European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Drug consumption rooms: an overview of provision and evidence. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction; 2018.
Potier C, Laprevote V, Dubois-Arber F, Cottencin O, Rolland B. Supervised injection services: what has been demonstrated? A systematic literature review. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;145:48–68.
Belackova V, Salmon AM. Overview of international literature - supervised injecting facilities and drug consumption rooms - Issue 1. Sydney: Uniting Medically Supervised Injecting Centre; 2017.
Hedrich D. European report on drug consumption rooms. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction; 2004.
Kemmesies U. The open drug scene and the safe injection room offers in Frankfurt am Main 1995: final report. Munster: Institut zur Forderung qualitativer Drogenforschung, akzeptierender Drogenarbeit und rationaler Drogenpoliti; 1999.
Salmon AM, Van Beek I, Amin J, Kaldor J, Maher L. The impact of a supervised injecting facility on ambulance call-outs in Sydney, Australia. Addiction (Abingdon, England). 2010;105(4):676–83.
van Beek I, Kimber J, Dakin A, Gilmour S. The Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre: reducing harm associated with heroin overdose. Critical Public Health. 2004;14(4):391–406.
Kerr T, Tyndall MW, Lai C, Montaner JSG, Wood E. Drug-related overdoses within a medically supervised safer injection facility. Int J Drug Policy. 2006;17(5):436–41.
Stoltz J-A, Wood E, Small W, Li K, Tyndall M, Montaner J, et al. Changes in injecting practices associated with the use of a medically supervised safer injection facility. J Public Health. 2007;29(1):35–9.
Milloy MJ, Wood E. Emerging role of supervised injecting facilities in human immunodeficiency virus prevention. Addiction (Abingdon, England). 2009;104(4):620–1.
Kimber JO, Mattick RP, Kaldor J, Beek I, Gilmour S, Rance JA. Process and predictors of drug treatment referral and referral uptake at the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2009;27(6):602–12.
Wood E, Tyndall MW, Zhang R, Montaner JS, Kerr T. Rate of detoxification service use and its impact among a cohort of supervised injecting facility users. Addiction (Abingdon, England). 2007;102(6):916–9.
Salmon AM, Thein H-H, Kimber J, Kaldor JM, Maher L. Five years on: What are the community perceptions of drug-related public amenity following the establishment of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre? Int J Drug Policy. 2007;18(1):46–53.
Benninghoff F, Solai S, Huissoud T, Dubois-Arber F. Evaluation de Quai 9 espace d’accueil et d’injection à Genève. Lausanne: Institut universitaire de médicine sociale et préventive, Raison de santé; 2003.
Schu M, Tossman P, Coll K, Shuster A. Evaluation der drogenkonsumräume in Berlin: Abschlussbericht. Berlin: Köln; 2005.
Wood E, Tyndall MW, Lai C, Montaner JSG, Kerr T. Impact of a medically supervised safer injecting facility on drug dealing and other drug-related crime. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2006;1(1):13.
Fitzgerald J, Burgess M, Snowball L. Trends in property and illicit drug crim around the medically supervised injecting centre in Kings Cross: an update. Sydney: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics Research; 2010.
Freeman K, Jones CGA, Weatherburn DJ, Rutter S, Spooner CJ, Donnelly N. The impact of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC) on crime. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2009;24(2):173–84.
Kerr T, Mitra S, Kennedy MC, McNeil R. Supervised injection facilities in Canada: past, present, and future. Harm Reduct J. 2017;14(1):28.
Jauffret-Roustide M, Pedrono G, Beltzer N. Supervised consumption rooms: the French Paradox. Int J Drug Policy. 2013;24(6):628–30.
Strike C, Watson TM, Kolla G, Penn R, Bayoumi AM. Ambivalence about supervised injection facilities among community stakeholders. Harm Reduct J. 2015;12(1):26.
Wenger LD, Arreola SG, Kral AH. The prospect of implementing a Safer Injection Facility in San Francisco: perspectives of community stakeholders. Int J Drug Policy. 2011;22(3):239–41.
Watson TM, Bayoumi A, Kolla G, Penn R, Fischer B, Luce J, et al. Police perceptions of supervised consumption sites (SCSs): a qualitative study. Subst Use Misuse. 2012;47(4):364–74.
DeBeck K, Cheng T, Montaner JS, Beyrer C, Elliott R, Sherman S, et al. HIV and the criminalisation of drug use among people who inject drugs: a systematic review. Lancet HIV. 2017;4(8):e357–e74.
Miller CL, Firestone M, Ramos R, Burris S, Ramos ME, Case P, et al. Injecting drug users’ experiences of policing practices in two Mexican–U.S. border cities: public health perspectives. Int J Drug Policy. 2008;19(4):324–31.
Ti L, Wood E, Shannon K, Feng C, Kerr T. Police confrontations among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting. Int J Drug Policy. 2013;24(1):46–51.
Werb D, Wood E, Small W, Strathdee S, Li K, Montaner J, et al. Effects of police confiscation of illicit drugs and syringes among injection drug users in Vancouver. Int J Drug Policy. 2008;19(4):332–8.
Pollini RA, Brouwer KC, Lozada RM, Ramos R, Cruz MF, Magis-Rodriguez C, et al. Syringe possession arrests are associated with receptive syringe sharing in two Mexico-US border cities. Addiction (Abingdon, England). 2008;103(1):101–8.
Small W, Rhodes T, Wood E, Kerr T. Public injection settings in Vancouver: physical environment, social context and risk. Int J Drug Policy. 2007;18(1):27–36.
Volkmann T, Lozada R, Anderson CM, Patterson TL, Vera A, Strathdee SA. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico. Harm Reduct J. 2011;8:7.
Sarang A, Rhodes T, Sheon N, Page K. Policing drug users in Russia: risk, fear, and structural violence. Subst Use Misuse. 2010;45(6):813–64.
Wagner KD, Simon-Freeman R, Bluthenthal RN. The association between law enforcement encounters and syringe sharing among IDUs on skid row: a mixed methods analysis. AIDS Behav. 2013;17(8):2637–43.
Philbin MM, Zhang F. Exploring stakeholder perceptions of facilitators and barriers to accessing methadone maintenance clinics in Yunnan Province, China. AIDS Care. 2010;22(5):623–9.
Mimiaga MJ, Safren SA, Dvoryak S, Reisner SL, Needle R, Woody G. “We fear the police, and the police fear us”: structural and individual barriers and facilitators to HIV medication adherence among injection drug users in Kiev, Ukraine. AIDS Care. 2010;22(11):1305–13.
Beletsky L, Heller D, Jenness SM, Neaigus A, Gelpi-Acosta C, Hagan H. Syringe access, syringe sharing, and police encounters among people who inject drugs in New York City: a community-level perspective. Int J Drug Policy. 2014;25(1):105–11.
DeBeck K, Wood E, Zhang R, Tyndall M, Montaner J, Kerr T. Police and public health partnerships: evidence from the evaluation of Vancouver’s supervised injection facility. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2008;3(1):11.
Davis CS, Beletsky L. Bundling occupational safety with harm reduction information as a feasible method for improving police receptiveness to syringe access programs: evidence from three U.S. cities. Harm Reduct J. 2009;6(1):16.
Watson TM, Bayoumi AM, Hopkins S, Wright A, Naraine R, Khorasheh T, et al. Creating and sustaining cooperative relationships between supervised injection services and police: a qualitative interview study of international stakeholders. Int J Drug Policy. 2018;61:1–6.
Bardwell G, Scheim A, Mitra S, Kerr T. Assessing support for supervised injection services among community stakeholders in London, Canada. Int J Drug Policy. 2017;48:27–33.
Hayle S. A tale of two Canadian cities: comparing supervised consumption site (SCS) policy making in Toronto and Vancouver. Drugs. 2018;25(5):397–407.
Strike C, Watson TM. Relationships, training, and formal agreements between needle and syringe programs and police. Health Promot Pract. 2018;19(5):741–6.
Edwards N, Barker PM. The importance of context in implementation research. J Acquired Immune Deficiency Synd (1999). 2014;67(Suppl 2):S157–62.
May CR, Johnson M, Finch T. Implementation, context and complexity. Implement Sci. 2016;11(1):141.
Pfadenhauer LM, Gerhardus A, Mozygemba K, Lysdahl KB, Booth A, Hofmann B, et al. Making sense of complexity in context and implementation: the Context and Implementation of Complex Interventions (CICI) framework. Implement Sci. 2017;12(1):21.
Creswell JW, Miller DL. Determining validity in qualitative inquiry. Theory Into Pract. 2000;39(3):124–30.
Corbin J, Strauss A. Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Los Angeles: Sage Publications; 2015.
Bergin M. NVivo 8 and consistency in data analysis: reflecting on the use of a qualitative data analysis program. Nurse Res. 2011;18(3):6–12.
Toronto Police Service. Supervised injection services safety and security. Toronto: Toronto Police Service; 2017.
Small W, Kerr T, Charette J, Schechter MT, Spittal PM. Impacts of intensified police activity on injection drug users: evidence from an ethnographic investigation. Int J Drug Policy. 2006;17(2):85–95.
Petrar S, Kerr T, Tyndall MW, Zhang R, Montaner JS, Wood E. Injection drug users’ perceptions regarding use of a medically supervised safer injecting facility. Addict Behav. 2007;32(5):1088–93.
Bennett D, Larkin D. Project Inclusion: Confronting anti-homeless and anti-substance user stigma in British Columbia. Vancouver: Pivot Legal Society; 2018.
Kimber J, Dolan K. Shooting gallery operation in the context of establishing a medically supervised injecting center: Sydney, Australia. J Urban Health. 2007;84(2):255–66.
Fairbairn N, Small W, Shannon K, Wood E, Kerr T. Seeking refuge from violence in street-based drug scenes: women’s experiences in North America’s first supervised injection facility. Soc Sci Med. 2008;67(5):817–23.
Small W, Ainsworth L, Wood E, Kerr T. IDU perspectives on the design and operation of North America’s first medically supervised injection facility. Subst Use Misuse. 2011;46(5):561–8.
Small W, Moore D, Shoveller J, Wood E, Kerr T. Perceptions of risk and safety within injection settings: injection drug users’ reasons for attending a supervised injecting facility in Vancouver, Canada. Health Risk Society. 2012;14(4):307–24.
Bokhour BG, Saifu H, Goetz MB, Fix GM, Burgess J, Fletcher MD, et al. The role of evidence and context for implementing a multimodal intervention to increase HIV testing. Implement Sci. 2015;10:22.
Knight R, Small W, Thomson K, Gilbert M, Shoveller J. Implementation challenges and opportunities for HIV Treatment as Prevention (TasP) among young men in Vancouver, Canada: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):262.
Hamilton AB, Mittman BS, Campbell D, Hutchinson C, Liu H, Moss NJ, et al. Understanding the impact of external context on community-based implementation of an evidence-based HIV risk reduction intervention. BMC Health Serv Res. 2018;18(1):11.
Strike C, Watson TM, Altenberg J, Barnaby L, Bayoumi AM, Challacombe L, Demel G, Hopkins S, Kallio N, Khorasheh T, Naraine R, Wright A. Recommendations for building working relationships between supervised injection services and Toronto Police Service: evidence brief. Toronto: University of Toronto; 2018.
Medical Officer of Health. Staff report for action on implementing supervised injection services in Toronto. Toronto: City of Toronto; 2016.
Arredondo J, Strathdee SA, Cepeda J, Abramovitz D, Artamonova I, Clairgue E, et al. Measuring improvement in knowledge of drug policy reforms following a police education program in Tijuana, Mexico. Harm Reduct J. 2017;14(1):72.