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Table 4 Factors associated with needle sharing in the six months preceding the study among PWID in Kigali, Rwanda, N: 307

From: Injection drug use practices and HIV infection among people who inject drugs in Kigali, Rwanda: a cross-sectional study

  Shared needles
% (N)
Unadjusted PR (95% CI) p value Adjusted PR (95% CI) p value
Sociodemographic characteristics*      
 18–24 22.9 (19) Ref   Ref  
 25–34 32.9 (62) 1.44 (0.92–2.25) 0.108 1.01 (0.71–1.42) 0.978
 > 35 38.2 (13) 1.67 (0.93–2.99) 0.084 0.91 (0.57–1.45) 0.698
Biological sex      
 Male 30.7 (77) Ref   Ref  
 Female 30.4 (17) 0.98 (0.64–1.53) 0.963 1.68 (1.09–2.59) 0.019
Education      
 Primary education or less 23.4 (11) Ref    
 Some secondary education 21.5 (17) 0 .92 (0.47–1.79) 0.805   
 Completed secondary or above 36.5 (66) 1.56 (0.89–2.71) 0.116   
Marital status**      
 Single 29.7 (75) Ref    
 Cohabitating/Married 33.3 (11) 1.12 (0.66–1.88) 0.669   
 Divorced/Separated/Widow 36.8 (7) 1.24 (0.66–2.31) 0.501   
Occupation      
 Unemployed 25.4 (43) Ref   Ref  
 Employed/ Student 36.9 (51) 1.45 (1.03–2.04) 0.031 1.58 (1.19–2.11) 0.002
Self-reported sexual orientation***      
 Heterosexual 27.4 (59) Ref   Ref  
 Homosexual 28.6 (10) 1.04 (0.58–1.84) 0.889 1.08 (0.75–1.55) 0.667
 Bisexual 44.6 (25) 1.63 (1.13–2.34) 0.009 1.46 (1.03- 2.07) 0.034
Drug Injection related behaviors, access to needles and condom use      
Age at first injection      
 Before 18 years 30.2 (16) Ref    
 18 to 24 years 33.3 (44) 1.10 (0.68–1.78) 0.683   
 Over 25 years 27.9 (34) 0.92 (0.56–1.52) 0.754   
Duration of drug injection****      
 Less than 3 years 20.3 (26) Ref   Ref  
 4–5 years 30.5 (32) 1.50 (0.95–2.35) 0.077 1.05 (0.74–1.48) 0.791
 Over 5 years 50.7 (36) 2.49 (1.65–3.77) 0.001 1.25 (0.83–1.89) 0.281
Needle sharing at the first injection      
 No 15.4 (36) Ref   Ref  
 Yes 79.5 (58) 5.16 (3.73–7.13) 0.001 2.18 (1.59–2.99) 0.001
Needle reuse in the previous 6 months      
 No 9.8 (20) Ref   Ref  
 Yes 71.8 (74) 7.32 (4.74–11.31) 0.001 2.27 (1.51–3.43) 0.001
Number of needles sharing partners in the previous 6 months      
 Two or less 21.9 (54) Ref   Ref  
 More than two partners 90.9 (40) 4.14 (3.21–5.34) 0.001 0.99 (0.79–1.25) 0.983
Selling sex for drugs in the previous 6 months*****      
 No 24 (49) Ref   Ref  
 Yes 42.5 (40) 1.77 (1.26–2.48) 0.001 1.08 (0.79–1.46) 0.607
Access to sterile needles      
 Always 19.4 (38) Ref   Ref  
 Sometimes 52.5 (53) 2.71 (1.92–3.81) 0.001 1.10 (0.84–1.44) 0.477
Sharing other drug paraphernalia in the previous 6 months      
 Always 19.4 (38) Ref   Ref  
 Sometimes 52.5 (53) 9.38 (6.19–14.21) 0.001 3.56 (2.19- 5.81) 0.001
  1. Bold values are for variables that were found to be significantly associated with needle sharing in the six months prior to the study
  2. * Data missing for n=2; ** Data missing for n=3; *** Data missing for n=1 ; **** Data missing for n=2 ; ***** Data missing for n=9