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Table 3 Factors associated with HIV infection among PWID in Kigali, Rwanda, N: 307

From: Injection drug use practices and HIV infection among people who inject drugs in Kigali, Rwanda: a cross-sectional study

  N Living with HIV % Living with HIV Unadjusted PR (95% CI) p value Adjusted PR (95% CI) p value
Sociodemographic characteristics       
 Age in years*    1.05 (1.01–1.09) 0.02 0.98 (0.91–1.07) 0.842
Biological sex       
 Female 8 14.3 Ref    
 Male 21 8.4 0.58 (0.27–1.25) 0.169 1.86 (0.86–4.04) 0.118
Education       
 Primary education or less 7 14.9 Ref   Ref  
 Some secondary education 3 3.8 0.25 (0.07–0.94) 0.04 0.29 (0.09–1.04) 0.06
 Completed secondary or above 19 10.5 0.71 (0.31–1.57) 0.395 0.64 (0.27–1.39) 0.239
Marital status**       
 Single 20 7.9 Ref   Ref  
 Cohabitating/Married 2 6.1 0.76 (0.18–3.13) 0.708 0.75 (0.21–2.74) 0.67
 Divorced/Separated/Widow 7 36.8 4.64 (2.25–9.58) 0.001 3.86 (1.49–10.01) 0.005
Occupation       
 Unemployed 15 8.9 Ref    
 Employed 14 10.9 1.23 (0.62–2.46) 0.554   
Self-reported sexual orientation***       
 Heterosexual 17 7.9 Ref    
 Homosexual 4 11.4 1.44 (0.52–4.05) 0.484   
 Bisexual 8 14.3 1.81 (0.82–3.97) 0.141   
Drug Injection related behaviors, access to needles and condom use       
Age at first injection       
 Before 18 years 5 9.4 Ref    
 18 to 24 years 12 9.1 1.36 (0.57–3.23) 0.48   
 Over 25 years 12 9.8 1.82 (0.75–4.37) 0.183   
Duration of drug injection****       
 Years injecting drugs    1.06 (0.99–1.11) 0.055 1.04 (0.92–1.18) 0.494
Needle sharing in the previous 6 months       
 Never 15 7.1 Ref   Ref  
 Rarely 6 10 1.42 (0.57–3.51) 0.447 1.31 (0.44–3.93) 0.625
 Half the time or more 8 23.5 3.34 (1.53–7.28) 0.002 2.77 (1.28–5.98) 0.009
Number of needles sharing partners in the previous 6 months       
 None 7 11.1 Ref    
 One to two 15 8.2 0.74 (0.31–1.73) 0.484   
 Three or more 7 15.9 1.43 (0.54–3.79) 0.471   
Selling sex for drugs in the previous 6 months*****       
 No 16 7.8 Ref    
 Yes 13 13.8 1.76 (0.88–3.52) 0.108   
Access to sterile needles       
 Always 20 10.2 Ref    
 Sometimes 9 8.9 0.87 (0.41–1.85) 0.723   
Condom use       
 Always 10 9.2 Ref    
 Never or sometimes 19 9.6 1.04 (0.50–2.17) 0.904   
  1. Bold values are for variables that were found to be significantly associated with prevalent HIV infection
  2. * Data missing for n=2; ** Data missing for n=3; *** Data missing for n=1 ; **** Data missing for n=2 ; ***** Data missing for n=9