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Table 2 Criteria for assessing state-level naloxone access laws

From: Expert views on state-level naloxone access laws: a qualitative analysis of an online modified-Delphi process





Naloxone pharmacy distribution

Amount of naloxone dispensed through retail pharmacies (e.g., chain pharmacy stores, independent community pharmacies)

Opioid use disorder prevalence

Percentage of the general population with a pattern of opioid use leading to clinically and functionally significant impairment, health problems, or failure to meet major responsibilities

Nonfatal opioid overdose

Per capita rates of nonfatal overdose related to opioids, including opioid analgesics (e.g., oxycodone), illegal opioids (e.g., heroin), and synthetic opioids (e.g., fentanyl)

Opioid overdose mortality

Per capita rates of fatal opioid overdose



The extent to which the policy is acceptable to the general public in the state or community where the policy has been enacted


The extent to which it is feasible for a state or community that has enacted the policy to implement it as intended


The extent to which the resources (costs) required to implement the policy are affordable from a societal perspective


The extent to which the policy is equitable in its impact on health outcomes across populations of people who use opioids