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Table 3 Logistic regression results of sources of syringes, using bleach to clean syringes and risk factors for syringe sharing and reusing syringes 2002–2019 (n = 1737)

From: Assessing the relationship between syringe exchange, pharmacy, and street sources of accessing syringes and injection drug use behavior in a pooled nationally representative sample of people who inject drugs in the United States from 2002 to 2019

  Borrowing Lending Reuse syringe
aOR 95% CI p value aOR 95%CI p value aOR 95%CI p value
Access to syringes          
 SEP .4 (.2, .9) .022 .5 (.2, 1.1) .073 .3 (.2, .6)  < .001
 Pharmacy .5 (.3, .9) .037 .5 (.3, .9) .020 .5 (.3, .9) .016
 Other means .91 (.5, 1.7) .773 .8 (.4, 1.4) .423 .5 (.3, .9) .025
 Street Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Use bleach to clean last needle 2.0 (1.3, 3.0) .002 2.0 (1.3, 3.0) .002 2.4 (1.6, 3.6) < .001
No insurance 1.0 (.7, 1.6) .933 1.3 (.8, 1.9) .249 1.2 (.9, 1.7) .274
Race          
 Black .9 (.3, 2.4) .834 1.1 (.5, 2.4) .826 .5 (.2, 1.1) .08
 Other race .9 (.4, 2.1) .914 .4 (.1, .9) .027 1.1 (.6, 2.0) .779
 White Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Hispanic ethnicity 1.4 (.7, 2.6) .316 1.5 (.8, 2.7) .184 1.3 (.7, 2.1) .394
Male sex .8 (.5, 1.1) .147 .7 (.5, .9) .046 .9 (.6,1.2) .341
Age 18–25 1.4 (1.0, 2.0) .04 1.5 (1.1, 2.1) .019 .9 (.7, 1.1) .264
Less than high school education .8 (.5, 1.3) .402 1.1 (.7, 1.7) .612 .9 (.6, 1.3) .545
Poverty 1.5 (1.02, 2.3) .042 1.2 (.8, 1.8) .376 1.2 (.8, 1.7) .323
Injection drug use          
 Heroin Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Cocaine .9 (.6, 1.7) .958 1.3 (.8, 2.3) .321 .7 (.5, 1.0) .070
 Heroin and cocaine 1.1 (.7, 1.8) .632 1.5 (.9, 2.4) .072 2.3 (1.6, 3.4) < .001
  1. Bold indicates significance at p < .05
  2. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001