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  1. Content type: Research

    Smoking cessation treatment service is concerned to be a critical element in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in order to diminish the effect of smoke on health outcomes. To implement the smoking cessatio...

    Authors: Bach Xuan Tran, Long Hoang Nguyen, Huyen Phuc Do, Nhung Phuong Thi Nguyen, Huong Thu Thi Phan, Michael Dunne and Carl Latkin

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:50

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  2. Content type: Research

    Supervised injection sites (SISs) have been effective in reducing health risks among people who inject drugs (PWID), including those who face issues of homelessness, mental health illness, interactions with lo...

    Authors: Ashley Shaw, Lisa Lazarus, Tyler Pantalone, Sean LeBlanc, Dolly Lin, Daina Stanley, Caleb Chepesiuk, Sheetal Patel and Mark Tyndall

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:49

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  3. Content type: Review

    Pakistan is among four countries in Asia where the estimated number of new HIV infections has been increasing year by year ever since 1990. The Asian Epidemic Modelling (AEM), conducted in 2015, reconfirmed th...

    Authors: Anne Bergenstrom, Baseer Achakzai, Sofia Furqan, Manzoor ul Haq, Rajwal Khan and Marc Saba

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:43

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  4. Content type: Commentary

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased HIV transmission risk because of unsafe injecting practices and a host of other individual, network, and structural factors. Thus, PWID have a great need for ser...

    Authors: Richard D. Pierce, Jennifer Hegle, Keith Sabin, Edo Agustian, Lisa G. Johnston, Stephen Mills and Catherine S. Todd

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:41

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  5. Content type: Research

    Methadone maintenance treatment programs (MMTPs) are important public health intervention to control the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the drug use problems. For expanding treatment coverage, publicly...

    Authors: Kun-Chia Chang and Chung-Ying Lin

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:40

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  6. Content type: Research

    As a dual response to the HIV epidemic and the high level of injecting drug use in Vietnam, the Ministry of Health (MOH) initiated a pilot methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) program in Hai Phong and Ho Chi Mi...

    Authors: Tran Vu Hoang, Tran Thi Thanh Ha, Tran Minh Hoang, Nguyen To Nhu, Nguyen Cuong Quoc, Nguyen thi Minh Tam and Stephen Mills

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:39

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  7. Content type: Research

    Drug users and female sex workers are among the groups most vulnerable to HIV infection in Vietnam. To address the HIV epidemic within these communities, former drug users and sex workers established the first...

    Authors: Leah T. Le, Lauretta E. Grau, Huong H. Nguyen, Oanh Hai T. Khuat and Robert Heimer

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:38

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  8. Content type: Research

    “Low dead space” syringes with permanently attached needles retain less fluid, blood, and HIV after use than standard “high dead space” syringes. This reduces the probability of HIV transmission if they are sh...

    Authors: William A. Zule, Alisher Latypov, David Otiashvili, Irma Kirtadze, Umedjon Ibragimov and Georgiy V. Bobashev

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:37

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  9. Content type: Brief report

    Women who inject drugs (WWID) are neglected globally in research and programming yet may be likelier than males to practise sexual and injecting risks and be infected with HIV and more stigmatised but seek few...

    Authors: Oanh TH Khuat, Martha Morrow, Trang NN Nguyen and Gregory Armstrong

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:35

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  10. Content type: Research

    China, as other Southeast Asian countries, has witnessed an increased use in amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) amongst urban youth. Amongst female adolescents who both sell sex and use ATS, risk behaviours are...

    Authors: Xu-Dong Zhang, Angela Kelly-Hanku, Jia-Jia Chai, Jian Luo, Marleen Temmerman and Stanley Luchters

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:34

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  11. Content type: Research

    In Cambodia, HIV prevalence among female entertainment and sex workers (FESW) is up to twenty times higher than in the general population. Use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) has been associated with incr...

    Authors: Thomas Crewe Dixon, Song Ngak, Ellen Stein, Adam Carrico, Kimberly Page and Lisa Maher

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:33

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  12. Content type: Commentary

    Evidence indicates that detention of people who use drugs in compulsory centers in the name of treatment is common in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam....

    Authors: Pascal Tanguay, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Apinun Aramrattana, Alex Wodak, Nicholas Thomson, Robert Ali, Gino Vumbaca, Gloria Lai and Anand Chabungbam

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:31

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  13. Content type: Research

    Armed conflict may increase the risk of HIV and other pathogens among injecting drug users (IDUs); however, there are few prospective studies. This study aimed to measure incidence and potential predictors, in...

    Authors: Catherine S. Todd, Abdul Nasir, Mohammad Raza Stanekzai, Katja Fiekert, Heather L. Sipsma, David Vlahov and Steffanie A. Strathdee

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:22

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  14. Content type: Research

    Debate about medical cannabis legalization are typically informed by three beliefs: (1) cannabis has medical effects, (2) medical cannabis is addictive and (3) medical cannabis legalization leads to increased ...

    Authors: Sharon R. Sznitman and Anne Line Bretteville-Jensen

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:46

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  15. Content type: Brief report

    Prior research has examined access to syringe exchange program (SEP) services among persons who inject drugs (PWID), but no research has been conducted to evaluate variations in SEP access based on season. Thi...

    Authors: Sean T. Allen, Monica S. Ruiz, Amira Roess and Jeff Jones

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:45

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  16. Content type: Research

    Despite empirical support for the individual and public health benefits of treating substance use disorders (SUDs) , access to these services is impeded by several barriers. Although many studies on access bar...

    Authors: Deborah Isobell, Kamal Kamaloodien and Shazly Savahl

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:36

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  17. Content type: Research

    Integrating and decentralizing services are essential to increase the accessibility and provide comprehensive care for methadone patients. Moreover, they assure the sustainability of a HIV/AIDS prevention prog...

    Authors: Bach Xuan Tran, Long Hoang Nguyen, Huong Thu Thi Phan, Linh Khanh Nguyen and Carl A. Latkin

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:29

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  18. Content type: Brief report

    Kabul has over 12,000 people who inject drugs (PWID), most of them heroin users, and opioid substitution therapy has recently been introduced as an effective method to reduce opioid use. We aimed to evaluate a...

    Authors: Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Alexander Vu, Andrea L Wirtz, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Mark Berry, Iliassou Mfochive, Cyrus Engineer, Ahmad Farhad, Senop Tschakarjan, Ernst Wisse, Feda M Paikan and Gilbert Burnham

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:28

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  19. Content type: Research

    Heroin injection is emerging as a significant dimension of the HIV epidemic in Kenya. Preventing transitions to injecting drug use from less harmful forms of use, such as smoking, is a potentially important fo...

    Authors: Andy Guise, Margarita Dimova, James Ndimbii, Phil Clark and Tim Rhodes

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:27

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  20. Content type: Brief report

    Community stakeholders express a range of opinions about supervised injection facilities (SIFs). We sought to identify reasons for ambivalence about SIFs amongst community stakeholders in two Canadian cities.

    Authors: Carol Strike, Tara Marie Watson, Gillian Kolla, Rebecca Penn and Ahmed M. Bayoumi

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:26

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  21. Content type: Case study

    The leading cause of adult injury death in the USA is drug overdose, the majority of which involves prescription opioid medications. Outside of the USA, deaths by drug overdose are also on the rise, and overdo...

    Authors: Traci C. Green, Emily F Dauria, Jeffrey Bratberg, Corey S. Davis and Alexander Y Walley

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:25

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  22. Content type: Research

    Despite the growing attention surrounding crack cocaine use in Brazil, little is understood about crack users’ histories, use patterns and the interplay of drug-use behaviors, settings, and access/barriers to ...

    Authors: Noa Krawczyk, Carlos Linhares Veloso Filho and Francisco I. Bastos

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:24

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  23. Content type: Research

    Injecting drug use (IDU) is a strong predictor of recidivism and re-incarceration in ex-prisoners. Although the links between drug use and crime are well documented, studies examining post-release criminal act...

    Authors: Amy Kirwan, Brendan Quinn, Rebecca Winter, Stuart A. Kinner, Paul Dietze and Mark Stoové

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:23

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  24. Content type: Research

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) accounts for 15,000 deaths in the United States yearly because people living with HCV are not identified in time to seek treatment, are ineligible for or refuse treatment, or face struc...

    Authors: Stella A. Safo, Abigail Batchelder, Deena Peyser and Alain H. Litwin

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:20

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  25. Content type: Research

    Harm reduction case management relies on client-identified goals to drive the provision of care in order to “meet clients where they are at”. This research measured the level of agreement between client-identi...

    Authors: Allison O’Rourke, Monica S. Ruiz and Sean T. Allen

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:17

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  26. Content type: Brief report

    Syringe sharing continues to be a major driver of the HIV pandemic. In light of efforts to enhance access to sterile syringes and promote secondary prevention among HIV-positive individuals, we sought to ident...

    Authors: Pauline Voon, Kanna Hayashi, Lianping Ti, Karyn Kaplan, Paisan Suwannawong, Evan Wood and Thomas Kerr

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:16

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  27. Content type: Research

    Although a growing body of evidence suggests that low dead space syringes may reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus infection associated with sharing syringes among people...

    Authors: Ngo Thi Thanh Huong, Gary Mundy, Josselyn Neukom, William Zule, Nguyen Minh Tuan and Nguyen Minh Tam

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:15

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  28. Content type: Review

    As with many Indigenous groups around the world, Aboriginal communities in Canada face significant challenges with trauma and substance use. The complexity of symptoms that accompany intergenerational trauma a...

    Authors: Teresa Naseba Marsh, Diana Coholic, Sheila Cote-Meek and Lisa M Najavits

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:14

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  29. Content type: Research

    The aim of this study was to compare the changes in primary (heroin use-related) and secondary (depressive symptoms and quality of life, QOL) outcome indicators of 3-month methadone maintenance treatment (MMT)...

    Authors: Peng-Wei Wang, Huang-Chi Lin, Chia-Nan Yen, Yi-Chun Yeh, Chih-Yao Hsu, Kuan-Sheng Chung, Hsun-Cheng Chang, Hung-Chi Wu and Cheng-Fang Yen

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:13

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  30. Content type: Research

    The “gateway hypothesis” usually refers to the possibility that the taking up of habit A, which is considered harmless (or less harmful), may lead to the subsequent taking up of another habit, B, which is cons...

    Authors: Peter N Lee

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:8

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  31. Content type: Brief report

    The US Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update established an expanded standard of care, calling on physicians to consistently identify their patients wh...

    Authors: Judy Kruger, Alissa O’Halloran and Abby Rosenthal

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:7

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  32. Content type: Research

    Prevention of hepatitis C (HCV) remains a public health challenge. A new body of work is emerging seeking to explore and exploit “symbiotic goals” of people who inject drugs (PWID). That is, strategies used by...

    Authors: Carla Treloar, Jamee Newland and Louise Maher

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:5

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  33. Content type: Research

    Promoting safer sex behaviours among people who inject drugs is important as drug-using populations with high HIV prevalence can contribute to transition from a concentrated to a generalised epidemic. This stu...

    Authors: Michelle Kermode, Greg Armstrong, Gajendra Kumar Medhi, Chumben Humtsoe, Biangtung Langkham and Jagadish Mahanta

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:4

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  34. Content type: Brief report

    Prior research has explored spatial access to syringe exchange programs (SEPs) among people who inject drugs (PWID), but little is known about service utilization by former PWID who continue to access services...

    Authors: Sean Allen, Monica Ruiz and Allison O’Rourke

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:3

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  35. Content type: Research

    People who inject drugs (PWID) have significantly higher rates of blood borne and sexually transmitted infections due to unsafe injecting practices and risky sexual behaviors.

    Authors: Dragan Lausevic, Senad Begic, Boban Mugosa, Natasa Terzic, Zoran Vratnica, Itana Labovic and Ivana Bozicevic

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:11

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  36. Content type: Research

    It is well known that illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is common among people with an opioid dependence. Less notice has been taken of the fact that these substances are also used for extended period...

    Authors: Torkel Richert and Björn Johnson

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:12

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  37. Content type: Research

    Long-term use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has been approved in several countries for smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit smoking. However, information on basic characteristics, degree of nico...

    Authors: Gitte Borup, Kim Lyngby Mikkelsen, Philip Tønnesen and Lona Louring Christrup

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:2

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