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  1. The region situated where the borders of Mexico, Texas and New Mexico meet is known as 'Paso del Norte'. The Paso del Norte Collaborative was formed to study the seroprevalence of select pathogens and associat...

    Authors: Joan P Baumbach, Lily N Foster, Mark Mueller, Michelle Firestone Cruz, Sonia Arbona, Sharon Melville, Rebeca Ramos and Steffanie A Strathdee
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:33
  2. Unsafe injection practices are prevalent among injection drug users (IDU) and have resulted in numerous forms of drug-related harm including HIV/HCV transmission and other bacterial and viral infections. North...

    Authors: Danya Fast, Will Small, Evan Wood and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:32
  3. There is evidence of a high prevalence of prescription opioid (PO) and crack use among street drug users in Toronto. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe drug use behaviours and preferences as...

    Authors: Michelle Firestone and Benedikt Fischer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:30
  4. To assess the predictors and prevalence of HIV infection among injection drug users in highly endemic regions along major drug trafficking routes in three Chinese provinces.

    Authors: Yujiang Jia, Fan Lu, Gang Zeng, Xinhua Sun, Yan Xiao, Lin Lu, Wei Liu, Mingjian Ni, Shuquan Qu, Chunmei Li, Jianbo Liu, Pingsheng Wu and Sten H Vermund
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:29
  5. Stigma is a key barrier for the delivery of care to patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). In the Asia region, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has disproportionately affected socially marginalised groups, in particular,...

    Authors: Kit Yee Chan, Mark A Stoové and Daniel D Reidpath
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:28
  6. In an attempt to reduce harm related to gambling problems, an Internet sports betting service provider, bwin Interactive Entertainment, AG (bwin), imposes limits on the amount of money that users can deposit into...

    Authors: Anja Broda, Debi A LaPlante, Sarah E Nelson, Richard A LaBrie, Leslie B Bosworth and Howard J Shaffer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:27
  7. The epidemic of HIV/AIDS linked to injecting drug usage is one of the most explosive in recent years. After a historical epicentre in Europe, South and North America, at present it is clearly the main cause of...

    Authors: Fabio Mesquita, David Jacka, Dominique Ricard, Graham Shaw, Han Tieru, Hu Yifei, Katharine Poundstone, Madeline Salva, Masami Fujita and Nirmal Singh
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:26
  8. To develop and evaluate the comparative effectiveness of behavioural interventions of enhanced prevention counselling (EPC) and simple educational counselling (SEC) in reducing hepatitis C viral (HCV) infectio...

    Authors: Mohammed Abou-Saleh, Paul Davis, Philip Rice, Ken Checinski, Colin Drummond, Douglas Maxwell, Christine Godfrey, Christopher John, Betsy Corrin, Christopher Tibbs, Adenekan Oyefeso, Marian de Ruiter and Hamid Ghodse
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:25
  9. The article presents information on the latest drug policy change in the Russian Criminal Code: a decrease of the drug threshold amounts for which possession can lead to a criminal liability. Also, the article...

    Authors: Lev Levinson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:22
  10. Harm reduction is a health-centred approach that seeks to reduce the health and social harms associated with high-risk behaviors, such as illicit drug use. The objective of this study is to determine the assoc...

    Authors: Babak Eshrati, Rahim Taghizadeh Asl, Colleen Anne Dell, Parviz Afshar, Peggy MargaretE Millson, Mohammad Kamali and John Weekes
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:21
  11. Methadone is a synthetic, narcotic analgesic used in the treatment of drug misuse. Tragedies involving children being poisoned by the accidental ingestion of methadone are no longer a rare occurrence. Followin...

    Authors: Annemarie Mullin, Rosanna J McAuley, Derrett J Watts, Ilana B Crome and Roger N Bloor
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:15
  12. Injection drug users (IDUs) in San Juan, Puerto Rico are characterized by high rates of daily injecting, injection of shared drugs, re-use of injection syringes, and use of shooting galleries. They lack adequa...

    Authors: HAnn Finlinson, Héctor M Colón, Juan Negrón and Rafaela R Robles
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:14
  13. Early exit (drop-out) from drug treatment can mean that drug users do not derive the full benefits that treatment potentially offers. Additionally, it may mean that scarce treatment resources are used ineffici...

    Authors: Alex Stevens, Polly Radcliffe, Melony Sanders and Neil Hunt
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:13
  14. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of drug-related morbidity and mortality, with incidence data implicating a wide range of HCV transmission risk practices. The Blood-Borne Virus Transmission Risk As...

    Authors: Mark A Stoové, Craig L Fry and Nicholas Lintzeris
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:12
  15. Smoking rates in methadone-maintained patients are almost three times higher than in the general population and remain elevated and stable. Due to the various negative health effects of smoking, nicotine depen...

    Authors: Victoria Wapf, Michael Schaub, Beat Klaeusler, Lukas Boesch, Rudolf Stohler and Dominique Eich
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:10
  16. Swedish snus is a medium/high nicotine delivery, low-nitrosamine moist smokeless tobacco product that has been estimated to be at least 90% less harmful than smoked tobacco. More men use snus than smoke cigare...

    Authors: Jonathan Foulds and Helena Furberg
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:9
  17. Hepatitis C is the most common blood borne virus in Australia affecting over 200 000 people. Effective treatment for hepatitis C has only become accessible in Australia since the late 1990's, although active i...

    Authors: Josephine Norman, Nick M Walsh, Janette Mugavin, Mark A Stoové, Jenny Kelsall, Kirk Austin and Nick Lintzeris
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:8
  18. The United States has the highest rate of imprisonment of any country in the world. African Americans and Hispanics comprise a disproportionately large share of the prison population. We applied a "prison life...

    Authors: Robert S Hogg, Eric F Druyts, Scott Burris, Ernest Drucker and Steffanie A Strathdee
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:4
  19. Opioid overdose is a leading cause of death among injection drug users. Over half of injection drug users report at least one nonfatal overdose during their lifetime. Death from opioid overdose rarely occurs i...

    Authors: Susan G Sherman, Donald S Gann, Gregory Scott, Suzanne Carlberg, Dan Bigg and Robert Heimer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:2
  20. Prohibition of illegal drugs is a failed social policy and new models of regulation of these substances are needed. This paper explores a proposal for a post-prohibition, public health based model for the regu...

    Authors: Mark Haden
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:1
  21. In 2003, it became legal in the UK for syringe exchange programmes (SEPs) to provide citrate to injecting drug users to solubilise heroin. Little work has been undertaken on the effect of policy change on SEP ...

    Authors: Caryl M Beynon, Jim McVeigh, Martin Chandler, Michelle Wareing and Mark A Bellis
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:21
  22. Substance-using women who exchange sex for money, drugs or shelter as a means of basic subsistence (ie. survival sex) have remained largely at the periphery of HIV and harm reduction policies and services acro...

    Authors: Kate Shannon, Vicki Bright, Shari Allinott, Debbie Alexson, Kate Gibson and Mark W Tyndall
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:20
  23. The north-east Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland are two of the six high HIV prevalence states in the country, and the main route of HIV transmission is injecting drug use. Understanding the pathways to in...

    Authors: Michelle Kermode, Verity Longleng, Bangkim Chingsubam Singh, Jane Hocking, Biangtung Langkham and Nick Crofts
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:19
  24. This study aimed to investigate patterns and context of use of BZP-party pills, function of use, and positive and negative effects experienced by a sample of New Zealand young people who had used the products.

    Authors: Rachael A Butler and Janie L Sheridan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:18
  25. Cannabis (marijuana) had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medica...

    Authors: Thomas J O'Connell and Ché B Bou-Matar
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:16
  26. Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) is among the most widely studied treatments for opiate dependence with proven benefits for patients and society. When misused, however, methadone can also be lethal. The i...

    Authors: Michael Varenbut, David Teplin, Jeff Daiter, Barak Raz, Andrew Worster, Pasha Emadi-Konjin, Nathan Frank, Alan Konyer, Iris Greenwald and Melissa Snider-Adler
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:15
  27. Reaching hard-to-reach and high-risk injecting drug users (IDUs) is one of the most important challenges for contemporary needle syringe programs (NSPs). The aim of this review is to examine, based upon the av...

    Authors: Md Mofizul Islam and Katherine M Conigrave
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:14
  28. Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis sh...

    Authors: Mitch Earleywine and Sara Smucker Barnwell
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:11
  29. Indonesia has an explosive HIV/AIDS epidemic starting from the beginning of this century, and it is in process to build its response. Reported AIDS cases doubled from 2003 – 2004, and approximately 54% of thes...

    Authors: Fabio Mesquita, Inang Winarso, Ingrid I Atmosukarto, Bambang Eka, Laura Nevendorff, Amala Rahmah, Patri Handoyo, Priscillia Anastasia and Rosi Angela
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:9
  30. In China, the national plan to open 1000 methadone clinics over a five-year period provides a unique opportunity to assess the impacts of harm reduction in a country with concentrated HIV epidemic amongst hero...

    Authors: Ming-qiang Li, Shui-shan Lee, Zhi-gao Gan, Yi Tan, Jin-Huai Meng and Ming-liang He
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:8
  31. Surveillance data of Sindh AIDS Control Programme, Pakistan suggest that HIV infection is rapidly increasing among IDUs in Karachi and has reached 9% in 2004–5 indicating that the country has progressed from n...

    Authors: Arshad Altaf, Sharaf Ali Shah, Najam A Zaidi, Ashraf Memon, Nadeem-ur-Rehman and Norman Wray
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:7
  32. To estimate HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs) in a drug trafficking city in southwest Sichuan Province, China.

    Authors: Lu Yin, Guangming Qin, Han-Zhu Qian, Yu Zhu, Wei Hu, Li Zhang, Kanglin Chen, Yunxia Wang, Shizhu Liu, Feng Zhou, Hui Xing, Yuhua Ruan, Ning Wang and Yiming Shao
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:6