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  1. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Magdalena Harris, Jenny Scott, Vivian Hope, Talen Wright, Catherine McGowan and Daniel Ciccarone
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:38

    The original article was published in Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:24

  2. In 2016, the Australian federal government passed legislation enabling a range of cannabis-based products to be prescribed to patients by registered healthcare professionals. An online survey conducted immedia...

    Authors: Nicholas Lintzeris, Llewellyn Mills, Anastasia Suraev, Maria Bravo, Thomas Arkell, Jonathon C. Arnold, Melissa J. Benson and Iain S. McGregor
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:37
  3. Using snus (Swedish moist snuff) is less harmful than smoking, but health warning labels (HWLs) on snus products do not reflect this relation. There are few studies on the effects of comparative risk informati...

    Authors: Connie Villemo Nilsen, Torleif Halkjelsvik and Frode Svartdal
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:36
  4. The rising incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) among people who inject drugs (PWID) has been a major concern across North America. The coincident rise in IE and change of drug preference to hydromorphone ...

    Authors: Meera Shah, Ryan Wong, Laura Ball, Klajdi Puka, Charlie Tan, Esfandiar Shojaei, Sharon Koivu and Michael Silverman
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:35
  5. Syringe services programs (SSPs) are able to offer wrap-around services for people who inject drugs (PWID) and improve health outcomes.

    Authors: Marcus Castillo, Margaret E. C. Ginoza, Tyler S. Bartholomew, David W. Forrest, Costaki Greven, David P. Serota and Hansel E. Tookes
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:34

    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:44

  6. For novel tobacco products that potentially reduce the risk of tobacco harm, post-market surveillance is important to observe population usage and behaviours associated with everyday use. This pilot study was ...

    Authors: Jason Adamson, Claudia Kanitscheider, Krishna Prasad, Oscar M. Camacho, Elisabeth Beyerlein, Yoga Keralapura Bhagavan, Christopher Proctor and James Murphy
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:32
  7. With a worldwide prevalence of 15.4%, hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been estimated to be the most prevalent major infectious disease in prisons. The exceptionally high prevalence of HCV in prisons is attributabl...

    Authors: Babak Moazen, Heino Stöver, Kate Dolan, Albrecht Jahn and Florian Neuhann
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:33
  8. Naloxone is a safe and effective medication to help reverse opioid overdose. Providing take-home naloxone to patients in opioid treatment settings is a critical step to reducing opioid overdose deaths. In New ...

    Authors: Julie G. Salvador, Andrew L. Sussman, Mikiko Y. Takeda, William G. Katzman, Monica Moya Balasch and Joanna G. Katzman
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:31
  9. Syringe services programs (SSPs) are an evidence-based harm reduction strategy that reduces dangerous sequelae of injection drug use among people who inject drugs (PWID) such as overdose. SSP services include ...

    Authors: K. J. Bornstein, A. E. Coye, J. E. St. Onge, H. Li, A. Muller, T. S. Bartholomew and H. E. Tookes
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:30
  10. The current illicit drug overdose crisis within North America and other countries requires expanded and new responses to address unpredictable and potentially lethal substances, including fentanyl analogues, i...

    Authors: Bruce Wallace, Thea van Roode, Flora Pagan, Paige Phillips, Hailly Wagner, Shane Calder, Jarred Aasen, Bernie Pauly and Dennis Hore
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:29
  11. Managed alcohol programs are a harm reduction approach for people with severe alcohol use disorder that provide alcohol in a structured setting. We examined the patient experience of receiving alcohol after th...

    Authors: Beena P. Parappilly, Emma Garrod, Ryan Longoz, Eric Eligh, Holly van Heukelom, Christopher Kit Fairgrieve and Bernadette Pauly
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:28
  12. The impact of COVID-19 across health services, including treatment services for people who use drugs, is emerging but likely to have a high impact. Treatment services for people who use drugs provide essential...

    Authors: Adrian Dunlop, Buddhima Lokuge, Debbie Masters, Marcia Sequeira, Peter Saul, Grace Dunlop, John Ryan, Michelle Hall, Nadine Ezard, Paul Haber, Nicholas Lintzeris and Lisa Maher
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:26
  13. Moral conservatism within government and communities has resulted in a reluctance to support the provision of opioid agonist therapy for people with opioid use disorders in South Africa. In April 2017, South A...

    Authors: Monique Marks, Andrew Scheibe and Shaun Shelly
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:25
  14. The United Kingdom is experiencing an increase in drug-related deaths and serious bacterial infections among its most vulnerable citizens. Cuts to essential services, coupled with a growing homeless population...

    Authors: Magdalena Harris, Jenny Scott, Vivian Hope, Talen Wright, Catherine McGowan and Daniel Ciccarone
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:24

    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:38

  15. North America and other parts of the globe are in the midst of a public health emergency related to opioid overdoses and a highly contaminated illicit drug supply. Unfortunately, there is a substantial gap in ...

    Authors: Trevor Goodyear, Caroline Mniszak, Emily Jenkins, Danya Fast and Rod Knight
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:23
  16. Evidence is emerging that prescription opioid (PO) injection is associated with increased health risks. This mixed-methods study compares the mechanics of PO and heroin injection and examines the demographic a...

    Authors: Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Honoria Guarino, Jon E. Zibbell, Jennifer Teubl, Chunki Fong, Elizabeth Goodbody, Brian Edlin, Carli Salvati and Samuel R. Friedman
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:22
  17. Tobacco smoking is one of the biggest and avoidable public health threats in the world, especially in low- and middle-income countries. India represents a highly complex public health environment due to the la...

    Authors: Rajeshwar Nath Sharan, Tongbram Malemnganbi Chanu, Tapan Kumar Chakrabarty and Konstantinos Farsalinos
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:21
  18. Mozambique has one of the highest burdens of HIV globally, and people who inject drugs (PWID) have one of the highest HIV infection rates in Africa. After the implementation of the first Biological Behavioral ...

    Authors: Cynthia Semá Baltazar, Makini Boothe and Timothy Kellogg
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:20
  19. In Canada, and elsewhere, indigenous peoples who use illicit drugs and/or alcohol (IPWUID/A) commonly experience vulnerability and a disproportionate burden of harm related to substance use. In Vancouver, Cana...

    Authors: Jennifer Lavalley, Shelda Kastor, Malcolm Tourangeau, Ashley Goodman and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:19
  20. Prevalence of HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) has been reported to be higher than that of the general population. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection and asso...

    Authors: Samuel Lazarus Likindikoki, Elia John Mmbaga, Germana Henry Leyna, Kåre Moen, Neema Makyao, Mucho Mizinduko, Alex Ishungisa Mwijage, Diana Faini, Melkizedeck Thomas Leshabari and Dan Wolf Meyrowitsch
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:18
  21. Numerous reports have led to concerns that fentanyl is added to many street drugs as an adulterant, including to stimulants like cocaine and methamphetamine, and could increase risks for negative health outcomes.

    Authors: Meredith C. Meacham, Kara L. Lynch, Phillip O. Coffin, Amanda Wade, Eliza Wheeler and Elise D. Riley
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:17
  22. We report on motivations for crystal methamphetamine-opioid co-use/co-injection through narratives of people who inject drugs during a period of increased crystal methamphetamine use reporting in Australia.

    Authors: Anna Palmer, Nick Scott, Paul Dietze and Peter Higgs
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:14
  23. The aim of this study is to identify the profiles of young people who use drugs (YPUD) and their exposure to HIV risks in the 3 main cities of Vietnam, Haiphong, Hanoi, and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), in order to...

    Authors: Laurent Michel, Linh T. Nguyen, An K. Nguyen, John P. Ekwaru, Didier Laureillard, Nicolas Nagot, Olivier Phan and Oanh T. H. Khuat
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:13
  24. In Belgium, people who inject drugs (PWID) are at a high risk of being infected by hepatitis C (HCV) as injecting drug use is the main mode for transmission of HCV in Europe. Estimates about the number of peop...

    Authors: Luk Van Baelen, Els Plettinckx, Jérôme Antoine and Lies Gremeaux
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:11
  25. People experiencing homelessness have higher rates of problematic substance use but difficulty engaging with treatment services. There is limited evidence regarding how problematic substance use treatment shou...

    Authors: Hannah Carver, Nicola Ring, Joanna Miler and Tessa Parkes
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:10
  26. The increasing incidence of fatal opioid overdose is a public health crisis in Canada. Given growing consensus that this crisis is related to the presence of highly potent opioid adulterants (e.g., fentanyl) i...

    Authors: N. Maghsoudi, K. McDonald, C. Stefan, D. R. Beriault, K. Mason, L. Barnaby, J. Altenberg, R. D. MacDonald, J. Caldwell, R. Nisenbaum, P. Leece, T. M. Watson, K. W. Tupper, L. Kufner, A. I. Scheim and D. Werb
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:9
  27. Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are the second most commonly used illicit drugs in Europe and globally. However, there is limited understanding of what shapes patterns of ATS use over the life course. The AT...

    Authors: Marcus-Sebastian Martens, Heike Zurhold, Moritz Rosenkranz, Amy O’Donnell, Michelle Addison, Liam Spencer, William McGovern, Roman Gabrhelík, Benjamin Petruželka, Magdalena Rowicka, Nienke Liebregts, Peter Degkwitz, Eileen Kaner and Uwe Verthein
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:8
  28. In Germany, risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highest among people who inject drugs (PWID). New injectors (NI) are particularly vulnerable for HCV-acquisition, but little is known about health seeki...

    Authors: Julia Enkelmann, Martyna Gassowski, Stine Nielsen, Benjamin Wenz, Stefan Roß, Ulrich Marcus, Viviane Bremer and Ruth Zimmermann
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:7
  29. Occurring against the backdrop of an overdose crisis, stimulant use and stimulant-involved deaths in North America are increasing at an alarming rate. Many of these deaths are being attributed to fentanyl and ...

    Authors: Taylor Fleming, Allison Barker, Andrew Ivsins, Sheila Vakharia and Ryan McNeil
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:6
  30. Opioid-related deaths have increased in Western countries over recent decades. Despite numerous studies investigating opioid-related mortality, only a few have focused on the lives of the deceased individuals ...

    Authors: Lisa Andersson, Anders Håkansson, Peter Krantz and Björn Johnson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:5
  31. In response to the opioid epidemic, naloxone distribution programs aim to prevent overdose death by making naloxone available and training people to use it. Peers of individuals at risk of opioid overdose are ...

    Authors: Bridget L. Hanson, Rebecca R. Porter, Amanda L. Zöld and Heather Terhorst-Miller
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:4
  32. Policy development by partnership is difficult, however, ‘Reducing Harm, Supporting Recovery- A health led response to drug and alcohol use in Ireland 2017-2025’ hailed a new era. This policy was based on an a...

    Authors: Catherine Comiskey
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:3
  33. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been proven to be effective in treating opioid dependence. In Vietnam, MMT services are provided primarily by public clinics, with only one private MMT clinic establis...

    Authors: Tuan Anh Le, Tuan Anh Nguyen, Anh Duc Dang, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Hai Thanh Phan, Giang Thu Vu, Trang Huyen Thi Nguyen, Carl A. Latkin, Cyrus S. H. Ho, Roger C. M. Ho, Bach Xuan Tran, Jiangbo Ying and Melvyn W. B. Zhang
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:1
  34. Most smokers attempting to quit relapse. There is little evidence whether the use of e-cigarettes (‘vaping’) increases or decreases relapse. This study aimed to assess 1) whether vaping predicted relapse among...

    Authors: Leonie S. Brose, Julia Bowen, Ann McNeill and Timea R. Partos
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2019 16:76
  35. The HIV epidemic in Vietnam has been primarily driven by injection drug use. HIV-infected people who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam have very high rates of mental health problems, which can accelerate progress...

    Authors: Minh X. Nguyen, Vivian F. Go, Quynh X. Bui, Bradley N. Gaynes and Brian W. Pence
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2019 16:74
  36. In Uganda, injection drug use is a growing but less studied problem. Preventing the transition to injection drug use may help prevent blood-borne viral transmission, but little is known about when and how peop...

    Authors: Matayo Baluku and Twaibu Wamala
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2019 16:73
  37. The above-average proportion of people with opioid use disorder living in prisons is a worldwide reality, and the need to treat these people was recognized internationally more than 20 years ago. Studies have ...

    Authors: Heino Stöver, Daniela Jamin, Ingo Ilja Michels, Bärbel Knorr, Karlheinz Keppler and Daniel Deimel
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2019 16:72
  38. Given the close connection between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and substance use disorder (SUD), access to integrated HIV and SUD services is critical for individuals experiencing both challen...

    Authors: Rogério Meireles Pinto, Yun Chen and Sunggeun ( Ethan) Park
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2019 16:71
  39. The twin problems of severe alcohol dependence and homelessness are associated with precarious living and multiple acute, social and chronic harms. While much attention has been focused on harm reduction servi...

    Authors: B. Pauly, M. Brown, J. Evans, E. Gray, R. Schiff, A. Ivsins, B. Krysowaty, K. Vallance and T. Stockwell
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2019 16:70
  40. Injection drug use is on the rise in the USA, and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are a common complication, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Due to structural barriers to care-seeking,...

    Authors: Andrew R. Gilbert, Julia L. Hellman, Michael S. Wilkes, Vaughan W. Rees and Phillip J. Summers
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2019 16:69
  41. Chronic HCV infection causes substantial morbidity and mortality and, in co-infection with HIV, may result in immunological and virological failure following antiretroviral treatment. Estimates of HCV infectio...

    Authors: Germana Henry Leyna, Neema Makyao, Alexander Mwijage, Angela Ramadhan, Samuel Likindikoki, Mucho Mizinduko, Melkizedeck Thomas Leshabari, Kåre Moen and Elia John Mmbaga
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2019 16:68
  42. Overdose education and naloxone distribution programs decrease opioid overdose deaths. However, no studies of such programs have been carried out in Denmark. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibili...

    Authors: Birgitte Thylstrup, Morten Hesse, Marian Jørgensen and Henrik Thiesen
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2019 16:66
  43. Psychedelic microdosing is the trending practice of using tiny repeated doses of psychedelic substances to facilitate a range of supposed benefits. With only a few published studies to date, the subject is sti...

    Authors: Martin Andersson and Anette Kjellgren
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2019 16:63