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  1. There is a need to improve retention and outcomes for treatment of problem gambling and gambling disorder. Contingency management (CM) is a behavioural intervention involving identification of target behaviour...

    Authors: Lucy Dorey, Darren R. Christensen, Richard May, Alice E. Hoon and Simon Dymond
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:19
  2. Naloxone-based interventions as part of health systems can reverse an opioid overdose. Previous systematic reviews have identified the effectiveness of naloxone; however, the role of context and mechanisms for...

    Authors: Nicole M. Miller, Bethany Waterhouse-Bradley, Claire Campbell and Gillian W. Shorter
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:18
  3. Drug overdoses occur when the amount of drug or combination of drugs consumed is toxic and negatively affects physiological functioning. Opioid overdoses are responsible for the majority of overdose deaths wor...

    Authors: Michael Wilson, Amanda Brumwell, M. J. Stowe, Shaun Shelly and Andrew Scheibe
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:17
  4. People who use, including those who inject, drugs in Indonesia are disproportionately affected by HIV, but tend to be diagnosed at a late stage of infection, delay initiation to and have poor rates of retentio...

    Authors: Arif Rachman Iryawan, Claudia Stoicescu, Faisyal Sjahrial, Kuntanto Nio and Alexa Dominich
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:16
  5. Access for legal minors to needle and syringe programmes raises a number of practical, legal and ethical challenges that traverse clinical practice, child protection and child rights. This article addresses th...

    Authors: Damon Barrett, Frida Petersson and Russell Turner
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:15
  6. Hospital-based addiction care focuses on assessing and diagnosing substance use disorders, managing withdrawal, and initiating medications for addiction treatment. Hospital harm reduction is generally limited ...

    Authors: Rachel Perera, Louise Stephan, Ayesha Appa, Ro Giuliano, Robert Hoffman, Paula Lum and Marlene Martin
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:14
  7. In May 2018, St. Paul’s Hospital (SPH) in Vancouver (Canada) opened an outdoor peer-led overdose prevention site (OPS) operated in partnership with Vancouver Coastal Health and RainCity Housing. At the end of ...

    Authors: Elizabeth Dogherty, Carlin Patterson, Marilou Gagnon, Scott Harrison, Jocelyn Chase, Jill Boerstler, Jennifer Gibson, Sam Gill, Seonaid Nolan and Andy Ryan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:13
  8. Dance festivals have been shown to be high-risk events for use of drugs such as ecstasy/MDMA and possible adverse effects associated with use. However, few studies have examined what makes festivals such risky...

    Authors: Joseph J. Palamar and İbrahim Sönmez
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:12
  9. Excessive alcohol consumption is an important risk factor for increased morbidity, mortality and other social harms globally. Televised sport allows the promotion of alcoholic drinks to a large and often young...

    Authors: Mulugeta Tamire, Alex Barker, Sefonias Getachew, Rachael L. Murray, Rihanna Amedala, John Britton, Wakgari Deressa and Andrew W. Fogarty
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:11
  10. For people experiencing homelessness and problem substance use, access to appropriate services can be challenging. There is evidence that the development of trusting relationships with non-judgemental staff ca...

    Authors: Tessa Parkes, Catriona Matheson, Hannah Carver, Rebecca Foster, John Budd, Dave Liddell, Jason Wallace, Bernie Pauly, Maria Fotopoulou, Adam Burley, Isobel Anderson, Tracey Price, Joe Schofield and Graeme MacLennan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:10
  11. Unpredictable fluctuations in the illicit drug market increase overdose risk. Drug checking, or the use of technology to provide insight into the contents of illicit drug products, is an overdose prevention st...

    Authors: Jennifer J. Carroll, Sarah Mackin, Clare Schmidt, Michelle McKenzie and Traci C. Green
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:9
  12. In this essay, I show that notwithstanding the undeniable colonial origins of punitive drug policies around the world, such policies have figured in nationalist projects and populist platforms in various postc...

    Authors: Gideon Lasco
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:8
  13. The COVID-19 outbreak disproportionally affects vulnerable populations including people who inject drugs (PWID). Social distancing and stay-at-home orders might result in a lack of access to medical and social...

    Authors: Trang Thu Nguyen, Giang Thi Hoang, Duc Quang Nguyen, Anh Huu Nguyen, Ngoc Anh Luong, Didier Laureillard, Nicolas Nagot, Don Des Jarlais, Huong Thi Duong, Thanh Thi Tuyet Nham, Oanh Thi Hai Khuat, Khue Minh Pham, Mai Sao Le, Laurent Michel, Delphine Rapoud and Giang Minh Le
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:6
  14. The opioid epidemic is a rapidly growing public health concern in the USA, as the number of overdose deaths continues to increase each year. One strategy for combating the rising number of overdoses is through...

    Authors: Nicholas Alexander Bascou, Benjamin Haslund-Gourley, Katrina Amber-Monta, Kyle Samson, Nathaniel Goss, Dakota Meredith, Andrew Friedman, Andrew Needleman, Vishnu K. Kumar and Bradford D. Fischer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:5
  15. The USA is experiencing increases in methamphetamine use and methamphetamine-related or attributed deaths. In the current study, we explore qualitative narratives of methamphetamine overdose and strategies use...

    Authors: Robert W. Harding, Katherine T. Wagner, Phillip Fiuty, Krysti P. Smith, Kimberly Page and Karla D. Wagner
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:4
  16. The overdose crisis has generated innovative harm reduction and drug market monitoring strategies. In Toronto, Ontario, Canada, a multi-site drug checking service (DCS) pilot project was launched in October 2...

    Authors: Kristy M. Scarfone, Nazlee Maghsoudi, Karen McDonald, Cristiana Stefan, Daniel R. Beriault, Ernest Wong, Mark Evert, Shaun Hopkins, Peter Leslie, Tara Marie Watson and Dan Werb
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:3
  17. ETHER (“Education THEérapeutique pour la Réduction des dommages en alcoologie” or Therapeutic education for alcohol-related harm reduction) is a multicentre community-based mixed-methods study, which aims to eval...

    Authors: Saskia Antwerpes, Marie Costa, Marion Coste, Morgane Bureau, Gwenaelle Maradan, Christophe Cutarella, Jacques Leloutre, Olivier Riccobono-Soulier, Sophie Hedoire, Elodie Frot, Fabienne Vernier, Stéphanie Vassas-Goyard, Tangui Barré, Danielle Casanova and Patrizia Carrieri
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:2
  18. Expanding access to sterile syringes in rural areas is vital, as injection-related epidemics expand beyond metropolitan areas globally. While pharmacies have potential to be an easily accessible source of ster...

    Authors: Monica Fadanelli, Hannah L. F. Cooper, Patricia R. Freeman, April M. Ballard, Umed Ibragimov and April M. Young
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:1
  19. Intramuscular (IM) injection of drugs is associated with high rates of injecting-related injuries and diseases. However, little is known about the role of this route of administration in heroin-assisted treatm...

    Authors: Maximilian Meyer, Ramón Eichenberger, Johannes Strasser, Kenneth M. Dürsteler and Marc Vogel
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:134
  20. In Kenya, people who inject drugs (PWID) are disproportionately affected by HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) epidemics, including HIV-HCV coinfections; however, few have assessed factors affecting their access to and...

    Authors: Natasha T. Ludwig-Barron, Brandon L. Guthrie, Loice Mbogo, David Bukusi, William Sinkele, Esther Gitau, Carey Farquhar and Aliza Monroe-Wise
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:133
  21. Policing shapes the health risks of people who use drugs (PWUD), but little is understood about interventions that can align officer practices with PWUD health. This study deploys the Theory of Planned Behavio...

    Authors: Brandon del Pozo, Emily Sightes, Jeremiah Goulka, Brad Ray, Claire A. Wood, Saad Siddiqui and Leo A. Beletsky
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:132
  22. Patients with substance use disorders are more likely than those without to have a self-directed hospital discharge, putting them at risk for poor health outcomes including progressing illness, readmissions, a...

    Authors: Peggy Compton, Shoshana V. Aronowitz, Heather Klusaritz and Evan Anderson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:131
  23. In Rwanda, epidemiological data characterizing people who inject drugs (PWID) and their burden of HIV are limited. We examined injection drug use (IDU) history and practices, and HIV infection in a sample of P...

    Authors: Jean Olivier Twahirwa Rwema, Vianney Nizeyimana, Neia M. Prata, Nneoma E. Okonkwo, Amelia A. Mazzei, Sulemani Muhirwa, Athanase Rukundo, Lisa Lucas, Audace Niyigena, Jean Damascene Makuza, Chris Beyrer, Stefan D. Baral and Aflodis Kagaba
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:130
  24. The COVID-19 had a substantial impact on the provision of harm reduction services for people who use drugs globally. These front-line public health interventions serve a population that due to stigma, discrimi...

    Authors: Robert Csák, Sam Shirley-Beavan, Arielle Edelman McHenry, Colleen Daniels and Naomi Burke-Shyne
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:128
  25. The COVID-19 pandemic has had especially devastating effects on people who use drugs. Due to pandemic protocols in the USA, medication-assisted treatment (MAT) regulations became more flexible, permitting our ...

    Authors: Ellis Jaewon Yeo, Hannah Kralles, David Sternberg, Dana McCullough, Ajetha Nadanasabesan, Richard Mayo, Hana Akselrod and Jillian Catalanotti
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:127
  26. While there is a general acceptance among public health officials and policy-makers that syringe services programs can be effective in reducing HIV transmission among persons who inject drugs, local syringe se...

    Authors: Don C. Des Jarlais, Jonathan Feelemyer, Courtney McKnight, Kelly Knudtson and Sara N. Glick
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:126
  27. Worldwide, alcohol-related road traffic accidents represent a major avoidable health risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of self-estimating the degree of acute alcohol intoxication regardi...

    Authors: Jöran Köchling, Berit Geis, Cho-Ming Chao, Jana-K. Dieks, Stefan Wirth and Kai O. Hensel
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:122
  28. Several published systematic reviews have examined the potential associations between e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking, but their methodological and/or reporting quality have not yet been assessed. This s...

    Authors: Mimi M. Kim, Lynley Pound, Isabella Steffensen and Geoffrey M. Curtin
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:121
  29. This paper reviews evidence of how drug control has been used to uphold colonial power structures in select countries. It demonstrates the racist and xenophobic impact of drug control policy and proposes a pat...

    Authors: Colleen Daniels, Aggrey Aluso, Naomi Burke-Shyne, Kojo Koram, Suchitra Rajagopalan, Imani Robinson, Shaun Shelly, Sam Shirley-Beavan and Tripti Tandon
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:120
  30. The majority of individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) face access barriers to evidence-based treatment, and the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the United States (US) opioid overdose crisis. However, th...

    Authors: Shoshana V. Aronowitz, Eden Engel-Rebitzer, Abby Dolan, Kehinde Oyekanmi, David Mandell, Zachary Meisel, Eugenia South and Margaret Lowenstein
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:119
  31. While people who inject drugs (PWID) are vulnerable to the adverse outcomes of events like COVID-19, little is known regarding the impact of the current pandemic on PWID. We examine how COVID-19 has affected P...

    Authors: Yesenia Aponte-Melendez, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Chunki Fong, Benjamin Eckhardt, Shashi Kapadia and Kristen Marks
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:118
  32. After implementing a nationwide harm reduction program in 2006, a dramatic decline in the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among people with injection drug use (IDU) was observed in Ta...

    Authors: Wei J. Chen, Chi-Ya Chen, Shang-Chi Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang Wu, Susyan Jou, Yu-Chi Tung and Tzu-Pin Lu
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:117
  33. Syringe services programs (SSPs) remain highly effective, cost-saving interventions for the prevention of blood-borne infections among people who inject drugs. However, there have been restrictions regarding f...

    Authors: Tyler S. Bartholomew, Hardik Patel, Kathryn McCollister, Daniel J. Feaster and Hansel E. Tookes
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:116
  34. Provision of sterile syringes is an evidence-based strategy of reducing syringe sharing and reusing and yet, access to sterile syringes through pharmacies and syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in the United Sta...

    Authors: Phillip L. Marotta, Kristi Stringer, Leo Beletsky, Brooke S. West, Dawn Goddard-Eckrich, Louisa Gilbert, Tim Hunt, Elwin Wu and Nabila El-Bassel
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:115
  35. Up-to-date monitoring of non-combustible nicotine products (e.g. e-cigarettes, nicotine replacement therapies (NRT), heated tobacco products (HTP); NNP) is important to assess their impact. To date, there is l...

    Authors: Sharon Cox, Jamie Brown, Loren Kock and Lion Shahab
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:114
  36. Authors: Florian Scheibein, Kevin McGirr, Andy Morrison, Warren Roche and John Stephen Gary Wells
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:113

    The original article was published in Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:73

  37. Young adults experiencing homelessness are at high risk of opioid and other substance use, poor mental health outcomes, exposure to trauma, and other risks. Providing access to stable housing has the potential...

    Authors: Kelly J. Kelleher, Ruri Famelia, Tansel Yilmazer, Allen Mallory, Jodi Ford, Laura J. Chavez and Natasha Slesnick
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:112
  38. Gambling harm affects men and women relatively equally, and gender influences the social determinants of gambling harm. Responses to preventing and minimising women’s gambling harm have been shaped and constra...

    Authors: Katie Palmer du Preez, Anna-Marie Paavonen and Maria E. Bellringer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:111
  39. Fatal overdoses from opioid use and substance disorders are increasing at an alarming rate. One proposed harm reduction strategy for reducing overdose fatalities is to place overdose prevention sites—commonly ...

    Authors: Joanna R. Wares, Jing Dong, Jana L. Gevertz, Ami Radunskaya, Kendra Viner, Doug Wiebe and Sara Solomon
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:110

    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:129

  40. The combustion of tobacco is the main cause of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. E-cigarettes are potentially disruptive innovations with considerable potential for population health. A key question is ...

    Authors: Tomasz Jerzyński, Gerry V. Stimson, Harry Shapiro and Grzegorz Król
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:109
  41. Among individuals experiencing homelessness, the prevalence of alcohol use disorder is extremely high. Alcohol-related harms are compounded by the use of non-beverage alcohol (NBA; e.g. rubbing alcohol, cookin...

    Authors: Jean Nicolas Westenberg, Mostafa Mamdouh Kamel, Sindi Addorisio, Mohammad Abusamak, James S. H. Wong, Ava Outadi, Kerry L. Jang and R. Michael Krausz
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:108
  42. The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) and associated image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs) is now a global phenomenon. There is a need to develop evidence to support the development of interven...

    Authors: Jim McVeigh, Evelyn Hearne, Ian Boardley, Geoff Bates, Vivian Hope, Rob Ralphs and Marie Claire Van Hout
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:107
  43. In recent decades, several political, legislative, judicial, consumer, and commercial processes around the world have advanced legalization efforts for the use of medical cannabis (MC). As the use of MC evolve...

    Authors: Mohammad Ali Ruheel, Zoya Gomes, Sana Usman, Pargol Homayouni and Jeremy Y. Ng
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:106
  44. The North American opioid overdose crisis is driven in large part by the presence of unknown psychoactive adulterants in the dynamic, unregulated drug supply. We herein report the first detection of the psycho...

    Authors: Jeanette M. Bowles, Karen McDonald, Nazlee Maghsoudi, Hayley Thompson, Cristiana Stefan, Daniel R. Beriault, Sarah Delaney, Ernest Wong and Dan Werb
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:104
  45. Recovery is a multidimensional process that includes health, quality of life, and citizenship. Recovery capital is a strengths-based concept representing the sum of an individual’s resources that support recov...

    Authors: Anna Beth Parlier-Ahmad, Mishka Terplan, Dace S. Svikis, Laura Ellis and Caitlin E. Martin
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:103