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  1. The opioid epidemic is a rapidly growing public health concern in the USA, as the number of overdose deaths continues to increase each year. One strategy for combating the rising number of overdoses is through...

    Authors: Nicholas Alexander Bascou, Benjamin Haslund-Gourley, Katrina Amber-Monta, Kyle Samson, Nathaniel Goss, Dakota Meredith, Andrew Friedman, Andrew Needleman, Vishnu K. Kumar and Bradford D. Fischer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:5
  2. The USA is experiencing increases in methamphetamine use and methamphetamine-related or attributed deaths. In the current study, we explore qualitative narratives of methamphetamine overdose and strategies use...

    Authors: Robert W. Harding, Katherine T. Wagner, Phillip Fiuty, Krysti P. Smith, Kimberly Page and Karla D. Wagner
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:4
  3. The overdose crisis has generated innovative harm reduction and drug market monitoring strategies. In Toronto, Ontario, Canada, a multi-site drug checking service (DCS) pilot project was launched in October 2...

    Authors: Kristy M. Scarfone, Nazlee Maghsoudi, Karen McDonald, Cristiana Stefan, Daniel R. Beriault, Ernest Wong, Mark Evert, Shaun Hopkins, Peter Leslie, Tara Marie Watson and Dan Werb
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:3
  4. ETHER (“Education THEérapeutique pour la Réduction des dommages en alcoologie” or Therapeutic education for alcohol-related harm reduction) is a multicentre community-based mixed-methods study, which aims to eval...

    Authors: Saskia Antwerpes, Marie Costa, Marion Coste, Morgane Bureau, Gwenaelle Maradan, Christophe Cutarella, Jacques Leloutre, Olivier Riccobono-Soulier, Sophie Hedoire, Elodie Frot, Fabienne Vernier, Stéphanie Vassas-Goyard, Tangui Barré, Danielle Casanova and Patrizia Carrieri
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:2
  5. Expanding access to sterile syringes in rural areas is vital, as injection-related epidemics expand beyond metropolitan areas globally. While pharmacies have potential to be an easily accessible source of ster...

    Authors: Monica Fadanelli, Hannah L. F. Cooper, Patricia R. Freeman, April M. Ballard, Umed Ibragimov and April M. Young
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:1
  6. Intramuscular (IM) injection of drugs is associated with high rates of injecting-related injuries and diseases. However, little is known about the role of this route of administration in heroin-assisted treatm...

    Authors: Maximilian Meyer, Ramón Eichenberger, Johannes Strasser, Kenneth M. Dürsteler and Marc Vogel
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:134
  7. In Kenya, people who inject drugs (PWID) are disproportionately affected by HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) epidemics, including HIV-HCV coinfections; however, few have assessed factors affecting their access to and...

    Authors: Natasha T. Ludwig-Barron, Brandon L. Guthrie, Loice Mbogo, David Bukusi, William Sinkele, Esther Gitau, Carey Farquhar and Aliza Monroe-Wise
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:133
  8. Policing shapes the health risks of people who use drugs (PWUD), but little is understood about interventions that can align officer practices with PWUD health. This study deploys the Theory of Planned Behavio...

    Authors: Brandon del Pozo, Emily Sightes, Jeremiah Goulka, Brad Ray, Claire A. Wood, Saad Siddiqui and Leo A. Beletsky
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:132
  9. Patients with substance use disorders are more likely than those without to have a self-directed hospital discharge, putting them at risk for poor health outcomes including progressing illness, readmissions, a...

    Authors: Peggy Compton, Shoshana V. Aronowitz, Heather Klusaritz and Evan Anderson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:131
  10. In Rwanda, epidemiological data characterizing people who inject drugs (PWID) and their burden of HIV are limited. We examined injection drug use (IDU) history and practices, and HIV infection in a sample of P...

    Authors: Jean Olivier Twahirwa Rwema, Vianney Nizeyimana, Neia M. Prata, Nneoma E. Okonkwo, Amelia A. Mazzei, Sulemani Muhirwa, Athanase Rukundo, Lisa Lucas, Audace Niyigena, Jean Damascene Makuza, Chris Beyrer, Stefan D. Baral and Aflodis Kagaba
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:130

    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2022 19:91

  11. The COVID-19 had a substantial impact on the provision of harm reduction services for people who use drugs globally. These front-line public health interventions serve a population that due to stigma, discrimi...

    Authors: Robert Csák, Sam Shirley-Beavan, Arielle Edelman McHenry, Colleen Daniels and Naomi Burke-Shyne
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:128
  12. The COVID-19 pandemic has had especially devastating effects on people who use drugs. Due to pandemic protocols in the USA, medication-assisted treatment (MAT) regulations became more flexible, permitting our ...

    Authors: Ellis Jaewon Yeo, Hannah Kralles, David Sternberg, Dana McCullough, Ajetha Nadanasabesan, Richard Mayo, Hana Akselrod and Jillian Catalanotti
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:127
  13. While there is a general acceptance among public health officials and policy-makers that syringe services programs can be effective in reducing HIV transmission among persons who inject drugs, local syringe se...

    Authors: Don C. Des Jarlais, Jonathan Feelemyer, Courtney McKnight, Kelly Knudtson and Sara N. Glick
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:126
  14. Worldwide, alcohol-related road traffic accidents represent a major avoidable health risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of self-estimating the degree of acute alcohol intoxication regardi...

    Authors: Jöran Köchling, Berit Geis, Cho-Ming Chao, Jana-K. Dieks, Stefan Wirth and Kai O. Hensel
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:122
  15. Several published systematic reviews have examined the potential associations between e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking, but their methodological and/or reporting quality have not yet been assessed. This s...

    Authors: Mimi M. Kim, Lynley Pound, Isabella Steffensen and Geoffrey M. Curtin
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:121
  16. This paper reviews evidence of how drug control has been used to uphold colonial power structures in select countries. It demonstrates the racist and xenophobic impact of drug control policy and proposes a pat...

    Authors: Colleen Daniels, Aggrey Aluso, Naomi Burke-Shyne, Kojo Koram, Suchitra Rajagopalan, Imani Robinson, Shaun Shelly, Sam Shirley-Beavan and Tripti Tandon
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:120
  17. The majority of individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) face access barriers to evidence-based treatment, and the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the United States (US) opioid overdose crisis. However, th...

    Authors: Shoshana V. Aronowitz, Eden Engel-Rebitzer, Abby Dolan, Kehinde Oyekanmi, David Mandell, Zachary Meisel, Eugenia South and Margaret Lowenstein
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:119
  18. While people who inject drugs (PWID) are vulnerable to the adverse outcomes of events like COVID-19, little is known regarding the impact of the current pandemic on PWID. We examine how COVID-19 has affected P...

    Authors: Yesenia Aponte-Melendez, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Chunki Fong, Benjamin Eckhardt, Shashi Kapadia and Kristen Marks
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:118
  19. After implementing a nationwide harm reduction program in 2006, a dramatic decline in the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among people with injection drug use (IDU) was observed in Ta...

    Authors: Wei J. Chen, Chi-Ya Chen, Shang-Chi Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang Wu, Susyan Jou, Yu-Chi Tung and Tzu-Pin Lu
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:117
  20. Syringe services programs (SSPs) remain highly effective, cost-saving interventions for the prevention of blood-borne infections among people who inject drugs. However, there have been restrictions regarding f...

    Authors: Tyler S. Bartholomew, Hardik Patel, Kathryn McCollister, Daniel J. Feaster and Hansel E. Tookes
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:116
  21. Provision of sterile syringes is an evidence-based strategy of reducing syringe sharing and reusing and yet, access to sterile syringes through pharmacies and syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in the United Sta...

    Authors: Phillip L. Marotta, Kristi Stringer, Leo Beletsky, Brooke S. West, Dawn Goddard-Eckrich, Louisa Gilbert, Tim Hunt, Elwin Wu and Nabila El-Bassel
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:115
  22. Up-to-date monitoring of non-combustible nicotine products (e.g. e-cigarettes, nicotine replacement therapies (NRT), heated tobacco products (HTP); NNP) is important to assess their impact. To date, there is l...

    Authors: Sharon Cox, Jamie Brown, Loren Kock and Lion Shahab
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:114
  23. Authors: Florian Scheibein, Kevin McGirr, Andy Morrison, Warren Roche and John Stephen Gary Wells
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:113

    The original article was published in Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:73

  24. Young adults experiencing homelessness are at high risk of opioid and other substance use, poor mental health outcomes, exposure to trauma, and other risks. Providing access to stable housing has the potential...

    Authors: Kelly J. Kelleher, Ruri Famelia, Tansel Yilmazer, Allen Mallory, Jodi Ford, Laura J. Chavez and Natasha Slesnick
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:112
  25. Gambling harm affects men and women relatively equally, and gender influences the social determinants of gambling harm. Responses to preventing and minimising women’s gambling harm have been shaped and constra...

    Authors: Katie Palmer du Preez, Anna-Marie Paavonen and Maria E. Bellringer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:111
  26. Fatal overdoses from opioid use and substance disorders are increasing at an alarming rate. One proposed harm reduction strategy for reducing overdose fatalities is to place overdose prevention sites—commonly ...

    Authors: Joanna R. Wares, Jing Dong, Jana L. Gevertz, Ami Radunskaya, Kendra Viner, Doug Wiebe and Sara Solomon
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:110

    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:129

  27. The combustion of tobacco is the main cause of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. E-cigarettes are potentially disruptive innovations with considerable potential for population health. A key question is ...

    Authors: Tomasz Jerzyński, Gerry V. Stimson, Harry Shapiro and Grzegorz Król
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:109
  28. Among individuals experiencing homelessness, the prevalence of alcohol use disorder is extremely high. Alcohol-related harms are compounded by the use of non-beverage alcohol (NBA; e.g. rubbing alcohol, cookin...

    Authors: Jean Nicolas Westenberg, Mostafa Mamdouh Kamel, Sindi Addorisio, Mohammad Abusamak, James S. H. Wong, Ava Outadi, Kerry L. Jang and R. Michael Krausz
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:108
  29. The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) and associated image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs) is now a global phenomenon. There is a need to develop evidence to support the development of interven...

    Authors: Jim McVeigh, Evelyn Hearne, Ian Boardley, Geoff Bates, Vivian Hope, Rob Ralphs and Marie Claire Van Hout
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:107
  30. In recent decades, several political, legislative, judicial, consumer, and commercial processes around the world have advanced legalization efforts for the use of medical cannabis (MC). As the use of MC evolve...

    Authors: Mohammad Ali Ruheel, Zoya Gomes, Sana Usman, Pargol Homayouni and Jeremy Y. Ng
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:106
  31. Women who inject drugs (WWID) experience unique risks and adverse health outcomes related to injection initiation and patterns of injection drug use. However, there is limited information on injection initiati...

    Authors: Allison Stewart, Brooke S. West, Claudia Rafful, Kenya Lazos, Jennifer Jain, Patricia Gonzalez-Zuniga and Teresita Rocha-Jimenez
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:105
  32. The North American opioid overdose crisis is driven in large part by the presence of unknown psychoactive adulterants in the dynamic, unregulated drug supply. We herein report the first detection of the psycho...

    Authors: Jeanette M. Bowles, Karen McDonald, Nazlee Maghsoudi, Hayley Thompson, Cristiana Stefan, Daniel R. Beriault, Sarah Delaney, Ernest Wong and Dan Werb
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:104
  33. Recovery is a multidimensional process that includes health, quality of life, and citizenship. Recovery capital is a strengths-based concept representing the sum of an individual’s resources that support recov...

    Authors: Anna Beth Parlier-Ahmad, Mishka Terplan, Dace S. Svikis, Laura Ellis and Caitlin E. Martin
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:103
  34. There is currently no systematic screening for hepatitis C (HCV) reinfection in people who inject drugs (PWID) after treatment in Belgium. However, in a recent meta-analysis, the overall HCV reinfection rate w...

    Authors: Dana Busschots, Rob Bielen, Özgür M. Koc, Leen Heyens, Rita Verrando, Chantal de Galocsy, Christophe Van Steenkiste, Frederik Nevens, Håvard Midgard, Olav Dalgard and Geert Robaeys
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:102
  35. The effectiveness of collaborative approaches in health interventions is underlined in the literature. Given the serious challenges to adequately managing the HCV epidemic in people who inject drugs (PWID), an...

    Authors: Nicolas Khatmi, David Michels, Daniela Rojas Castro and Perrine Roux
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:101
  36. Drug checking uses chemical analytical technologies to analyze drugs from the unregulated market to reduce substance use-related risks. We aim to examine the frequency of third party use of a community drug ch...

    Authors: Ashley Larnder, Piotr Burek, Bruce Wallace and Dennis K. Hore
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:99

    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:100

  37. Electronic cigarettes are a harm reduction strategy for individuals who smoke cigarettes who cannot or do not want to quit using FDA-approved cessation methods. Identifying perceived facilitators and barriers ...

    Authors: Kim Pulvers, Myra Rice, Jasjit S. Ahluwalia, Michael J. Arnold, Crystal Marez and Nicole L. Nollen
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:98
  38. Heroin and cocaine are among the most dangerous illicit drugs available and their presence on the market is increasing. These facts have led to the investigation of the quality of heroin and cocaine samples se...

    Authors: Adèle Bourmaud, Georges Dahm, François Meys, Nicolas Gengler, Alain Origer and Serge Schneider
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:97
  39. Health messages on e-cigarette packs emphasise nicotine addiction or harms using similar wording to warnings on cigarette packs. These may not be appropriate for e-cigarettes which constitute a reduced risk al...

    Authors: Catherine Kimber, Sharon Cox, Daniel Frings, Ian P. Albery and Lynne Dawkins
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:96
  40. The COVID-19 pandemic in England led to major changes in the delivery of support via stop smoking services (SSS) and to the widespread temporary closure of bricks and mortar e-cigarette retailers (vape shops h...

    Authors: Sharon Cox, Emma Ward, Louise Ross and Caitlin Notley
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:95
  41. People who experience non-fatal overdose (NFOD) are at high risk of subsequent overdose. With unprecedented increases in fentanyl in the US drug supply, many Massachusetts (MA) communities have seen a surge in...

    Authors: Shikhar Shrestha, Thomas J. Stopka, Jaclyn M. W. Hughto, Patricia Case, Wilson R. Palacios, Brittni Reilly and Traci C. Green
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:93
  42. Canada is in the midst of an opioid overdose crisis and Alberta has one of the highest opioid use rates across the country. Populations made vulnerable through structural inequities who also use opioids, such ...

    Authors: Katrina Milaney, Jenna Passi, Lisa Zaretsky, Tong Liu, Claire M. O’Gorman, Leslie Hill and Daniel Dutton
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:92
  43. People who use drugs (PWUD) are known to fear calling emergency medical services (EMS) for drug overdoses. In response, drug-related Good Samaritan Laws (GSLs) have been widely adopted in the USA and Canada to...

    Authors: Soroush Moallef, JinCheol Choi, M.-J. Milloy, Kora DeBeck, Thomas Kerr and Kanna Hayashi
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:91