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  1. Primary needle and syringe programs (NSPs) have been integral for the prevention of blood-borne virus (BBV) transmission among people who inject drugs. Despite this, many people who inject drugs face barriers ...

    Authors: Shelley Walker, Michael Curtis, Amy Kirwan, Rebecca Thatcher and Paul Dietze
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:51
  2. Tele-harm reduction (THR) is a telehealth-enhanced, peer-led, harm reduction intervention delivered within a trusted syringe services program (SSP) venue. The primary goal of THR is to facilitate linkage to ca...

    Authors: Carolina Scaramutti, Belén Hervera, Yanexy Rivera, Teresa A. Chueng, David W. Forrest, Edward Suarez Jr, David P. Serota,, Hatoun Alkamli, Katrina Ciraldo, Tyler S. Bartholomew and Hansel E. Tookes
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:50
  3. Pharmacies are critical healthcare partners in community efforts to eliminate bloodborne illnesses. Pharmacy sale of sterile syringes is central to this effort.

    Authors: Danielle M. Russell, Beth E. Meyerson, Arlene N. Mahoney, Irene Garnett, Chris Ferrell, Kylee Newgass, Jon D. Agley, Richard A. Crosby, Keith G. Bentele, Nina Vadiei, David Frank and Linnea B. Linde-Krieger
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:49
  4. Harm reduction (HR) is a critical response to the pronounced toxicity deaths being experienced in Canada. HR providers report many benefits of their jobs, but also encounter chronic stress from structural ineq...

    Authors: Sheena Taha, Samantha King, Sara Atif and Eliza Bate
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:48
  5. Harms associated with the use of alcohol and other drugs (AOD) in licensed entertainment settings (LES) and outdoor music festivals (OMF) are ongoing public health and criminal justice concerns. This systemati...

    Authors: Christopher Eassey, Caitlin E. Hughes, Phillip Wadds, Dominique de Andrade and Monica J. Barratt
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:47
  6. Xylazine is a dangerous veterinary sedative found mainly in illicit fentanyl in the Northeast and Midwest. Its role in the Deep South overdose crisis is not well-characterized.

    Authors: William Bradford, Mary Figgatt, Karen S. Scott, Stacy Marshall, Ellen F. Eaton and Daniel W. Dye
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:46
  7. Smoking is the most common mode of unregulated opioid consumption overall and implicated in fatal overdoses in British Columbia (BC). In part, perception of decreased risk (e.g., fewer who smoke carry naloxone...

    Authors: Jessica Moe, Tamara Chavez, Charotte Marr, Fred Cameron, Damian Feldman-Kiss, Yueqiao Elle Wang, Jessica C. Xavier, Zahra Mamdani, Roy A. Purssell, Amy Salmon and Jane A. Buxton
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:45
  8. In 2021–2022, encampments in a downtown Boston neighborhood reached record heights, increasing the visibility of drug use and homelessness in the city. In response, the city planned a “sweep” (i.e., eradicatio...

    Authors: Corinne A. Beaugard, Fay Khudairi, Oluwatoyin Yesufu, Andrea Farina and Jordana Laks
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:44
  9. In the Global South, young people who use drugs (YPWUD) are exposed to multiple interconnected social and health harms, with many low- and middle-income countries enforcing racist, prohibitionist-based drug po...

    Authors: M-J Stowe, Rita Gatonye, Ishwor Maharjan, Seyi Kehinde, Sidarth Arya, Jorge Herrera Valderrábano, Angela Mcbride, Florian Scheibein, Emmy Kageha Igonya and Danya Fast
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:43
  10. Immediate access to naloxone is needed to prevent fatal opioid-related overdoses in the presence of fentanyl analogs saturating the opioid supply. Peer models engage impacted populations who are not accessing ...

    Authors: Nikki M. Lewis, Rebecca P. Smeltzer, Trevor J. Baker, Andrea C. Sahovey, Justine Baez, Erika Hensel, Brandon Poole, Cecelia Stewart, Allyson G. Cogan, Mackenzie Bullard and Jessica L. Taylor
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:42
  11. Lebanon remains as one of the major sources of cannabis worldwide. In 2020, its government passed a legislation enabling the cultivation of local medicinal cannabis. This first study following the legislative ...

    Authors: Lilian Ghandour, Andre Slim, Nada Abbas and Joseph El-Khoury
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:41
  12. Overdose prevention centers (OPCs), also known as supervised injection facilities and safe consumption sites, are evidenced-based interventions for preventing overdose deaths and drug-related morbidities. The ...

    Authors: Joseph G. Rosen, Erin Thompson, Jessica Tardif, Alexandra B. Collins, Brandon D. L. Marshall and Ju Nyeong Park
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:40
  13. First responders [law enforcement officers (LEO) and Fire/Emergency Medical Services (EMS)] can play a vital prevention role, connecting overdose survivors to treatment and recovery services. This study was co...

    Authors: Saad T. Siddiqui, Anna La Manna, Elizabeth Connors, Ryan Smith, Kyle Vance, Zach Budesa, Jeremiah Goulka, Leo Beletsky, Claire A. Wood, Phillip Marotta and Rachel P. Winograd
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:39
  14. Human service settings not specifically focused on supporting people who use drugs (PWUD), especially those with a substance use disorder (SUD), such as probation and parole services, homeless shelters, and wo...

    Authors: Hope Worden Kenefick and Alexis Wing
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:38
  15. The rising prevalence of fast-acting opioids in the USA suggests the increased need for non-professional first responder administration of naloxone. Effective administration of naloxone during an overdose requ...

    Authors: Spencer Cooper-Ohm, Patrick Habecker, Ryan Humeniuk and Rick A. Bevins
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:37
  16. Despite recent financial and policy support for harm reduction in the USA, information on the types of workers within organizations who design, implement, and actualize harm reduction services remains nascent....

    Authors: Lisa de Saxe Zerden, Orrin D. Ware, Brooke N. Lombardi and Brianna M. Lombardi
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:36
  17. As part of its comprehensive plan to significantly reduce the harm from tobacco products, the US Food and Drug Administration is establishing a product standard to lower nicotine in conventional cigarettes to ...

    Authors: Mingda Zhang, Jingzhu Wang and Jeffery Edmiston
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:35
  18. Authors: Elena Cama, Kim Beadman, Mitch Beadman, Kerri-Anne Smith, Jade Christian, Aunty Clair Jackson, Beverley Tyson, Clayton Anderson, Larissa Smyth, Jennifer Heslop, Gary Gahan, Victor Tawil, Felicity Sheaves, Louise Maher, Julie Page, Donna Tilley…
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:34

    The original article was published in Harm Reduction Journal 2023 20:125

  19. According to a recently published study, approximately half of those who currently smoke in Norway have little or no desire to quit despite a hostile regulatory and socio-cultural climate for smoking. On this ...

    Authors: Karl Erik Lund and Gunnar Saebo
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:33
  20. In response to the exacerbated rates of morbidity and mortality associated with the overlapping overdose and COVID-19 epidemics, novel strategies have been developed, implemented, operationalized and scaled to...

    Authors: William Rioux, Adrian Teare, Nathan Rider, Stephanie Jones and S. Monty Ghosh
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:31
  21. In 2021, a Chinese court, based on the newly enacted Civil Code, first revoked a marriage license due to the spouse’s failure to disclose their HIV infection before the marriage. This landmark case ignited a fres...

    Authors: Ziyi Xie and Zhizhuang Duan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:30
  22. People who use drugs (PWUD) experience elevated HIV risk and numerous barriers to facility-based HIV testing. HIV self-testing (HIVST) could circumvent many of those barriers and is acceptable among PWUD, yet ...

    Authors: Angela R. Bazzi, Chad J. Valasek, Tara Stamos-Buesig, William H. Eger, Alicia Harvey-Vera, Carlos F. Vera, Jennifer L. Syvertsen, Erik D. Storholm, Tyler S. Bartholomew, Hansel E. Tookes, Steffanie A. Strathdee and Heather A. Pines
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:29
  23. Unregulated supply of fentanyl and adulterants continues to drive the overdose crisis. Mobile Overdose Response Services (MORS) are novel technologies that offer virtual supervised consumption to minimize the ...

    Authors: Boogyung Seo, Nathan Rider, William Rioux, Adrian Teare, Stephanie Jones, Pamela Taplay and S. Monty Ghosh
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:28
  24. Adulterants, such as fentanyl and xylazine, among others, are present in a high percentage of the illicit drug supply, increasing the risk for overdose and other adverse health events among people who use drug...

    Authors: Megan K. Reed, Elias Borne, Tracy Esteves Camacho, Morgan Kelly and Kristin L. Rising
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:26
  25. Due to shared modes of transmission, coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is common, and HBV vaccination is recommended for all persons with HCV who remain susceptible to HBV. T...

    Authors: Catherine Campusano, Rachel Kanner, Claire McDonell, Meghan Morris, Maria Duarte and Jennifer C. Price
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:25
  26. Against the backdrop of North America’s overdose crisis, most overdose deaths are occurring in housing environments, largely due to individuals using drugs alone. Overdose deaths in cities remain concentrated ...

    Authors: Taylor Fleming, Jade Boyd, Koharu Loulou Chayama, Kelly R. Knight and Ryan McNeil
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:24
  27. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) disproportionately affects rural communities, where health services are geographically dispersed. It remains unknown whether proximity to a syringe services program (SSP) is associated ...

    Authors: Eric Romo, Thomas J. Stopka, Bill M. Jesdale, Bo Wang, Kathleen M. Mazor and Peter D. Friedmann
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:23
  28. Many physicians including emergency medicine physicians report insufficient training and education on prescribing buprenorphine for opioid use disorder. As emergency departments implement buprenorphine inducti...

    Authors: Cara Marie Borelli and Han Tony Gao
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:22
  29. Although cannabis use incidence, societal acceptance, and legislation all trend positively, cannabis remains federally illegal in the USA. Prior studies have revealed that patients are reluctant to disclose th...

    Authors: Daniel D. King, Christopher J. Gill, Carey S. Cadieux and Neha Singh
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:21
  30. Opioid-related mortality is a rising public health concern in France, where opioids were in 2021 implicated in 75% of overdose deaths. Opioid substitution treatment (OST) was implicated in almost half of death...

    Authors: Aurélie Aquizerate, Morgane Rousselet, Axel Cochard, Marylène Guerlais, Marie Gerardin, Emilie Lefebvre, Mélanie Duval, Edouard-Jules Laforgue and Caroline Victorri-Vigneau
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:20
  31. Over 180,000 people use crack cocaine in England, yet provision of smoking equipment to support safer crack use is prohibited under UK law. Pipes used for crack cocaine smoking are often homemade and/or in sho...

    Authors: Magdalena Harris, Jenny Scott, Vivian Hope, Joanna Busza, Sedona Sweeney, Andrew Preston, Mat Southwell, Niamh Eastwood, Cedomir Vuckovic, Caitlynne McGaff, Ian Yoon, Louise Wilkins, Shoba Ram, Catherine Lord, Philippe Bonnet, Peter Furlong…
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:19
  32. Addressing xylazine harms are now a critical harm reduction priority, but relatively little epidemiological information exists to determine prevalence, magnitude, and correlates of xylazine use or related outc...

    Authors: Danielle German, Becky Genberg, Olivia Sugarman, Brendon Saloner, Anne Sawyer, Jennifer L. Glick, Molly Gribbin and Colin Flynn
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:18
  33. Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an urgent need to establish isolation spaces for people experiencing homelessness who were exposed to or had COVID-19. In response, community agencies and the City of ...

    Authors: Gillian Kolla, Chowdhury Nishwara Tarannum, Kaitlin Fajber, Fiqir Worku, Kris Norris, Cathy Long, Raphaela Fagundes, Anne Rucchetto, Eileen Hannan, Richard Kikot, Michelle Klaiman, Michelle Firestone, Ahmed Bayoumi, Gab Laurence and Kate Hayman
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:17
  34. The rise in injection drug use in the USA has led to an increase in injection site infections. We performed a national survey of people who use drugs to evaluate common drug use preparation, harm reduction pra...

    Authors: Laura R. Marks, Michael J. Durkin, Kelly Ayres and Matthew Ellis
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:16
  35. Consistent reports from health professionals suggest that heroin is commonly used by patients undergoing opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) in France, potentially jeopardizing their recovery process. However, ...

    Authors: Eric Janssen, Mike Vuolo, Stanislas Spilka and Guillaume Airagnes
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:15
  36. Over the past decade in the USA, increases in overdose rates of cocaine and psychostimulants with opioids were highest among Black, compared to White, populations. Whether fentanyl has contributed to the rise ...

    Authors: Angela T. Estadt, Brian N. White, JaNelle M. Ricks, Kathryn E. Lancaster, Staci Hepler, William C. Miller and David Kline
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:13
  37. The first Harm Reduction DACH Conference [DACH = D (Germany), A (Austria), CH (Switzerland)] took place in Vienna on June 23rd, 2023, and focused on tobacco harm reduction. It is the first conference bringing ...

    Authors: Larissa Steimle, Simon Fleißner, Hans Haltmayer, Thilo Beck, Alfred Springer and Heino Stöver
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:12
  38. Shifts in the US drug supply, including the proliferation of synthetic opioids and emergence of xylazine, have contributed to the worsening toll of the overdose epidemic. Drug checking services offer a critica...

    Authors: Kyle J. Moon, Heather D. Whitehead, Anne Trinh, Kathryn A. Hasenstab, Kathleen L. Hayes, Debra Stanley, Brittany Carter, Rick Barclay, Marya Lieberman and Saira Nawaz
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:11
  39. While women living with HIV (WLWH) are twice as likely to report severe or undertreated chronic pain compared to men, little is known about pain among WLWH. Our goal was to characterize the correlates of pain ...

    Authors: Sophia Ly, Kate Shannon, Melissa Braschel, Haoxuan Zhou, Andrea Krüsi and Kathleen Deering
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:10
  40. Each year, thousands of migrants enter the EU. Data on drug use in migrant populations are scarce and inconclusive. However, several risk factors make them particularly vulnerable to engaging in problematic dr...

    Authors: Lena van Selm, Trenton M. White, Camila A. Picchio, Ana Requena-Méndez, Machteld Busz, Roberto Perez Gayo, Aline Pouille, Pedro Mateu Gelabert and Jeffrey V. Lazarus
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:9
  41. Programmatic and financial sustainability of health responses dependent on donor funding has risen as a major concern. In the HIV field in particular, it generated a number of instruments and assessments on su...

    Authors: Raminta Stuikyte, Ivan Varentsov, Catherine Cook and Sergii Dvoriak
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:7

    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:27

  42. Globally, People Who Inject Drugs (PWID) have limited healthcare, treatment, and prevention services, and they frequently experience stigma and negative attitudes toward healthcare providers when accessing ser...

    Authors: Cynthia Semá Baltazar, Auria Ribeiro Banze, Jessica Seleme and Makini Boothe
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:6
  43. With growing rates of unregulated drug toxicity death and concerns regarding COVID-19 transmission among people who use drugs, in March 2020, prescribed safer supply guidance was released in British Columbia. ...

    Authors: Heather Palis, Beth Haywood, Jenny McDougall, Chloé G. Xavier, Roshni Desai, Samuel Tobias, Heather Burgess, Max Ferguson, Lisa Liu, Brooke Kinniburgh, Amanda K. Slaunwhite, Alexis Crabtree and Jane A. Buxton
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:5
  44. HIV self-testing (HIVST) could increase HIV testing access among people who inject drugs (PWID), and secondary distribution (i.e., peer-delivery) of HIVST kits in PWID social networks could further expand cove...

    Authors: Heather A. Pines, William H. Eger, Britt Skaathun, Carlos F. Vera, Alicia Harvey-Vera, Gudelia Rangel, Steffanie A. Strathdee and Angela R. Bazzi
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:4
  45. Women with substance-use issues are overrepresented in prison. Research on women’s recidivism often focuses on offending behaviour rather than the health and social circumstances women are experiencing when re...

    Authors: Layla Maree Edwards, Sungwon Chang, Reem Zeki, Sacha Kendall Jamieson, Julia Bowman, Craig Cooper and Elizabeth Sullivan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:2