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  1. Content type: Research

    In Baltimore, MD, as in many cities throughout the USA, overdose rates are on the rise due to both the increase of prescription opioid abuse and that of fentanyl and other synthetic opioids in the drug market....

    Authors: Amos Irwin, Ehsan Jozaghi, Brian W. Weir, Sean T. Allen, Andrew Lindsay and Susan G. Sherman

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:29

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  2. Content type: Research

    The perspectives of people who use drugs are critical in understanding why people choose to reduce harm in relation to drug use, what practices are considered or preferred in conceptualizations of harm reducti...

    Authors: L. M. Boucher, Z. Marshall, A. Martin, K. Larose-Hébert, J. V. Flynn, C. Lalonde, D. Pineau, J. Bigelow, T. Rose, R. Chase, R. Boyd, M. Tyndall and C. Kendall

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:18

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  3. Content type: Research

    The health of people who use drugs (PWUD) is characterized by multimorbidity and chronicity of health conditions, necessitating an understanding of their health care utilization. The objective of this study wa...

    Authors: Claire E. Kendall, Lisa M. Boucher, Amy E. Mark, Alana Martin, Zack Marshall, Rob Boyd, Pam Oickle, Nicola Diliso, Dave Pineau, Brad Renaud, Tiffany Rose, Sean LeBlanc, Mark Tyndall, Olivia M. Lee and Ahmed M. Bayoumi

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:16

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:42

  4. Content type: Research

    Injection drug use has not been well documented in American Indians living in the USA. American Indian and Alaskan Natives (AI/ANs) show higher rates of substance use compared to the general population, and ha...

    Authors: Mike Anastario, Kris FourStar, Adriann Ricker, Rebecca Dick, Monica C. Skewes and Elizabeth Rink

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:22

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  5. Content type: Research

    Globally, methamphetamine (MA) use is a significant public health concern due to unprecedented health effects of its use. However, gender similarities and differences in early age of MA initiation and its risk...

    Authors: Yu Mon Saw, Thu Nandar Saw, Junko Yasuoka, Nyein Chan, Nang Pann Ei Kham, Wint Khine, Su Myat Cho and Masamine Jimba

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:21

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  6. Content type: Research

    This research sought to explore whether children’s visual and auditory exposure to Electronic Gambling Machines (EGMs) in community clubs contributed to shaping their attitudes towards these types of potential...

    Authors: Amy Bestman, Samantha Thomas, Melanie Randle and Hannah Pitt

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:20

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  7. Content type: Opinion

    Despite advances in our knowledge of effective services for people who use drugs over the last decades globally, coverage remains poor in most countries, while quality is often unknown. This paper aims to disc...

    Authors: Lucas Wiessing, Marica Ferri, Vendula Běláčková, Patrizia Carrieri, Samuel R. Friedman, Cinta Folch, Kate Dolan, Brian Galvin, Peter Vickerman, Jeffrey V. Lazarus, Viktor Mravčík, Mirjam Kretzschmar, Vana Sypsa, Ana Sarasa-Renedo, Anneli Uusküla, Dimitrios Paraskevis…

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:19

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  8. Content type: Research

    While opiate substitution therapy and injecting equipment provision (IEP) have reduced blood-borne viruses (BBV) among people who inject drugs (PWID), some PWID continue to share injecting equipment and acquir...

    Authors: Gail Gilchrist, Davina Swan, April Shaw, Ada Keding, Sarah Towers, Noel Craine, Alison Munro, Elizabeth Hughes, Steve Parrott, John Strang, Avril Taylor and Judith Watson

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:14

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  9. Content type: Research

    Supervised injection facilities (SIFs) are legally sanctioned environments for people to inject drugs under medical supervision. SIFs currently operate in ten countries, but to date, no SIF has been opened in ...

    Authors: Benjamin A. Bouvier, Beth Elston, Scott E. Hadland, Traci C. Green and Brandon D. L. Marshall

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:13

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  10. Content type: Research

    Vietnam has a concentrated HIV epidemic with injection drug use being the dominant mode of HIV transmission. Vietnam has rapidly expanded antiretroviral therapy (ART) and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). T...

    Authors: Linh Thi Thuy Pham, Akiko Kitamura, Hoa Mai Do, Kim Anh Lai, Nhan Tuan Le, Van Thi Thuy Nguyen and Masaya Kato

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:12

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  11. Content type: Research

    Harmful gambling is a public health issue that affects not only adults but also children. With the development of a range of new gambling products, and the marketing for these products, children are potentiall...

    Authors: Hannah Pitt, Samantha L. Thomas, Amy Bestman, Mike Daube and Jeffrey Derevensky

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:11

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  12. Content type: Research

    Since 2003, a harm reduction program for injecting drug users has been rolled out countrywide in China. It entails services for condom promotion, a needle and syringe program (NSP), and methadone maintenance t...

    Authors: Qing Wu, Carlijn Kamphuis, Lin Duo, Jiahong Luo, Ying Chen and Jan Hendrik Richardus

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:10

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  13. Content type: Research

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) have been increasingly consumed by people who use drugs in recent years, which pose a new challenge for treatment services. One of the largest groups of NPS is synthetic canna...

    Authors: Szilvia Kassai, Judit Nóra Pintér, József Rácz, Brigitta Böröndi, Tamás Tóth-Karikó, Kitti Kerekes and V. Anna Gyarmathy

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:9

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  14. Content type: Research

    Benzodiazepine use is common among patients in opioid agonist therapy; this puts patients at an increased risk of overdose and death. In this study, we examine the impact of baseline and ongoing benzodiazepine...

    Authors: Alexandra M. Franklyn, Joseph K. Eibl, Graham Gauthier, David Pellegrini, Nancy E. Lightfoot and David C. Marsh

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:6

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:15

  15. Content type: Research

    Gambling can cause significant health and social harms for individuals, their families, and communities. While many studies have explored the individual factors that may lead to and minimise harmful gambling, ...

    Authors: Emily G. Deans, Samantha L. Thomas, Jeffrey Derevensky and Mike Daube

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:5

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  16. Content type: Research

    Governmental debate in Ireland on the de facto decriminalisation of cannabis and legalisation for medical use is ongoing. A cannabis-based medicinal product (Sativex®) has recently been granted market authoris...

    Authors: Des Crowley, Claire Collins, Ide Delargy, Eamon Laird and Marie Claire Van Hout

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:4

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  17. Content type: Research

    Due to the popularity of public service announcements (PSAs), as well as the broader health and social harms associated with illicit drug use, this study sought to investigate how drug prevention messages foun...

    Authors: Lianlian Ti, Danya Fast, William Small and Thomas Kerr

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:3

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  18. Content type: Research

    In Vietnam, like many countries in Southeast Asia, the commonly used approach of center-based compulsory drug treatment (CCT) has been criticized on human rights ground. Meanwhile, community-based voluntary me...

    Authors: Thu Vuong, Nhu Nguyen, Giang Le, Marian Shanahan, Robert Ali and Alison Ritter

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:2

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  19. Content type: Research

    Stigma and discrimination may adversely affect the benefits of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for drug users, especially in disadvantaged settings. This study assessed stigma and discrimination against ...

    Authors: Hung Van Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Hue Thi Mai, Hai Quan Le, Bach Xuan Tran, Canh Dinh Hoang, Huong Thi Le, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Tho Dinh Tran, Carl A. Latkin and Thuc Minh Thi Vu

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:1

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  20. Content type: Research

    Drug users’ organizations have made progress in recent years in advocating for the health and human rights of people who use illicit drugs but have historically not emphasized the needs of people who drink alc...

    Authors: Alexis Crabtree, Nicole Latham, Lorna Bird and Jane Buxton

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:37

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  21. Content type: Research

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a risk group for new HIV infections. Drug use among men who have sex with men is often accompanied by risky sexual behaviours. Local AIDS help centres and gay advice centres...

    Authors: Daniel Deimel, Heino Stöver, Susann Hößelbarth, Anna Dichtl, Niels Graf and Viola Gebhardt

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:36

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  22. Content type: Research

    Sex trading is a recognized risk factor for human immune deficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted infections among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs). However, very little research has addressed...

    Authors: Yu Mon Saw, Thu Nandar Saw, Kyi Mar Wai, Krishna C. Poudel and Hla Hla Win

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:34

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  23. Content type: Research

    In heroin injectors, there have been a number of outbreaks caused by spore-forming bacteria, causing serious infections such as anthrax or botulism. These are, most likely, caused by injecting contaminated her...

    Authors: Nour Alhusein, Jenny Scott, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern and Albert Bolhuis

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:33

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  24. Content type: Research

    Street-involved youth are known to be an economically vulnerable population that commonly resorts to risky activities such as drug dealing to generate income. While incarceration is common among people who use...

    Authors: Carly Hoy, Brittany Barker, Jackie Regan, Huiru Dong, Lindsey Richardson, Thomas Kerr and Kora DeBeck

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:32

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  25. Content type: Research

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also marginalized by social and structural inequities often face barriers to accessing and adhering to HIV treatment and care. The Dr. Peter Centre (DPC) is a non-profit ...

    Authors: S. Fernando, R. McNeil, K. Closson, H. Samji, S. Kirkland, C. Strike, R. Baltzer Turje, W. Zhang, R. S. Hogg and S. Parashar

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:31

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  26. Content type: Research

    The mode of medical cannabis delivery—whether cannabis is smoked, vapourized, or consumed orally—may have important implications for its therapeutic efficacy and health risks. However, there is very little evi...

    Authors: Samantha Shiplo, Mark Asbridge, Scott T. Leatherdale and David Hammond

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:30

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  27. Content type: Brief report

    The Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC) is a supervised injecting facility (SIF) where people who inject drugs (PWID) can do so legally, under health professional supervision. The majority of c...

    Authors: Mark Goodhew, Allison M. Salmon, Christina Marel, Katherine L. Mills and Marianne Jauncey

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:29

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  28. Content type: Review

    While the last decade has seen a growth of support for harm reduction around the world, the availability and accessibility of quality harm reduction services in prison settings is uneven and continues to be in...

    Authors: Gen Sander, Alessio Scandurra, Anhelita Kamenska, Catherine MacNamara, Christina Kalpaki, Cristina Fernandez Bessa, Gemma Nicolás Laso, Grazia Parisi, Lorraine Varley, Marcin Wolny, Maria Moudatsou, Nuno Henrique Pontes, Patricia Mannix-McNamara, Sandro Libianchi and Tzanetos Antypas

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:28

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  29. Content type: Research

    Drug consumption rooms (DCRs) have been implemented worldwide as a harm-reducing strategy. In 2012, Denmark passed legislation allowing establishment of DCRs. The aim of this study was to identify characterist...

    Authors: Eva Charlotte Toth, Jette Tegner, Sigurd Lauridsen and Nanna Kappel

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:27

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  30. Content type: Methodology

    Community-based HIV, harm reduction, and addiction research increasingly involve members of affected communities as Peer Research Associates (PRAs)—individuals with common experiences to the participant popula...

    Authors: K. Closson, R. McNeil, P. McDougall, S. Fernando, A. B. Collins, R. Baltzer Turje, T. Howard and S. Parashar

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:26

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  31. Content type: Research

    Injection drug use remains a primary driver of HIV and HCV-related harms globally. However, there is a gap in efforts to prevent individuals from transitioning into injecting. People who inject drugs (PWID) pl...

    Authors: Daniel Werb, Richard Garfein, Thomas Kerr, Peter Davidson, Perrine Roux, Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Marc Auriacombe, Will Small and Steffanie A. Strathdee

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:25

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  32. Content type: Brief report

    To date, no studies have examined the extent of knowledge and perceptions of Good Samaritan Laws (GSLs) among young adults who engage in non-medical prescription opioid (NMPO) use. We sought to determine aware...

    Authors: Tristan I. Evans, Scott E. Hadland, Melissa A. Clark, Traci C. Green and Brandon D. L. Marshall

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:24

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  33. Content type: Research

    Many misperceptions of both risks and opportunities of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) exist among the general population and among physicians, although e-cigs could be a valuable harm reduction tool for current smokers.

    Authors: Dinska Van Gucht and Frank Baeyens

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:22

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  34. Content type: Research

    Although targeted interventions in India require all high-risk groups, including injecting drug users (IDUs), to test for HIV every 6 months, testing uptake among IDUs remains far from universal. Our study estima...

    Authors: Deepika Ganju, Sowmya Ramesh and Niranjan Saggurti

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:21

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  35. Content type: Research

    Drug use contributes to higher rates of morbidity and mortality among people who use drugs compared to the general population. In 2012, Danish politicians passed a law that allowed drug consumption rooms (DCRs...

    Authors: Nanna Kappel, Eva Toth, Jette Tegner and Sigurd Lauridsen

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:20

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  36. Content type: Research

    The role of peers (former or current drug users) in reducing risky behavior within methamphetamine and crack smokers has not been well described or researched. The current study not only explores the role of p...

    Authors: Ehsan Jozaghi, Hugh Lampkin and Martin A. Andresen

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:19

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  37. Content type: Research

    Despite high levels of equipment distribution through Needle and Syringe Programmes (NSPs) in Australia, the levels of reuse of equipment among people who inject drugs remain concerning. This paper used an exp...

    Authors: Carla Treloar, Limin Mao and Hannah Wilson

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:18

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  38. Content type: Research

    The British Columbia take-home naloxone (BCTHN) program has been in operation since 2012 and has resulted in the successful reversal of over 581 opioid overdoses. The study aims to explore BCTHN program partic...

    Authors: Andrew Deonarine, Ashraf Amlani, Graham Ambrose and Jane A. Buxton

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:17

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  39. Content type: Research

    There is a higher prevalence of alcohol use and severe alcohol dependence among homeless populations. The combination of alcohol use and lack of housing contributes to increased vulnerability to the harms of s...

    Authors: Bernadette (Bernie) Pauly, Erin Gray, Kathleen Perkin, Clifton Chow, Kate Vallance, Bonnie Krysowaty and Timothy Stockwell

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:15

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  40. Content type: Research

    Managed alcohol programs (MAPs) are a harm reduction strategy for people with severe alcohol dependence and unstable housing. MAPs provide controlled access to alcohol usually alongside accommodation, meals, a...

    Authors: Kate Vallance, Tim Stockwell, Bernie Pauly, Clifton Chow, Erin Gray, Bonnie Krysowaty, Kathleen Perkin and Jinhui Zhao

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:13

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  41. Content type: Review

    Several home-produced substances such as krokodil and boltushka are prevalent in many Eastern European countries. Anecdotal reports of its use have been circulating in Germany and Norway; however, this has not be...

    Authors: Evelyn Hearne, Jean-Paul Cornelius Grund, Marie Claire Van Hout and Jim McVeigh

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:14

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  42. Content type: Research

    Cocaine use is frequent in patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and can jeopardize their treatment response. Identifying clinical predictors of cocaine use during methadone treatment can po...

    Authors: Perrine Roux, Caroline Lions, Antoine Vilotitch, Laurent Michel, Marion Mora, Gwenaelle Maradan, Fabienne Marcellin, Bruno Spire, Alain Morel and Patrizia M. Carrieri

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:12

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  43. Content type: Research

    Blood contained in needles and injection equipment has been identified as a vector for HIV and HCV transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID). Yet, there is often a wide discrepancy in prevalence for bo...

    Authors: Roberto Abadie, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Camila Gelpi-Acosta, Juan Carlos Reyes and Kirk Dombrowski

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:10

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  44. Content type: Research

    Outcomes of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in the management of opioid dependency can be impaired by poor adherence and retention, concomitant drug use, poor adjustment of methadone dosage, and low leve...

    Authors: Bo Zhang, Thomas Cai, Zhihua Yan, Gitau Mburu, Bangyuan Wang and Liping Yang

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:8

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