Skip to main content

Table 2 Weighted Bivariate tests of differences between sources of syringes, cleaning with bleach and receptive syringe sharing, distributive syringe sharing and reusing syringe at last injection 2002–2019 (n = 1737)

From: Assessing the relationship between syringe exchange, pharmacy, and street sources of accessing syringes and injection drug use behavior in a pooled nationally representative sample of people who inject drugs in the United States from 2002 to 2019

  Borrowing Lending Reuse syringe
Yes n (%) No n (%) p value Yes n (%) No n (%) p value Yes n (%) No n (%) p value
Overall          
 Access to syringes          
  Got last needle through SEP 9.4(27) 13.5(190) .310 11.1(36) 12.7(181) .628 10.3(111) 15.8(106) .041
  Purchased last needle at pharmacy 43.6(122) 54.8(831) .013 43.1(159) 55.0(794) .012 52.1(569) 53.8(384) .661
  Obtained syringe on the street 23.0(60) 14.1(166) .022 23.1(64) 13.8(162) .016 19.2(171) 9.5(55) .001
  Obtained syringe other means 25.0(85) 18.2(256) .075 22.7(79) 18.5(262) .250 20.9(211) 18.3(130) .381
 Use bleach to clean last needle 40.1(111) 24.5(304) < .001 39.8(130) 24.6(285) < .001 32.7(308) 18.4(107) < .001
 Uninsured 34.1(91) 33.2(493) .850 38.3(117) 32.1(467) .167 34.7(367) 31.0(217) .286
 Injection drug use    .990    .239    < .001
  Heroin 54.0(154) 53.8(794)   47.3(163) 55.4(785)   51.1(540) 58.5(408)  
  Cocaine 17.2(44) 17.5(235)   19.2(51) 16.7(228)   14.3(145) 22.7(134)  
  Both 28.9(96) 28.8(414)   33.6(124) 27.65(386)   34.7(377) 18.8(133)  
 Race          
  Black 7.1(11) 7.4(68) .914 8.3(15) 7.1(64) .671 6.28(40 9.2(39) .224
  White 73.5(216) 77.7(1145) .353 73.0(256) 77.9(1105) .273 76.4(844) 78.1(517) .613
  Other 2.6(22) 2.8(94) .838 1.2(18) 3.1(98) .010 2.7(64) 2.8(52) .862
 Hispanic 16.9(45) 12.1(136) .213 17.5(49) 11.9(132) .139 14.7(114) 9.9(67) .078
 Age 18–25 28.9(172) 24.4(758) .181 29.5(205) 24.2(725) .100 24.0(554) 27.2(376) .210
 Less than High School Education 26.7(81) 27.1(378) .930 32.2(94) 25.73(365) .132 27.3(292) 26.5(167) .830
 Poverty 43.4(113) 32.6(439) .022 40.2(119) 33.0(433) .120 35.9(349) 31.9(206) .267
 Male sex 61.6(139) 69.3(900) .067 61.3(163) 69.6(876) .045 67.8(623) 68.5(416) .809
  1. Bold indicates significance at p < .05
  2. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001; All percentages are weighted using the sampling methodology used in the study