3) 25.9 (9.6) 22.7 (8.3) 22.4 (8.1)
IV drug use (past 30 days); n(%) 375 (15.9%) 164 (10.1%) 127 (22.6%) 84 (46.9%)
Alcohol use (past 30 days)e; n (%) 870 (36.9%) 588 (36.3%) 208 (37%) 74 (41.6%)
Prescription benzodiazepine use, n (%) 369 (15.6%) 242 (15%) 103 (18.3%) 24 (13.4%)
Non-prescription use of benzodiazepines (past 30 days)e; n (%) 180 (7.6%) 88 (5.4%) 64 (11.4%) 28 (15.7%)
Cannabis use (past 30 days)e; n (%) 1257 (53.3%) 846 (52.3%) 301 (53.6%) 110 (61.8%)
Have access to naloxone kits; n (%) 1840 (78%) 1210 (74.7%) 472 (84%) 158 (88.3%)
Know how to use naloxone; n (%) 1907 (80.8%) 1243 (76.8%) 493 (87.7%) 171 (95.5%)
Mental and physical health
Suicidal ideation; n (%) 489 (20.7%) 298 (18.4%) 134 (23.8%) 57 (31.8%)
Total physical symptoms score on MAPc; mean (SD) 14.3 (8.0) 13.8 (7.9) 15.2 (8.0) 16.0 (8.5)
Total psychological symptoms score on MAPf; mean (SD) 11.7 (9.0) 10.7 (8.8) 13.4(8.9) 14.6 (9.5)
  1. SD = Standard deviations, MAT =  medication-assisted treatment, IV = intravenous, MAP = Maudsley Addiction Profile
  2. aData available for 2359 participants
  3. bData available for 1580 participants
  4. cData available for 2356 participants
  5. dData available for 2352 participants
  6. eData available for 2358 participants
  7. fData available for 2354 participants