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  1. Women who inject drugs (WWID) experience unique risks and adverse health outcomes related to injection initiation and patterns of injection drug use. However, there is limited information on injection initiati...

    Authors: Allison Stewart, Brooke S. West, Claudia Rafful, Kenya Lazos, Jennifer Jain, Patricia Gonzalez-Zuniga and Teresita Rocha-Jimenez
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:105
  2. There is currently no systematic screening for hepatitis C (HCV) reinfection in people who inject drugs (PWID) after treatment in Belgium. However, in a recent meta-analysis, the overall HCV reinfection rate w...

    Authors: Dana Busschots, Rob Bielen, Özgür M. Koc, Leen Heyens, Rita Verrando, Chantal de Galocsy, Christophe Van Steenkiste, Frederik Nevens, Håvard Midgard, Olav Dalgard and Geert Robaeys
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:102
  3. The effectiveness of collaborative approaches in health interventions is underlined in the literature. Given the serious challenges to adequately managing the HCV epidemic in people who inject drugs (PWID), an...

    Authors: Nicolas Khatmi, David Michels, Daniela Rojas Castro and Perrine Roux
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:101
  4. Drug checking uses chemical analytical technologies to analyze drugs from the unregulated market to reduce substance use-related risks. We aim to examine the frequency of third party use of a community drug ch...

    Authors: Ashley Larnder, Piotr Burek, Bruce Wallace and Dennis K. Hore
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:99

    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:100

  5. Electronic cigarettes are a harm reduction strategy for individuals who smoke cigarettes who cannot or do not want to quit using FDA-approved cessation methods. Identifying perceived facilitators and barriers ...

    Authors: Kim Pulvers, Myra Rice, Jasjit S. Ahluwalia, Michael J. Arnold, Crystal Marez and Nicole L. Nollen
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:98
  6. Heroin and cocaine are among the most dangerous illicit drugs available and their presence on the market is increasing. These facts have led to the investigation of the quality of heroin and cocaine samples se...

    Authors: Adèle Bourmaud, Georges Dahm, François Meys, Nicolas Gengler, Alain Origer and Serge Schneider
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:97
  7. Health messages on e-cigarette packs emphasise nicotine addiction or harms using similar wording to warnings on cigarette packs. These may not be appropriate for e-cigarettes which constitute a reduced risk al...

    Authors: Catherine Kimber, Sharon Cox, Daniel Frings, Ian P. Albery and Lynne Dawkins
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:96
  8. The COVID-19 pandemic in England led to major changes in the delivery of support via stop smoking services (SSS) and to the widespread temporary closure of bricks and mortar e-cigarette retailers (vape shops h...

    Authors: Sharon Cox, Emma Ward, Louise Ross and Caitlin Notley
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:95
  9. People who experience non-fatal overdose (NFOD) are at high risk of subsequent overdose. With unprecedented increases in fentanyl in the US drug supply, many Massachusetts (MA) communities have seen a surge in...

    Authors: Shikhar Shrestha, Thomas J. Stopka, Jaclyn M. W. Hughto, Patricia Case, Wilson R. Palacios, Brittni Reilly and Traci C. Green
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:93
  10. Canada is in the midst of an opioid overdose crisis and Alberta has one of the highest opioid use rates across the country. Populations made vulnerable through structural inequities who also use opioids, such ...

    Authors: Katrina Milaney, Jenna Passi, Lisa Zaretsky, Tong Liu, Claire M. O’Gorman, Leslie Hill and Daniel Dutton
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:92
  11. People who use drugs (PWUD) are known to fear calling emergency medical services (EMS) for drug overdoses. In response, drug-related Good Samaritan Laws (GSLs) have been widely adopted in the USA and Canada to...

    Authors: Soroush Moallef, JinCheol Choi, M.-J. Milloy, Kora DeBeck, Thomas Kerr and Kanna Hayashi
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:91
  12. The substance use epidemic in the United States continues to drive high levels of morbidity and mortality, particularly among people who inject drugs (PWID). Poor access to food often co-occurs with drug use a...

    Authors: Saba Rouhani, Sean T. Allen, Sara Whaley, Rebecca Hamilton White, Allison O’Rourke, Kristin E. Schneider, Michael E. Kilkenny, Brian W. Weir and Susan G. Sherman
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:90
  13. Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) is widely recognized as one of the most effective ways of reducing risk of overdose, arrest, and transmission of blood-borne viruses like HIV and HCV among people that use...

    Authors: David Frank, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, David C. Perlman, Suzan M. Walters, Laura Curran and Honoria Guarino
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:88
  14. We estimate the prevalence of drug injection, the variables associated with having ever injected and the proportion of ever injectors whose first drug injection was for having sex; we describe the first drug i...

    Authors: Juan-Miguel Guerras, Patricia García de Olalla, María José Belza, Luis de la Fuente, David Palma, Jorge del Romero, Jorge-Néstor García-Pérez and Juan Hoyos
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:86
  15. Spotting is an informal practice among people who use drugs (PWUD) where they witness other people using drugs and respond if an overdose occurs. During COVID-19 restrictions, remote spotting (e.g., using a te...

    Authors: Melissa Perri, Natalie Kaminski, Matthew Bonn, Gillian Kolla, Adrian Guta, Ahmed M. Bayoumi, Laurel Challacombe, Marilou Gagnon, Natasha Touesnard, Patrick McDougall and Carol Strike
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:85
  16. Opioid substitution with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is shown to reduce illicit opioid use and renew social functioning. Understanding factors that undermine clients’ social functioning during MMT tr...

    Authors: Sun Tun, B. Vicknasingam and Darshan Singh
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:84
  17. The sharp rise in opioid use disorder (OUD) among women coupled with disproportionally high rates of unintended pregnancy have led to a four-fold increase in the number of pregnant women with OUD in the United...

    Authors: Stephani L. Stancil, Melissa K. Miller, Alex Duello, Sarah Finocchario-Kessler, Kathy Goggin, Rachel P. Winograd and Emily A. Hurley
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:83
  18. Syringe services programs provide sterile injection supplies and a range of health services (e.g., HIV and HEP-C testing, overdose prevention education, provision of naloxone) to a hard-to-reach population, in...

    Authors: Carol Y. Franco, Angela E. Lee-Winn, Sara Brandspigel, Musheng L. Alishahi and Ashley Brooks-Russell
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:81
  19. Bacterial and fungal infections, such as skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and infective endocarditis (IE), are increasing among people who use drugs in the United States. Traditional healthcare settings...

    Authors: Mary C. Figgatt, Zach R. Salazar, Louise Vincent, Diannee Carden-Glenn, Kelly Link, Lauren Kestner, Tyler Yates, Asher Schranz, Elizabeth Joniak-Grant and Nabarun Dasgupta
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:80
  20. Measuring self-reported experience of health and functioning is important for understanding the changes in the health status of individuals switching from cigarettes to less harmful tobacco and/or nicotine pro...

    Authors: Esther F. Afolalu, Erica Spies, Agnes Bacso, Emilie Clerc, Linda Abetz-Webb, Sophie Gallot and Christelle Chrea
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:79
  21. Georgia has a significant risk of ongoing HIV and HCV outbreak. Within this context, harm reduction aims to reduce risk associated with drug use through community activities, such as peer recruitment and invol...

    Authors: Cale Lawlor, Marine Gogia, Irma Kirtadze, Keti Stvilia, Guranda Jikia and Tamar Zurashvili
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:78
  22. The relationship between incarceration and risk of overdose has been well-documented in the literature, but few studies document the perspectives of persons at risk of overdose who were incarcerated. This sub-...

    Authors: Celine McCaughran-Contreras, Saranee Fernando, Mike Sikora, Jennifer Hawkins, Marinel Kniseley, Daniel Snyder, Connie Long, James Robson, Amanda Slaunwhite and Amy Salmon
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:77
  23. Police constitute a structural determinant of health and HIV risk of people who inject drugs (PWID), and negative encounters with law enforcement present significant barriers to PWID access to harm reduction s...

    Authors: Pieter Baker, Jaime Arredondo, Annick Borquez, Erika Clairgue, Maria L. Mittal, Mario Morales, Teresita Rocha-Jimenez, Richard Garfein, Eyal Oren, Eileen Pitpitan, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Leo Beletsky and Javier A. Cepeda
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:76
  24. The incidence of opioid-related overdose deaths has been rising for 30 years and has been further exacerbated amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Naloxone can reverse opioid overdose, lower death rates, and enable a...

    Authors: Katie Kanter, Ryan Gallagher, Feyisope Eweje, Alexander Lee, David Gordon, Stephen Landy, Julia Gasior, Haideliza Soto-Calderon, Peter F. Cronholm, Ben Cocchiaro, James Weimer, Alexis Roth, Stephen Lankenau and Jacob Brenner
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:75
  25. Increasing rates of injection drug use (IDU) associated-infections suggest significant syringe service program (SSP) underutilization. Our study objective was to assess practices of safe injection techniques a...

    Authors: Kinna Thakarar, Nitysari Sankar, Kimberly Murray, Frances L. Lucas, Debra Burris and Robert P. Smith
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:74
  26. Novel health promotion and treatment uptake initiatives will be necessary to ensure Australia meets 2030 hepatitis C elimination targets. Increasing treatment uptake will be assisted by a better understanding ...

    Authors: Stelliana Goutzamanis, Danielle Horyniak, Joseph S. Doyle, Margaret Hellard and Peter Higgs
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:73
  27. The use of cannabis as medicine (CaM) both prescribed and non-prescribed has increased markedly in the last decade, mirrored in a global shift in cannabis policy towards a more permissive stance. There is some...

    Authors: Sinikka L. Kvamme, Michael M. Pedersen, Kristine Rømer Thomsen and Birgitte Thylstrup
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:72
  28. Due to the loss of tolerance to opioids during medication-assisted treatment (MAT), this period may represent a time of heightened risk for overdose. Identifying factors associated with increased risk of overd...

    Authors: Vivian Y. O. Au, Tea Rosic, Nitika Sanger, Alannah Hillmer, Caroul Chawar, Andrew Worster, David C. Marsh, Lehana Thabane and Zainab Samaan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:71
  29. Pharmacists are among the most accessible healthcare providers in the United States and uniquely positioned to provide harm reduction services. The availability of pharmacy-based harm reduction services and ph...

    Authors: Rachel A. Parry, William A. Zule, Christopher B. Hurt, Donna M. Evon, Sarah K. Rhea and Delesha M. Carpenter
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:70
  30. Intravenous drug use (IVDU) represents the major factor of HCV transmission, but the treatment uptake among people who inject drugs (PWID) remains low owing to a false presumption of low efficacy. The aim of o...

    Authors: Sona Frankova, Zuzana Jandova, Gabriela Jinochova, Miluse Kreidlova, Dusan Merta and Jan Sperl
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:69
  31. Enrolling sufficient number of people who inject drugs (PWID) into syringe services programs (SSP) is important to curtail outbreaks of drug-related harms. Still, little is known about barriers and facilitator...

    Authors: Umedjon Ibragimov, Katherine E. Cooper, Evan Batty, April M. Ballard, Monica Fadanelli, Skylar B. Gross, Emma M. Klein, Scott Lockard, April M. Young and Hannah L. F. Cooper
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:68
  32. People who inject drugs are often imprisoned, which is associated with increased levels of health risks including overdose and infectious diseases transmission, affecting not only people in prison but also the...

    Authors: Heino Stöver, Anna Tarján, Gergely Horváth and Linda Montanari
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:67
  33. Drug checking is a harm reduction intervention aiming to reduce substance use-related risks by improving drug user knowledge of the composition of unregulated drugs. With increasing fears of fentanyl adulterat...

    Authors: Tara Beaulieu, Evan Wood, Samuel Tobias, Mark Lysyshyn, Priya Patel, Jennifer Matthews and Lianping Ti
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:66
  34. While there is robust evidence for strategies to reduce harms of illicit drug use, less attention has been paid to alcohol harm reduction for people experiencing severe alcohol use disorder (AUD), homelessness...

    Authors: Bernie Pauly, Meaghan Brown, Clifton Chow, Ashley Wettlaufer, Brittany Graham, Karen Urbanoski, Russell Callaghan, Cindy Rose, Michelle Jordan, Tim Stockwell, Gerald Thomas and Christy Sutherland
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:65
  35. The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated unprecedented changes in the way that health, social, and housing services are delivered to individuals experiencing homelessness and problem substance use. Protecting th...

    Authors: Tessa Parkes, Hannah Carver, Wendy Masterton, Danilo Falzon, Joshua Dumbrell, Susan Grant and Iain Wilson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:64
  36. Studies have suggested that the injection drug use (IDU) was no longer the main transmission route of HIV/AIDS in China. However, there has never been a study to assess the national HIV epidemic among persons ...

    Authors: Bo Zhang, Xiangyu Yan, Yongjie Li, He Zhu, Zhimin Liu, Zuhong Lu and Zhongwei Jia
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:63
  37. Drug use is a growing concern in Ghana. People who inject drugs (PWID) are highly vulnerable to HIV and other infectious diseases. Ghana’s National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS 2016–2020 identifies PWID as a ke...

    Authors: Lisa J. Messersmith, Rose Adjei, Jennifer Beard, Angela R. Bazzi, Joel J. Earlywine, Edwin Darko, Thomas Agyarko-Poku, Mabel Kissiwah Asafo, Sherry Adoma Bempah and Yaw Adu-Sarkodie
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:62
  38. With legal access to medical cannabis in Canada since 2001, there is a need to fully characterize its use at both the individual and population levels. We draw on data from Canada’s largest cohort study of med...

    Authors: Cerina Lee, Jessica M. Round, Scott Klarenbach, John G. Hanlon, Elaine Hyshka, Jason R. B. Dyck and Dean T. Eurich
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:61
  39. The inclusion of people with lived and living experience of substance use is essential to effective and client-centered harm reduction services and strategies. The aim of this study is to critically examine an...

    Authors: A. Greer, J. A. Buxton, B. Pauly and V. Bungay
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:60
  40. Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed in prisons amidst the controversies surrounding their potential role in causing behavioral disinhibition and aggressive behavior and their association with use and traff...

    Authors: Stéphanie Baggio, Vladan Starcevic, Patrick Heller, Karen Brändle, Irina Franke, Andreas Schneeberger, Anna Buadze, Alex Gamma, Roman Schleifer, Laurent Gétaz, Hans Wolff and Michael Liebrenz
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:58
  41. For people with opioid use disorder who are not responding to oral opioid agonist treatment, evidence supports the effectiveness of injectable opioid agonist treatment with injectable hydromorphone (an opioid ...

    Authors: Heather Palis, Scott MacDonald, Jennifer Jun and Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:57
  42. Digital harm-reduction interventions typically focus on people with severe drug-use problems, yet these interventions have moderate effectiveness on drug-users with lower levels of risk of harm. The difference...

    Authors: Vasilis S. Vasiliou, Samantha Dockray, Samantha Dick, Martin P. Davoren, Ciara Heavin, Conor Linehan and Michael Byrne
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:56
  43. Alcohol use is a common practice of almost all communities worldwide and it is more common among persons with HIV infection. Alcohol consumption among people with HIV/AIDS may result in poor treatment adherenc...

    Authors: Birhanie Mekuriaw, Zelalem Belayneh, Alemayehu Molla and Tsegaye Mehare
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:55
  44. There is concern that cannabis use negatively affects vulnerable groups such as youth; however, the relationship between cannabis use and health care utilization has not been well characterized in this populat...

    Authors: Hudson Reddon, M.-J. Milloy, Evan Wood, Ekaterina Nosova, Thomas Kerr and Kora DeBeck
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:53