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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics, substance use patterns, and knowledge of naloxone in RACK study participants, Massachusetts, 2017–2019 (n = 469)

From: Prevalence and correlates of non-fatal overdose among people who use drugs: findings from rapid assessments in Massachusetts, 2017–2019

Variables Category Total responses (N) Percentage who had any overdose % (n) p-value (2 sided) Percentage who had last year overdose % (n) p-value (2 sided)
Gender Female 177 38.3 (111) 0.904 38.6 (66) 0.857
  Male 288 61.7 (179)   61.5 4 (105)  
Race NHa white 280 64.0 (188) 0.049 61.3 (106) 0.85
  Hispanic 125 23.8 (70)   24.9 (43)  
  NH Black 35 5.8 (17)   6.9 (12)  
  NH other 29 6.5 (19)   6.9 (12)  
Age  < 30 years 117 23.8 (70) 0.588 21.4 (37) 0.369
  30–45 years 238 50.7 (149)   52.6 (91)  
   > 45 years 113 25.5 (75)   26.0 (45)  
Education High School or more 335 71.7 (210) 0.955 69.4 (120) 0.416
  Less than HS 133 28.3 (83)   30.6 (53)  
Employment status Unemployed 281 59.2 (174) 0.622 58.4 (101) 0.574
  Employed 187 40.8 (120)   41.6 (72)  
Housing status Housed 151 33.3 (98) 0.521 36.4 (63) 0.141
  Not Housed 317 66.7 (196)   63.6 (110)  
Insurance type Other 28 4.4 (13) 0.059 4.1 (7) 0.166
  Public 436 96.6 (280)   95.9 (166)  
Traded sex for money* Yes 118 38.7 (82) 0.027 39.7 (50) 0.104
  No 227 61.3 (130)   60.3 (76)  
History of incarceration Yes 291 69.6 (204)  < 0.001 68.0 (117) 0.047
  No 177 30.4 (87)   32.0 (45)  
Substance use in the last 30 days
Crack Yes 276 64.9 (179) 0.246 39.5 (109) 0.162
Cocaine Yes 303 63.0 (191) 0.832 39.3 (119) 0.148
Methadone Yes 109 67.9 (74) 0.2 30.3 (33) 0.103
Buprenorphine (Rxb) Yes 128 71.1 (91) 0.021 43.0 (55) 0.094
Buprenorphine (non-Rx) Yes 50 76.0 (38) 0.04 52.0 (26) 0.019
Amphetamine Yes 38 76.3 (29) 0.07 47.4 (18) 0.162
Benzodiazepine Yes 127 72.4 (92) 0.008 44.9 (57) 0.162
Fentanyl Yes 211 76.3 (161)  < 0.001 47.4 (100)  < 0.001
Heroin Yes 301 69.8 (210)  < 0.001 44.9 (135)  < 0.001
Marijuana Yes 202 55.9 (113) 0.009 33.2 (67) 0.1466
Pain medication Yes 71 13.6 (294) 0.230 24 (13.9) 0.599
Route of administration of substance use   
Oral Yes 150 66.7 (100) 0.223 46 (69) 0.005
Smoke Yes 280 63.2 (177) 0.774 39.3 (110) 0.19
Snort Yes 208 54.8 (114) 0.002 32.7 (68) 0.093
Inject Yes 279 77.8 (217)  < 0.001 47.3 (132)  < 0.001
Snort or inject Yes 407 66.1 (269)  < 0.001 39.6 (161) 0.002
Naloxone knowledge   
Do you know what naloxone is? Yes 456 63.2 (288) 0.211 37.3 (170) 0.295
Do you currently have naloxone? Yes 294 68.4 (201) 0.001 39.8 (117) 0.091
Have you ever been trained to use naloxone? Yes 350 66.6 (233) 0.003 38.3 (134) 0.282
Do you know where to get Narcan? Yes 421 65.3 (275) 0.001 38.0 (160) 0.137
How easy/difficult is it to get Narcan? Easy/extremely easy 360 66.7 (240) 0.047 38.1 (137) 0.445
  Neutral/difficult/extremely difficult 65 53.8 (35)   43.1 (28)  
  1. *Variable not assessed in first site (Lowell) hence not included in multivariable analysis
  2. aNH non-Hispanic
  3. bRx prescription