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  1. Content type: Research

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a risk group for new HIV infections. Drug use among men who have sex with men is often accompanied by risky sexual behaviours. Local AIDS help centres and gay advice centres...

    Authors: Daniel Deimel, Heino Stöver, Susann Hößelbarth, Anna Dichtl, Niels Graf and Viola Gebhardt

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:36

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  2. Content type: Research

    Sex trading is a recognized risk factor for human immune deficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted infections among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs). However, very little research has addressed...

    Authors: Yu Mon Saw, Thu Nandar Saw, Kyi Mar Wai, Krishna C. Poudel and Hla Hla Win

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:34

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  3. Content type: Research

    In heroin injectors, there have been a number of outbreaks caused by spore-forming bacteria, causing serious infections such as anthrax or botulism. These are, most likely, caused by injecting contaminated her...

    Authors: Nour Alhusein, Jenny Scott, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern and Albert Bolhuis

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:33

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  4. Content type: Research

    Street-involved youth are known to be an economically vulnerable population that commonly resorts to risky activities such as drug dealing to generate income. While incarceration is common among people who use...

    Authors: Carly Hoy, Brittany Barker, Jackie Regan, Huiru Dong, Lindsey Richardson, Thomas Kerr and Kora DeBeck

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:32

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  5. Content type: Research

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also marginalized by social and structural inequities often face barriers to accessing and adhering to HIV treatment and care. The Dr. Peter Centre (DPC) is a non-profit ...

    Authors: S. Fernando, R. McNeil, K. Closson, H. Samji, S. Kirkland, C. Strike, R. Baltzer Turje, W. Zhang, R. S. Hogg and S. Parashar

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:31

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  6. Content type: Research

    The mode of medical cannabis delivery—whether cannabis is smoked, vapourized, or consumed orally—may have important implications for its therapeutic efficacy and health risks. However, there is very little evi...

    Authors: Samantha Shiplo, Mark Asbridge, Scott T. Leatherdale and David Hammond

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:30

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  7. Content type: Brief report

    The Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC) is a supervised injecting facility (SIF) where people who inject drugs (PWID) can do so legally, under health professional supervision. The majority of c...

    Authors: Mark Goodhew, Allison M. Salmon, Christina Marel, Katherine L. Mills and Marianne Jauncey

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:29

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  8. Content type: Review

    While the last decade has seen a growth of support for harm reduction around the world, the availability and accessibility of quality harm reduction services in prison settings is uneven and continues to be in...

    Authors: Gen Sander, Alessio Scandurra, Anhelita Kamenska, Catherine MacNamara, Christina Kalpaki, Cristina Fernandez Bessa, Gemma Nicolás Laso, Grazia Parisi, Lorraine Varley, Marcin Wolny, Maria Moudatsou, Nuno Henrique Pontes, Patricia Mannix-McNamara, Sandro Libianchi and Tzanetos Antypas

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:28

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  9. Content type: Research

    Drug consumption rooms (DCRs) have been implemented worldwide as a harm-reducing strategy. In 2012, Denmark passed legislation allowing establishment of DCRs. The aim of this study was to identify characterist...

    Authors: Eva Charlotte Toth, Jette Tegner, Sigurd Lauridsen and Nanna Kappel

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:27

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  10. Content type: Methodology

    Community-based HIV, harm reduction, and addiction research increasingly involve members of affected communities as Peer Research Associates (PRAs)—individuals with common experiences to the participant popula...

    Authors: K. Closson, R. McNeil, P. McDougall, S. Fernando, A. B. Collins, R. Baltzer Turje, T. Howard and S. Parashar

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:26

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  11. Content type: Research

    Injection drug use remains a primary driver of HIV and HCV-related harms globally. However, there is a gap in efforts to prevent individuals from transitioning into injecting. People who inject drugs (PWID) pl...

    Authors: Daniel Werb, Richard Garfein, Thomas Kerr, Peter Davidson, Perrine Roux, Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Marc Auriacombe, Will Small and Steffanie A. Strathdee

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:25

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  12. Content type: Brief report

    To date, no studies have examined the extent of knowledge and perceptions of Good Samaritan Laws (GSLs) among young adults who engage in non-medical prescription opioid (NMPO) use. We sought to determine aware...

    Authors: Tristan I. Evans, Scott E. Hadland, Melissa A. Clark, Traci C. Green and Brandon D. L. Marshall

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:24

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  13. Content type: Research

    Many misperceptions of both risks and opportunities of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) exist among the general population and among physicians, although e-cigs could be a valuable harm reduction tool for current smokers.

    Authors: Dinska Van Gucht and Frank Baeyens

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:22

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  14. Content type: Research

    Although targeted interventions in India require all high-risk groups, including injecting drug users (IDUs), to test for HIV every 6 months, testing uptake among IDUs remains far from universal. Our study estima...

    Authors: Deepika Ganju, Sowmya Ramesh and Niranjan Saggurti

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:21

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  15. Content type: Research

    Drug use contributes to higher rates of morbidity and mortality among people who use drugs compared to the general population. In 2012, Danish politicians passed a law that allowed drug consumption rooms (DCRs...

    Authors: Nanna Kappel, Eva Toth, Jette Tegner and Sigurd Lauridsen

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:20

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  16. Content type: Research

    The role of peers (former or current drug users) in reducing risky behavior within methamphetamine and crack smokers has not been well described or researched. The current study not only explores the role of p...

    Authors: Ehsan Jozaghi, Hugh Lampkin and Martin A. Andresen

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:19

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  17. Content type: Research

    Despite high levels of equipment distribution through Needle and Syringe Programmes (NSPs) in Australia, the levels of reuse of equipment among people who inject drugs remain concerning. This paper used an exp...

    Authors: Carla Treloar, Limin Mao and Hannah Wilson

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:18

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  18. Content type: Research

    The British Columbia take-home naloxone (BCTHN) program has been in operation since 2012 and has resulted in the successful reversal of over 581 opioid overdoses. The study aims to explore BCTHN program partic...

    Authors: Andrew Deonarine, Ashraf Amlani, Graham Ambrose and Jane A. Buxton

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:17

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  19. Content type: Research

    There is a higher prevalence of alcohol use and severe alcohol dependence among homeless populations. The combination of alcohol use and lack of housing contributes to increased vulnerability to the harms of s...

    Authors: Bernadette (Bernie) Pauly, Erin Gray, Kathleen Perkin, Clifton Chow, Kate Vallance, Bonnie Krysowaty and Timothy Stockwell

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:15

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  20. Content type: Research

    Managed alcohol programs (MAPs) are a harm reduction strategy for people with severe alcohol dependence and unstable housing. MAPs provide controlled access to alcohol usually alongside accommodation, meals, a...

    Authors: Kate Vallance, Tim Stockwell, Bernie Pauly, Clifton Chow, Erin Gray, Bonnie Krysowaty, Kathleen Perkin and Jinhui Zhao

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:13

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  21. Content type: Review

    Several home-produced substances such as krokodil and boltushka are prevalent in many Eastern European countries. Anecdotal reports of its use have been circulating in Germany and Norway; however, this has not be...

    Authors: Evelyn Hearne, Jean-Paul Cornelius Grund, Marie Claire Van Hout and Jim McVeigh

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:14

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  22. Content type: Research

    Cocaine use is frequent in patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and can jeopardize their treatment response. Identifying clinical predictors of cocaine use during methadone treatment can po...

    Authors: Perrine Roux, Caroline Lions, Antoine Vilotitch, Laurent Michel, Marion Mora, Gwenaelle Maradan, Fabienne Marcellin, Bruno Spire, Alain Morel and Patrizia M. Carrieri

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:12

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  23. Content type: Research

    Blood contained in needles and injection equipment has been identified as a vector for HIV and HCV transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID). Yet, there is often a wide discrepancy in prevalence for bo...

    Authors: Roberto Abadie, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Camila Gelpi-Acosta, Juan Carlos Reyes and Kirk Dombrowski

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:10

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  24. Content type: Reviewer acknowledgement

    The editors of Harm Reduction Journal would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 12 (2015).

    Authors: Nick Crofts and Euan Lawson

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:9

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  25. Content type: Research

    Outcomes of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in the management of opioid dependency can be impaired by poor adherence and retention, concomitant drug use, poor adjustment of methadone dosage, and low leve...

    Authors: Bo Zhang, Thomas Cai, Zhihua Yan, Gitau Mburu, Bangyuan Wang and Liping Yang

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:8

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  26. Content type: Research

    Vietnam is among those countries with the highest drinking prevalence. In this study, we examined the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and its associations with HIV risky behaviors, health care utili...

    Authors: Bach Xuan Tran, Long Hoang Nguyen, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Huong Thu Thi Phan and Carl A. Latkin

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:6

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  27. Content type: Research

    Integrating HIV/AIDS and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) services with existing health care delivery system is critical in sustaining efforts to fight HIV/AIDS in large injection-driven epidemics. Howeve...

    Authors: Bach Xuan Tran, Long Hoang Nguyen, Vuong Minh Nong, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Huong Thu Thi Phan and Carl A. Latkin

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:4

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  28. Content type: Research

    In Central Asia, there is a need to update information about the situation of people who use (opioid) drugs (PWUD), especially regarding their access to and utilization of health care services. The aim of the ...

    Authors: Moritz Rosenkranz, Nina Kerimi, Madina Takenova, Antti Impinen, Mirlan Mamyrov, Peter Degkwitz, Heike Zurhold and Marcus-Sebastian Martens

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:3

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  29. Content type: Research

    Assisted injecting has been associated with increased risk of blood-borne infections, overdose, and other harms among people who inject drugs (PWID), particularly women. Given the changing availability of rele...

    Authors: Jeanette Somlak Pedersen, Huiru Dong, Will Small, Evan Wood, Paul Nguyen, Thomas Kerr and Kanna Hayashi

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:2

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  30. Content type: Research

    High-dose benzodiazepine dependence constitutes a major clinical concern. Although withdrawal treatment is recommended, it is unsuccessful for a significant proportion of affected patients. More recently, a be...

    Authors: Michael Liebrenz, Marcel Schneider, Anna Buadze, Marie-Therese Gehring, Anish Dube and Carlo Caflisch

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2016 13:1

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  31. Content type: Brief report

    There are few studies of mortality amongst people who inject drugs (PWID) in Australia. In this study, we estimate mortality in a cohort of PWID in Melbourne and examine predictors of mortality including healt...

    Authors: Dhanya Nambiar, Paul A. Agius, Mark Stoové, Matthew Hickman and Paul Dietze

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:55

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  32. Content type: Research

    Fentanyl-detected illicit drug overdose deaths in British Columbia (BC) recently increased dramatically from 13 deaths in 2012 to 90 deaths in 2014, signaling an emerging public health concern. Illicit fentany...

    Authors: Ashraf Amlani, Geoff McKee, Noren Khamis, Geetha Raghukumar, Erica Tsang and Jane A. Buxton

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:54

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  33. Content type: Commentary

    Recent exposes of drug use in sports suggest that doping might be more problematic than doping-control test results reveal. A zero-tolerance (ZT) model, which aims to eliminate the use, has dominated the think...

    Authors: Aaron C. T. Smith and Bob Stewart

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:53

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  34. Content type: Research

    Smoking cessation treatment service is concerned to be a critical element in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in order to diminish the effect of smoke on health outcomes. To implement the smoking cessatio...

    Authors: Bach Xuan Tran, Long Hoang Nguyen, Huyen Phuc Do, Nhung Phuong Thi Nguyen, Huong Thu Thi Phan, Michael Dunne and Carl Latkin

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:50

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  35. Content type: Research

    Supervised injection sites (SISs) have been effective in reducing health risks among people who inject drugs (PWID), including those who face issues of homelessness, mental health illness, interactions with lo...

    Authors: Ashley Shaw, Lisa Lazarus, Tyler Pantalone, Sean LeBlanc, Dolly Lin, Daina Stanley, Caleb Chepesiuk, Sheetal Patel and Mark Tyndall

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:49

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  36. Content type: Review

    Pakistan is among four countries in Asia where the estimated number of new HIV infections has been increasing year by year ever since 1990. The Asian Epidemic Modelling (AEM), conducted in 2015, reconfirmed th...

    Authors: Anne Bergenstrom, Baseer Achakzai, Sofia Furqan, Manzoor ul Haq, Rajwal Khan and Marc Saba

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:43

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  37. Content type: Commentary

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased HIV transmission risk because of unsafe injecting practices and a host of other individual, network, and structural factors. Thus, PWID have a great need for ser...

    Authors: Richard D. Pierce, Jennifer Hegle, Keith Sabin, Edo Agustian, Lisa G. Johnston, Stephen Mills and Catherine S. Todd

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:41

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  38. Content type: Research

    Methadone maintenance treatment programs (MMTPs) are important public health intervention to control the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the drug use problems. For expanding treatment coverage, publicly...

    Authors: Kun-Chia Chang and Chung-Ying Lin

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:40

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  39. Content type: Brief report

    Women who inject drugs (WWID) are neglected globally in research and programming yet may be likelier than males to practise sexual and injecting risks and be infected with HIV and more stigmatised but seek few...

    Authors: Oanh TH Khuat, Martha Morrow, Trang NN Nguyen and Gregory Armstrong

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:35

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