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  1. Content type: Research

    In March of 2016, Florida passed the Infection Disease Elimination Act (IDEA), legalizing the formation of the first syringe exchange program in Florida, which opened in December of 2016 at a fixed site in Ove...

    Authors: Siddharth Iyengar, Adam Kravietz, Tyler S. Bartholomew, David Forrest and Hansel E. Tookes

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2019 16:7

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  2. Content type: Research

    Despite existing efforts to provide antiretroviral treatment (ART) for all HIV-diagnosed people, stigma deprives them of the highest attainable health status and challenges the effectiveness of ART program in ...

    Authors: Phung Quoc Tat Than, Bach Xuan Tran, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Nu Thi Truong, Thao Phuong Thi Thai, Carl A. Latkin, Cyrus S. H. Ho and Roger C. M. Ho

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2019 16:6

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  3. Content type: Research

    In 2016, a public health emergency was declared in British Columbia due to an unprecedented number of illicit drug overdose deaths. Injection drug use was implicated in approximately one third of overdose deat...

    Authors: Silvina C. Mema, Gillian Frosst, Jessica Bridgeman, Hilary Drake, Corinne Dolman, Leslie Lappalainen and Trevor Corneil

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2019 16:4

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  4. Content type: Research

    In 2016, drug overdose deaths exceeded 64,000 in the United States, driven by a sixfold increase in deaths attributable to illicitly manufactured fentanyl. Rapid fentanyl test strips (FTS), used to detect fent...

    Authors: Jacqueline E. Goldman, Katherine M. Waye, Kobe A. Periera, Maxwell S. Krieger, Jesse L. Yedinak and Brandon D. L. Marshall

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2019 16:3

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  5. Content type: Research

    We conducted a cross-sectional integrated bio-behavioral survey among sex partners of persons who inject drugs (PWID) to explore reasons for reported increase in reporting of heterosexually transmitted HIV in ...

    Authors: Anna P. Deryabina, Padmaja Patnaik and Wafaa M. El-Sadr

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2019 16:1

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  6. Content type: Research

    In midst of the overdose crisis, the clinical features of opioid overdoses seem to be changing. Understanding of the adverse effects of synthetic opioids such as fentanyl is currently limited to clinical setti...

    Authors: Mai-Lei Woo Kinshella, Tim Gauthier and Mark Lysyshyn

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:64

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  7. Content type: Research

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global epidemic with an estimated 71 million people infected worldwide. People who inject drugs (PWID) are overrepresented in prison populations globally and have higher ...

    Authors: Des Crowley, Marie Claire Van Hout, John S. Lambert, Enda Kelly, Carol Murphy and Walter Cullen

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:62

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  8. Content type: Brief report

    Though marijuana use has previously been associated with risky alcohol use, studies often do not delineate between the effect of recreational versus therapeutic marijuana use, particularly among people living ...

    Authors: Zachary L. Mannes, Erin G. Ferguson, Larry E. Burrell, Robert L. Cook and Nicole Ennis

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:61

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  9. Content type: Case study

    Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) has been available in a standard regime in the Czech Republic since 2000. Buprenorphine is the leading medication, while methadone is available only in a few specialised centres. T...

    Authors: Viktor Mravčík, Barbara Janíková, Barbora Drbohlavová, Petr Popov and Alessandro Pirona

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:60

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  10. Content type: Brief report

    Individuals experience differential risks in their initiation into drug injecting based on their gender. Data suggest women are more likely to be injected after their initiator and to share injection equipment...

    Authors: Stephanie A. Meyers, Ayden Scheim, Sonia Jain, Xiaoying Sun, M. J. Milloy, Kora DeBeck, Kanna Hayashi, Richard S. Garfein and Dan Werb

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:59

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  11. Content type: Review

    Alcohol and other drug misuse are significant but neglected public health issues in conflict-affected populations. In this article, we review the literature on the challenges and strategies for implementing su...

    Authors: M. Claire Greene, Jeremy C. Kane, Kaveh Khoshnood, Peter Ventevogel and Wietse A. Tol

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:58

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  12. Content type: Research

    As the burden from the opioid epidemic continues to increase in the state of Minnesota and across the nation, the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy seeks to design an innovative, comprehensive harm r...

    Authors: Lily Rowan Mahon, Amanda N. Hawthorne, Julie Lee, Heather Blue and Laura Palombi

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:57

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  13. Content type: Research

    Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is clinically efficacious and recommended for HIV prevention among people who inject drugs (PWID), but uptake remains low and intervention needs are understudied....

    Authors: K. B. Biello, A. R. Bazzi, M. J. Mimiaga, D. L. Biancarelli, A. Edeza, P. Salhaney, E. Childs and M. L. Drainoni

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:55

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  14. Content type: Research

    Estonia continues to have the highest prevalence of HIV among people who inject drugs, and the highest overdose mortality, in the European Union. In August 2017, the Eurasian Harm Reduction Association (EHRA),...

    Authors: Arune Kontautaite, Daria Matyushina-Ocheret, Maria Plotko, Mikhail Golichenko, Mart Kalvet and Lena Antonova

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:54

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  15. Content type: Research

    On the brink of the opening of the first French drug consumption room in Paris, the general opinion of the local involved health care professionals and drug users was not known. The objective of this study was...

    Authors: Grégoire Cleirec, Maeva Fortias, Vanessa Bloch, Virgile Clergue-Duval, Frank Bellivier, Thomas Dusouchet, Céline Debaulieu and Florence Vorspan

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:53

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  16. Content type: Research

    Recovery from substance use disorder (SUD) is often considered at odds with harm reduction strategies. More recently, harm reduction has been categorized as both a pathway to recovery and a series of services ...

    Authors: Robert D. Ashford, Brenda Curtis and Austin M. Brown

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:52

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  17. Content type: Research

    Research has demonstrated that the promotion of gambling, particularly within sport, may have a significant impact on positively shaping young people’s attitudes towards gambling. While some governments have i...

    Authors: Samantha L. Thomas, Amy Bestman, Hannah Pitt, Rebecca Cassidy, Simone McCarthy, Christian Nyemcsok, Sean Cowlishaw and Mike Daube

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:51

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  18. Content type: Research

    Article 10 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control states the need for industry disclosure of tobacco contents and emissions. Currently, the profiles of key tobacco compounds i...

    Authors: Ariela Braverman-Bronstein, James F Thrasher, Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu, Mauricio Hernández-Ávila and Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:50

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  19. Content type: Research

    In recent years, greater emphasis has been placed on gambling venues to identify potential problem gamblers, respond appropriately and refer to treatment. In seeking the perspectives of problem gamblers, venue...

    Authors: Ben J. Riley, Simone Orlowski, David Smith, Michael Baigent, Malcolm Battersby and Sharon Lawn

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:49

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  20. Content type: Research

    Take-home naloxone (THN) programmes are an evidence-based opioid overdose prevention initiative. Elevated opioid overdose risk following prison release means release from custody provides an ideal opportunity ...

    Authors: Michael Curtis, Paul Dietze, Campbell Aitken, Amy Kirwan, Stuart A. Kinner, Tony Butler and Mark Stoové

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:48

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  21. Content type: Brief report

    Cannabis-smoking patients with a psychotic disorder have poorer disease outcomes than non-cannabis-smoking patients with poorest outcomes in patients smoking high-potency cannabis (HPC) containing high Δ9-tetr...

    Authors: Jan van Amsterdam, Jojanneke Vervloet, Gerdien de Weert, Victor J. A. Buwalda, Anna E. Goudriaan and Wim van den Brink

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:47

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  22. Content type: Research

    British Columbia, Canada, is experiencing a public health emergency related to opioid overdoses driven by consumption of street drugs contaminated with illicitly manufactured fentanyl. This cross-sectional stu...

    Authors: Mohammad Karamouzian, Carolyn Dohoo, Sara Forsting, Ryan McNeil, Thomas Kerr and Mark Lysyshyn

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:46

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  23. Content type: Research

    Severe economic difficulties are common among younger generations who currently have an easy access to consumer credit and payday loans in many Western countries. These accessible yet expensive short-term loan...

    Authors: Atte Oksanen, Iina Savolainen, Anu Sirola and Markus Kaakinen

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:45

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  24. Content type: Research

    In 2012, the World Health Organization recommended that needle and syringe programs offer their clients low dead space insulin syringes with permanently attached needles. However, in many countries, these syri...

    Authors: William A. Zule, Alisher Latypov, David Otiashvili, Steffani Bangel and Georgiy V. Bobashev

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:44

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  25. Content type: Research

    Transitioning from non-injection to injection drug use dramatically escalates health risks. Evidence suggests that people who inject drugs (PWID) help in a majority of others’ first injections, yet these helpe...

    Authors: David M. Barnes, Don C. Des Jarlais, Margaret Wolff, Jonathan Feelemyer and Susan Tross

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:43

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  26. Content type: Research

    Recent advances in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection provide the possibility of eliminating HCV as a public health threat. This focus on HCV elimination through treatment, however, is also dri...

    Authors: Annie Madden, Max Hopwood, Joanne Neale and Carla Treloar

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:42

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  27. Content type: Research

    Despite the integration of peer workers into harm reduction services, there is little documentation regarding the experience of this integration or of models in which peers are fully integrated as members of h...

    Authors: Paula Tookey, Kate Mason, Jennifer Broad, Marty Behm, Lise Bondy and Jeff Powis

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:41

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  28. Content type: Research

    There are few women-centered treatment programs for substance use disorder. We therefore undertook an exploratory study to better understand the treatment experience, barriers, and facilitators of mothers with...

    Authors: Natasha Elms, Kendra Link, Adam Newman and Susan B. Brogly

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:40

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  29. Content type: Research

    Hepatitis C (HCV) is a global public health concern. There is a global prevalence of 15% among the world’s prisoner population, suggesting the need for priority HCV treatment among this population group. New h...

    Authors: Lise Lafferty, T. Cameron Wild, Jake Rance and Carla Treloar

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:39

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  30. Content type: Research

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at an increased risk of wound botulism, a potentially fatal acute paralytic illness. During the first 6 months of 2015, a large outbreak of wound botulism was confirmed among...

    Authors: Kirsten M. A. Trayner, Amanda Weir, Andrew McAuley, Gauri Godbole, Corinne Amar, Kathie Grant, Gillian Penrice and Kirsty Roy

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:36

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  31. Content type: Research

    People who use drugs have a significantly higher prevalence of chronic non-cancer pain compared to the general population, yet little is known about how various policy, economic, physical, and social environme...

    Authors: Pauline Voon, Alissa M. Greer, Ashraf Amlani, Cheri Newman, Charlene Burmeister and Jane A. Buxton

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:35

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  32. Content type: Research

    The opioid crisis remains a major public health issue in the US and beyond. Despite rapid rises in fentanyl-related mortality nationally, little is known about the role of fentanyl in the occurrence of non-fat...

    Authors: Ju Nyeong Park, Brian W. Weir, Sean T. Allen, Patrick Chaulk and Susan G. Sherman

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:34

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  33. Content type: Research

    Understanding the role that flavors play in the population’s use of e-cigarettes and the impact that flavored e-cigarette products have on the population’s use of more harmful tobacco products, like convention...

    Authors: Christopher Russell, Neil McKeganey, Tiffany Dickson and Mitchell Nides

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:33

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  34. Content type: Research

    We have little understanding of how vapers use e-cigarettes beyond cessation. E-cigarettes may have a role to play in reducing the health-related harms of tobacco smoking, through not only assisting smoking ce...

    Authors: Caitlin Notley, Emma Ward, Lynne Dawkins and Richard Holland

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:31

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  35. Content type: Research

    A tenth of all people who inject drugs in Kenya are women, yet their social contexts and experiences remain poorly understood. This paper reports how multiple forms of stigma are experienced by women who injec...

    Authors: Gitau Mburu, Sylvia Ayon, Alexander C. Tsai, James Ndimbii, Bangyuan Wang, Steffanie Strathdee and Janet Seeley

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:29

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  36. Content type: Research

    Mexico recently enacted drug policy reform to decriminalize possession of small amounts of illicit drugs and mandated that police refer identified substance users to drug treatment. However, the economic impli...

    Authors: Jose Luis Burgos, Javier A. Cepeda, James G. Kahn, Maria Luisa Mittal, Emilio Meza, Raúl Rafael Palacios Lazos, Psyché Calderón Vargas, Peter Vickerman, Steffanie A. Strathdee and Natasha K. Martin

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:28

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  37. Content type: Research

    A large body of research has investigated the rise of injection drug use and HIV transmission in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez (CJ). However, little is known about the dynamics of injecting in Hermosillo. This stu...

    Authors: Angelica Ospina-Escobar, Carlos Magis-Rodríguez, Fatima Juárez, Dan Werb, Sergio Bautista Arredondo, Rubén Carreón, María Elena Ramos and Steffanie Strathdee

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:27

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  38. Content type: Research

    Current estimates suggest that 15% of all prisoners worldwide are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and this number is even higher in regions with high rates of injecting drug use. Althoug...

    Authors: Rob Bielen, Samya R. Stumo, Rachel Halford, Klára Werling, Tatjana Reic, Heino Stöver, Geert Robaeys and Jeffrey V. Lazarus

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:25

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  39. Content type: Review

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major public health problems both in developed and developing countries. Prison represents a high-risk environment for prisoners, in that it is characterized by high-risk ...

    Authors: Masoud Behzadifar, Hasan Abolghasem Gorji, Aziz Rezapour and Nicola Luigi Bragazzi

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:24

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  40. Content type: Research

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people who inject drugs (PWID). International data indicate up to one third of PWID have experienced an SSTI within ...

    Authors: M. Harris, R. Brathwaite, Catherine R. McGowan, D. Ciccarone, G. Gilchrist, M. McCusker, K. O’Brien, J. Dunn, J. Scott and V. Hope

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:23

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  41. Content type: Research

    Women’s participation in, and harm from gambling, is steadily increasing. There has been very limited research to investigate how gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of gambling harm may v...

    Authors: Simone McCarthy, Samantha L. Thomas, Melanie Randle, Amy Bestman, Hannah Pitt, Sean Cowlishaw and Mike Daube

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:22

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