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Table 1 Characteristics of admissions by discharge type (routine versus self-directed) in Philadelphia general acute hospitals for patients with diagnosed opioid dependence or poisoning, 2017

From: Acute pain and self-directed discharge among hospitalized patients with opioid-related diagnoses: a cohort study

  Total Routine Self-directed p
All admissions (N) 7972 6728 1244  
Median length of stay (IQR) 4 (2–6) 4 (2–7) 2 (1–3) < .0001
Male 4426 (55.5) 3653 (54.3) 773 (62.1) < .0001
Average age (Std) 41.44 (12.1) 41.89 (12.3) 38.97 (11.0) < .0001
Homelessa 615 (7.7) 479 (7.1) 136 (10.9) < .0001
Acute paine 2856 (35.8) 2275 (33.8) 581 (46.7) < .0001
Major chronic painb 768 (9.6) 694 (10.3) 74 (5.9) < .0001
Mikosz chronic painc 915 (11.5) 807 (12.0) 108 (8.7) < .0006
Chronic overlapping pain conditionsd 467 (5.9) 408 (6.1) 59 (4.7) 0.0757
Injection related infectionf
Skin and soft tissue infection 1248 (15.7) 886 (13.2) 362 (29.1) < .0001
Septicemia or bacteremia infection 947 (11.9) 751 (11.2) 196 (15.8) < .0001
Bone, joint, or vascular infection 470 (5.9) 349 (5.2) 121 (9.7) < .0001
Polysubstance useg 3422 (42.9) 2760 (41.0) 662 (53.2) < .0001
Nicotine dependenth 5106 (64.1) 4206 (62.5) 900 (72.4) < .0001
Patients with 2+ admissions (N) 3287 2616 671  
Major chronic painb 309 (9.4) 262 (10.0) 47 (7.0) 0.0171
“Missing” major chronic painb 367 (11.2) 278 (10.6) 89 (13.3) 0.0530
Mikosz chronic painc 352 (10.7) 287 (11.0) 65 (9.7) 0.3373
“Missing” Mikosz chronic painc 392 (11.9) 280 (10.7) 112 (16.7) 0.0001
Chronic Overlapping Pain Conditionsd 173 (5.3) 138 (5.3) 35 (5.2) 0.9512
“Missing” COPC 251 (7.6) 180 (6.9) 71 (10.6) 0.0013
  1. Data are expressed as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated
  2. aIndicates homelessness, housing insecurity, and problems related to housing and economic circumstances. The full list of associated ICD-10 codes is provided in Additional file 1
  3. bIndicates central pain syndrome, chronic pain, neoplasm-related pain, and chronic pain syndrome
  4. cIndicates chronic nonradicular and radicular back pain, chronic neck pain, fibromyalgia, inflammatory joint disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, non-migraine headaches, osteoarthritis and joint cartilage conditions, and periarticular/soft tissue disorders
  5. dIndicates fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, chronic prostatitis, vulvodynia, migraine, chronic tension-type headache, temporomandibular disorder, chronic low back pain, chronic fatigue syndrome, endometriosis with pain
  6. eIndicates acute pain based on independent coding of admitting diagnoses by two registered nurses
  7. fIndicates injection related infections separated into skin and soft tissue infections (abscess, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis), septicemia and bacteremia, and bone, joint and vascular infections (septic pulmonary embolism, endocarditis, staphylococcal arthritis, osteomyelitis, and intraspinal abscess.)
  8. gIndicates use of or poisoning from cannabis, cocaine, stimulates, sedatives, hypnotic or anxiolytics, hallucinogens,
  9. hIndicates current nicotine dependence and a history of nicotine dependence