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  1. Content type: Research

    Armed conflict may increase the risk of HIV and other pathogens among injecting drug users (IDUs); however, there are few prospective studies. This study aimed to measure incidence and potential predictors, in...

    Authors: Catherine S. Todd, Abdul Nasir, Mohammad Raza Stanekzai, Katja Fiekert, Heather L. Sipsma, David Vlahov and Steffanie A. Strathdee

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:22

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  2. Content type: Research

    Drug users and female sex workers are among the groups most vulnerable to HIV infection in Vietnam. To address the HIV epidemic within these communities, former drug users and sex workers established the first...

    Authors: Leah T. Le, Lauretta E. Grau, Huong H. Nguyen, Oanh Hai T. Khuat and Robert Heimer

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:38

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  3. Content type: Research

    “Low dead space” syringes with permanently attached needles retain less fluid, blood, and HIV after use than standard “high dead space” syringes. This reduces the probability of HIV transmission if they are sh...

    Authors: William A. Zule, Alisher Latypov, David Otiashvili, Irma Kirtadze, Umedjon Ibragimov and Georgiy V. Bobashev

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:37

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  4. Content type: Research

    Debate about medical cannabis legalization are typically informed by three beliefs: (1) cannabis has medical effects, (2) medical cannabis is addictive and (3) medical cannabis legalization leads to increased ...

    Authors: Sharon R. Sznitman and Anne Line Bretteville-Jensen

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:46

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  5. Content type: Brief report

    Prior research has examined access to syringe exchange program (SEP) services among persons who inject drugs (PWID), but no research has been conducted to evaluate variations in SEP access based on season. Thi...

    Authors: Sean T. Allen, Monica S. Ruiz, Amira Roess and Jeff Jones

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:45

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  6. Content type: Research

    Despite empirical support for the individual and public health benefits of treating substance use disorders (SUDs) , access to these services is impeded by several barriers. Although many studies on access bar...

    Authors: Deborah Isobell, Kamal Kamaloodien and Shazly Savahl

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:36

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  7. Content type: Research

    Integrating and decentralizing services are essential to increase the accessibility and provide comprehensive care for methadone patients. Moreover, they assure the sustainability of a HIV/AIDS prevention prog...

    Authors: Bach Xuan Tran, Long Hoang Nguyen, Huong Thu Thi Phan, Linh Khanh Nguyen and Carl A. Latkin

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:29

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  8. Content type: Research

    Heroin injection is emerging as a significant dimension of the HIV epidemic in Kenya. Preventing transitions to injecting drug use from less harmful forms of use, such as smoking, is a potentially important fo...

    Authors: Andy Guise, Margarita Dimova, James Ndimbii, Phil Clark and Tim Rhodes

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:27

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  9. Content type: Brief report

    Kabul has over 12,000 people who inject drugs (PWID), most of them heroin users, and opioid substitution therapy has recently been introduced as an effective method to reduce opioid use. We aimed to evaluate a...

    Authors: Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Alexander Vu, Andrea L Wirtz, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Mark Berry, Iliassou Mfochive, Cyrus Engineer, Ahmad Farhad, Senop Tschakarjan, Ernst Wisse, Feda M Paikan and Gilbert Burnham

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:28

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  10. Content type: Brief report

    Community stakeholders express a range of opinions about supervised injection facilities (SIFs). We sought to identify reasons for ambivalence about SIFs amongst community stakeholders in two Canadian cities.

    Authors: Carol Strike, Tara Marie Watson, Gillian Kolla, Rebecca Penn and Ahmed M. Bayoumi

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:26

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  11. Content type: Case study

    The leading cause of adult injury death in the USA is drug overdose, the majority of which involves prescription opioid medications. Outside of the USA, deaths by drug overdose are also on the rise, and overdo...

    Authors: Traci C. Green, Emily F Dauria, Jeffrey Bratberg, Corey S. Davis and Alexander Y Walley

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:25

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  12. Content type: Research

    Despite the growing attention surrounding crack cocaine use in Brazil, little is understood about crack users’ histories, use patterns and the interplay of drug-use behaviors, settings, and access/barriers to ...

    Authors: Noa Krawczyk, Carlos Linhares Veloso Filho and Francisco I. Bastos

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:24

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  13. Content type: Research

    Injecting drug use (IDU) is a strong predictor of recidivism and re-incarceration in ex-prisoners. Although the links between drug use and crime are well documented, studies examining post-release criminal act...

    Authors: Amy Kirwan, Brendan Quinn, Rebecca Winter, Stuart A. Kinner, Paul Dietze and Mark Stoové

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:23

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  14. Content type: Research

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) accounts for 15,000 deaths in the United States yearly because people living with HCV are not identified in time to seek treatment, are ineligible for or refuse treatment, or face struc...

    Authors: Stella A. Safo, Abigail Batchelder, Deena Peyser and Alain H. Litwin

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:20

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  15. Content type: Research

    Harm reduction case management relies on client-identified goals to drive the provision of care in order to “meet clients where they are at”. This research measured the level of agreement between client-identi...

    Authors: Allison O’Rourke, Monica S. Ruiz and Sean T. Allen

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:17

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  16. Content type: Brief report

    Syringe sharing continues to be a major driver of the HIV pandemic. In light of efforts to enhance access to sterile syringes and promote secondary prevention among HIV-positive individuals, we sought to ident...

    Authors: Pauline Voon, Kanna Hayashi, Lianping Ti, Karyn Kaplan, Paisan Suwannawong, Evan Wood and Thomas Kerr

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:16

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  17. Content type: Research

    Although a growing body of evidence suggests that low dead space syringes may reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus infection associated with sharing syringes among people...

    Authors: Ngo Thi Thanh Huong, Gary Mundy, Josselyn Neukom, William Zule, Nguyen Minh Tuan and Nguyen Minh Tam

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:15

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  18. Content type: Review

    As with many Indigenous groups around the world, Aboriginal communities in Canada face significant challenges with trauma and substance use. The complexity of symptoms that accompany intergenerational trauma a...

    Authors: Teresa Naseba Marsh, Diana Coholic, Sheila Cote-Meek and Lisa M Najavits

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:14

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  19. Content type: Research

    The aim of this study was to compare the changes in primary (heroin use-related) and secondary (depressive symptoms and quality of life, QOL) outcome indicators of 3-month methadone maintenance treatment (MMT)...

    Authors: Peng-Wei Wang, Huang-Chi Lin, Chia-Nan Yen, Yi-Chun Yeh, Chih-Yao Hsu, Kuan-Sheng Chung, Hsun-Cheng Chang, Hung-Chi Wu and Cheng-Fang Yen

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:13

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  20. Content type: Research

    The “gateway hypothesis” usually refers to the possibility that the taking up of habit A, which is considered harmless (or less harmful), may lead to the subsequent taking up of another habit, B, which is cons...

    Authors: Peter N Lee

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:8

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  21. Content type: Brief report

    The US Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update established an expanded standard of care, calling on physicians to consistently identify their patients wh...

    Authors: Judy Kruger, Alissa O’Halloran and Abby Rosenthal

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:7

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  22. Content type: Research

    Promoting safer sex behaviours among people who inject drugs is important as drug-using populations with high HIV prevalence can contribute to transition from a concentrated to a generalised epidemic. This stu...

    Authors: Michelle Kermode, Greg Armstrong, Gajendra Kumar Medhi, Chumben Humtsoe, Biangtung Langkham and Jagadish Mahanta

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:4

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  23. Content type: Research

    Prevention of hepatitis C (HCV) remains a public health challenge. A new body of work is emerging seeking to explore and exploit “symbiotic goals” of people who inject drugs (PWID). That is, strategies used by...

    Authors: Carla Treloar, Jamee Newland and Louise Maher

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:5

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  24. Content type: Brief report

    Prior research has explored spatial access to syringe exchange programs (SEPs) among people who inject drugs (PWID), but little is known about service utilization by former PWID who continue to access services...

    Authors: Sean Allen, Monica Ruiz and Allison O’Rourke

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:3

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  25. Content type: Research

    People who inject drugs (PWID) have significantly higher rates of blood borne and sexually transmitted infections due to unsafe injecting practices and risky sexual behaviors.

    Authors: Dragan Lausevic, Senad Begic, Boban Mugosa, Natasa Terzic, Zoran Vratnica, Itana Labovic and Ivana Bozicevic

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:11

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  26. Content type: Research

    It is well known that illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is common among people with an opioid dependence. Less notice has been taken of the fact that these substances are also used for extended period...

    Authors: Torkel Richert and Björn Johnson

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:12

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  27. Content type: Research

    Long-term use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has been approved in several countries for smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit smoking. However, information on basic characteristics, degree of nico...

    Authors: Gitte Borup, Kim Lyngby Mikkelsen, Philip Tønnesen and Lona Louring Christrup

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:2

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  28. Content type: Research

    Women living in poor and vulnerable neighbourhoods like Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside (DTES) face multiple burdens related to the social determinants of health. Many of them struggle with addiction, are involv...

    Authors: Iris Torchalla, Isabelle Aube Linden, Verena Strehlau, Erika K Neilson and Michael Krausz

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 11:34

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:65

  29. Content type: Research

    Women living in poor and vulnerable neighbourhoods like Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside (DTES) face multiple burdens related to the social determinants of health. Many of them struggle with addiction, are involv...

    Authors: Iris Torchalla, Isabelle Aube Linden, Verena Strehlau, Erika K Neilson and Michael Krausz

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:1

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:65

  30. Content type: Research

    The use of opiates, particularly heroin, remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Half of the deaths among heroin consumers are attributed to overdose. In response to this problem, overdose preve...

    Authors: Elisabet Arribas-Ibar, Albert Sánchez-Niubò, Xavier Majó, Antònia Domingo-Salvany and Maria Teresa Brugal

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:33

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  31. Content type: Commentary

    This commentary evaluates regulatory frameworks for the legalized production, sale, and use of marijuana. Specifically, we argue that the primary goal of legalization should be the elimination of the illicit t...

    Authors: Jon Gettman and Michael Kennedy

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:32

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  32. Content type: Commentary

    It has been over half a century since the landmark Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was adopted, for the first time unifying international drug policy under a single treaty aimed at limiting use, manufactur...

    Authors: Tim K Mackey, Daniel Werb, Leo Beletsky, Gudelia Rangel, Jaime Arredondo and Steffanie A Strathdee

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:31

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  33. Content type: Research

    In Denmark, the first standalone supervised injecting facility (SIF) opened in Copenhagen’s Vesterbro neighborhood on October 1, 2012. The purpose of this study was to assess whether use of services provided b...

    Authors: Elizabeth N Kinnard, Chanelle J Howe, Thomas Kerr, Vibeke Skjødt Hass and Brandon DL Marshall

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:29

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  34. Content type: Research

    We surveyed a population of injection drug users (IDUs) frequenting the mobile Baltimore City Needle Exchange Program (BNEP) to investigate self-care factors associated with chronic wounds, a significant cause...

    Authors: Maria Elisa Smith, Natanya Robinowitz, Patrick Chaulk and Kristine E Johnson

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:28

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  35. Content type: Research

    Grounded in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework, the PROUD (Participatory Research in Ottawa: Understanding Drugs) Study aims to better understand HIV risk and prevalence among people who...

    Authors: Lisa Lazarus, Ashley Shaw, Sean LeBlanc, Alana Martin, Zack Marshall, Kristen Weersink, Dolly Lin, Kira Mandryk and Mark W Tyndall

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:26

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  36. Content type: Research

    There is an HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Manipur and Nagaland, Northeast India. Approximately one-third of PWID across these two states are aged below 25 years, yet until now there has ...

    Authors: Gregory Armstrong, Amenla Nuken, Gajendra K Medhi, Jagadish Mahanta, Chumben Humtsoe, Melody Lalmuanpuaii and Michelle Kermode

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:27

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  37. Content type: Research

    Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is regarded as a crime control measure. Yet, some individuals are charged with violent criminal offenses while enrolled in OMT. This article aims to generate nuanced knowledg...

    Authors: Ingrid Amalia Havnes, Thomas Clausen, Christina Brux and Anne-Lise Middelthon

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:24

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  38. Content type: Research

    The use of cigarettes, alcohol, khat, and other substances is a worldwide threat which especially affects young people and which is also common among the youth of Ethiopia. However, its prevalence and associat...

    Authors: Nagasa Dida, Yibeltal Kassa, Teshome Sirak, Ephrem Zerga and Tariku Dessalegn

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:21

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  39. Content type: Research

    Methadone maintenance treatment is the most widely prescribed treatment for opiate dependence with proven benefits for patients. In naïve users or in case of recreational misuse, methadone can be a source of p...

    Authors: Gaël Dupuy, Lia Cavalcanti, Emmanuel Bourgogne, Clara Brichant-Petitjean, Léon Gomberoff, Vanessa Bloch, Frank Bellivier, Jean-Pierre Lépine, Olivier Laprévote and Florence Vorspan

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:20

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