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  1. Harm perceptions of tobacco and nicotine products can influence their use and could be targeted by policies to change behaviour. IQOS was introduced to the UK in 2016, and there is little independent qualitati...

    Authors: Katherine A. East, Charlotte N. E. Tompkins, Ann McNeill and Sara C. Hitchman

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:42

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Methadone and buprenorphine are the most prevalent types of opioid maintenance programs in Andalusia. The main objective is comparing the functional status of patients with pharmacological opioid maintenance t...

    Authors: Juan J. Ruíz Ruíz, José M. Martinez Delgado and Nuria García-Marchena

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:41

    Content type: Research

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  3. Psychedelic-assisted therapy may represent an upcoming paradigm shift in the treatment of mental health problems as recent clinical trials have demonstrated strong evidence of their therapeutic benefits. While...

    Authors: Brian Pilecki, Jason B. Luoma, Geoff J. Bathje, Joseph Rhea and Vilmarie Fraguada Narloch

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:40

    Content type: Opinion

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  4. Between December 2018 and January of 2019, we evaluated the accuracy of the point-of-care Hepatitis C (HCV) antibody test (POC; OraQuick HCV) used at a community-based needle and syringe exchange program servi...

    Authors: Anneli Uusküla, Ave Talu, Jürgen Rannap, David M. Barnes and Don Des Jarlais

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:39

    Content type: Research

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  5. The social determinants of health that influence steps in the entire Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) treatment cascade must be identified to achieve HCV elimination goals. This project aimed to evaluate the associatio...

    Authors: Jacob Ziff, Trang Vu, Danielle Dvir, Farah Riazi, Wilma Toribio, Scott Oster, Keith Sigel and Jeffrey Weiss

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:38

    Content type: Research

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  6. The smoking of illicit drugs presents a serious social and economic burden in Canada. People who smoke drugs (PWSD) are at increased risk of contracting multiple infections through risky drug practices. Peer-l...

    Authors: Sulaf Elkhalifa, Ehsan Jozaghi, Samona Marsh, Erica Thomson, Delilah Gregg, Jane Buxton and Ann Jolly

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:37

    Content type: Research

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  7. Indigenous communities in Canada face significant challenges with intergenerational trauma, which manifests in substance use disorders. There is consensus that connecting treatment approaches to culture, land,...

    Authors: T. N. Marsh, C. Eshakakogan, J. K. Eibl, M. Spence, K. A. Morin, G. J. Gauthier and D. C. Marsh

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:35

    Content type: Methodology

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  8. The use of psychoactive substances frequently starts at a younger age than adulthood. Considering the perspective of young people, this retrospective study tried to provide them with a role in identifying thei...

    Authors: Gabriela Almeida Pinto da Silva, Catarina Pinto Pereira and Marta Sofia de Sousa Pinto

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:34

    Content type: Research

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  9. Street-based female sex workers (FSWs) are highly at risk of HIV and other harms associated with sex work. We assessed the prevalence of non-injection and injection drug use and their associated factors among ...

    Authors: Payam Roshanfekr, Mehrdad Khezri, Salah Eddin Karimi, Meroe Vameghi, Delaram Ali, Sina Ahmadi, Elahe Ahounbar, Kambiz Mahzari, Mohsen Roshanpajouh, Mehdi Noroozi, Mostafa Shokoohi and Ali Mirzazadeh

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:33

    Content type: Research

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  10. Prisoners report much higher prevalence rates of drug use and more harmful consumption patterns than the general population. People who use drugs have above-average experiences with the criminal justice system...

    Authors: Daniela Jamin, Wouter Vanderplasschen, Orphée Sys, Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Laurent Michel, Philippe Trouiller, Andreia Neisa, Mariana Homen, Vânia Mendes and Heino Stöver

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:32

    Content type: Research

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  11. In preparation for the 2021 revision of the European Union Tobacco Products Directive, the Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks (SCHEER) has posted its Preliminary Opinion on Electroni...

    Authors: Renée O’Leary, Riccardo Polosa and Giovanni Li Volti

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:31

    Content type: Opinion

    Published on:

  12. The opioid epidemic has caused an increase in overdose deaths which can be attributed to fentanyl combined with various illicit substances. Drug checking programs have been started by many harm reduction group...

    Authors: Tracy-Lynn E. Lockwood, Alexandra Vervoordt and Marya Lieberman

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:30

    Content type: Research

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  13. Smoking or inhaling illicit drugs can lead to a variety of negative health outcomes, including overdose. However, most overdose prevention interventions, such as supervised consumption services (SCS), prohibit...

    Authors: Geoff Bardwell, Tamar Austin, Lisa Maher and Jade Boyd

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:29

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  14. This interventional-cohort study tried to answer if people who smoke and choose an e-cigarette in the context of smoking cessation treatment by tobacco counselors in Flanders are achieving smoking abstinence a...

    Authors: Karolien Adriaens, Eline Belmans, Dinska Van Gucht and Frank Baeyens

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:28

    Content type: Research

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  15. Higher smoking prevalence in people with serious psychological distress (SPD) is well-recognized. However, gender and age differences in the association between heaviness of cigarette smoking and SPD have not ...

    Authors: Kimiko Tomioka, Midori Shima and Keigo Saeki

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:27

    Content type: Research

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  16. The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated unprecedented changes in the way that services are delivered to individuals experiencing homelessness and problem substance use. Protecting those at high risk of infectio...

    Authors: Tessa Parkes, Hannah Carver, Wendy Masterton, Danilo Falzon, Josh Dumbrell, Susan Grant and Iain Wilson

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:26

    Content type: Research

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  17. Retention in care is a prerequisite for successful recovery, especially for a chronic condition like opioid dependence. Though retention varies greatly depending on the different substitution medication and tr...

    Authors: Martin Busch, Charlotte Klein, Alfred Uhl, Hans Haltmayer, Maurice Cabanis, Jean Nicolas Westenberg, Marc Vogel and R. Michael Krausz

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:25

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  18. With the ongoing opioid crisis and policy changes regarding legalization of cannabis occurring around the world, it is necessary to consider cannabis use in the context of opioid use disorder (OUD) and its tre...

    Authors: Tea Rosic, Raveena Kapoor, Balpreet Panesar, Leen Naji, Darren B. Chai, Nitika Sanger, David C. Marsh, Andrew Worster, Lehana Thabane and Zainab Samaan

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:24

    Content type: Research

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  19. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Salim Mezaache, Patrizia Carrieri, Laelia Briand‑Madrid, Virginie Laporte, Alain Morel, Daniela Rojas Castro and Perrine Roux

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:23

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:11

  20. Experiencing a nonfatal overdose (NFOD) is a significant risk factor for a subsequent nonfatal or fatal overdose. Overdose mortality rates in rural Appalachian states are some of the highest in the USA, but li...

    Authors: N. Jia Ahmad, Sean T. Allen, Rebecca Hamilton White, Kristin E. Schneider, Allison O’Rourke, Michelle Perdue, Charles Babcock, Michael E. Kilkenny and Susan G. Sherman

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:22

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  21. Since the start of the opioid epidemic in 2016, the Downtown Eastside community of Vancouver, Canada, has lost many pioneering leaders, activists and visionaries to the war on drugs. The Vancouver Area Network...

    Authors: Russ Maynard and Ehsan Jozaghi

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:21

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  22. The COVID-19 crisis has had profound impacts on health service provision, particularly those providing client facing services. Supervised injecting facilities and drug consumption rooms across the world have b...

    Authors: Amanda Roxburgh, Marianne Jauncey, Carolyn Day, Mark Bartlett, Shelley Cogger, Paul Dietze, Suzanne Nielsen, Julie Latimer and Nico Clark

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:20

    Content type: Opinion

    Published on:

  23. Peer workers or “peers” (workers with past or present drug use experience) are at the forefront of overdose response initiatives, and their role is essential in creating safe spaces for people who use drugs (P...

    Authors: Zahra Mamdani, Sophie McKenzie, Bernadette Pauly, Fred Cameron, Jennifer Conway-Brown, Denice Edwards, Amy Howell, Tracy Scott, Ryan Seguin, Peter Woodrow and Jane A. Buxton

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:18

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  24. After publication of the original article [1], the authors identified an error in the author name of Marlene Janzen Le Ber. The given name and family name were erroneously transposed.

    Authors: Abe Oudshoorn, Michelle Sangster Bouck, Melissa McCann, Shamiram Zendo, Helene Berman, Jordan Banninga, Marlene Janzen Le Ber and Zayya Zendo

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:16

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:6

  25. Peer involvement of people who use drugs within HIV and harm reduction services is widely promoted yet under-utilised. Alongside political and financial barriers is a limited understanding of the roles, impact...

    Authors: Judy Chang, Shaun Shelly, Machteld Busz, Claudia Stoicescu, Arif Rachman Iryawan, Dinara Madybaeva, Yuri de Boer and Andy Guise

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:15

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  26. Condom provision is one of the most effective harm reduction interventions to control sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS and viral hepatitis in prisons. Yet, very few countries around th...

    Authors: Babak Moazen, Joy Mauti, Paula Meireles, Tereza Černíková, Florian Neuhann, Albrecht Jahn and Heino Stöver

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:14

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Four emergency shelters were instituted in Lisbon during COVID-19, and are still in operation. Between March and August 2020, they served over 600 people. The shelters host a diverse population, including peo...

    Authors: Ricardo Fuertes, Elsa Belo, Cristiana Merendeiro, Adriana Curado, Diana Gautier, Ana Neto and Hannah Taylor

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:13

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  28. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran is high. Since 2005, the Iranian government has implemented a harm reduction program to control HCV. We aimed to des...

    Authors: Abdolhalim Rajabi, Heidar Sharafi and Seyed Moayed Alavian

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:12

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  29. Some people do not benefit from oral administration of opioid agonist treatment, and an intravenous (IV) formulation may be more suitable. Our objective was to evaluate the willingness of people who regularly ...

    Authors: Salim Mezaache, Patrizia Carrieri, Laélia Briand-Madrid, Virginie Laporte, Alain Morel, Daniela Rojas Castro and Perrine Roux

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:11

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:23

  30. In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended for prison authorities to introduce prison needle and syringe programs (PNSP) if they have any evidence that injecting drug use is taking place in priso...

    Authors: Alexandra Dmitrieva, Vladimir Stepanov, Kateryna Svyrydova, Ievgeniia-Galyna Lukash, Svetlana Doltu, Mikhail Golichenko, Valeriy Kalivoshko, Evgeniy Khanyukov, Zhannat Kosmukhamedova, Oleh Torkunov and Oleksii Zagrebelnyi

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. There is a lot of debate about the effects of smoking on COVID-19. A recent fixed-effects meta-analysis found smoking to be associated with disease severity among hospitalized patients, but other studies repor...

    Authors: Konstantinos Farsalinos, Pantelis G. Bagos, Theodoros Giannouchos, Raymond Niaura, Anastasia Barbouni and Konstantinos Poulas

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:9

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. Reports from experienced heroin users about an alternative and appreciated but harmful so-called “Turkish” heroin preparation technic led to the chemical investigation of the compounds produced during this pro...

    Authors: Georges Dahm, Claudia Allar, Raoul Schaaf, Adèle Bourmaud and Serge Schneider

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. Cigars and cigarettes are both smoked, but much less is known about the former’s long-term health effects, due to its low prevalence and infrequent collection of cigar information in national surveys.

    Authors: Brad Rodu and Nantaporn Plurphanswat

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:7

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Globally, communities are struggling to gain support for harm reduction strategies being implemented to address the impacts of substance use. A key part of this discussion is understanding and engaging with pe...

    Authors: Abe Oudshoorn, Michelle Sangster Bouck, Melissa McCann, Shamiram Zendo, Helene Berman, Jordan Banninga, Marlene Janzen Le Ber and Zayya Zendo

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:16

  35. Peer assistance is an emerging area of study in injection drug use. When Canada’s first supervised consumption site (SCS) opened in 2003 in Vancouver, Canada, clients were prohibited from injecting their peers...

    Authors: Em Pijl, Tracy Oosterbroek, Takara Motz, Erin Mason and Keltie Hamilton

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:5

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. To date, peer-reviewed research has found no evidence linking supervised consumptions sites (SCSs) to increased crime. Yet, in March 2020, a government Report released in the province of Alberta, Canada, prese...

    Authors: James D. Livingston

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:4

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  37. Civil society organisations (CSOs) play a vital role in developing and implementing effective measures to reduce the harms of drug use. They are also fundamental actors to monitor and evaluate programmes and p...

    Authors: Rafaela Rigoni, Tuukka Tammi, Daan van der Gouwe and Eberhard Schatz

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:3

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  38. The Netherlands is well known for its early adoption of harm reduction (HR) programs at the height of its heroin crisis in the 1970s/1980s, including the implementation of the first needle and syringe program ...

    Authors: Daniela K. van Santen, Roel A. Coutinho, Anneke van den Hoek, Giel van Brussel, Marcel Buster and Maria Prins

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:2

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  39. Ongoing legal and social discrimination, and stigmatization of people with lived experience of drug use (PWLE) continues to contribute to overdose-related deaths in Canada. The involvement of PWLE working in h...

    Authors: Tamar Austin and Jade Boyd

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:1

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. The United States and Canada are amidst an opioid overdose crisis, with the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC) among the hardest hit. In response, drug checking services (DCS) have been introduced in t...

    Authors: Viseth Long, Jaime Arredondo, Lianping Ti, Cameron Grant, Kora DeBeck, M-J Milloy, Mark Lysyshyn, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr and Kanna Hayashi

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:100

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Recent research shows an increase in drug and alcohol-related hospitalizations in the USA, especially among older adults. However, no study examines trends in discharges to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) aft...

    Authors: Benjamin H. Han, Ellenie Tuazon, Hillary V. Kunins and Denise Paone

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:99

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. Harm reduction services to people who use drugs (PWUD) in Russia are insufficient in terms of quantity, government endorsement, and accessibility. The situation has recently deteriorated even further because o...

    Authors: Arsen Davitadze, Peter Meylakhs, Aleksey Lakhov and Elizabeth J. King

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:98

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. Drug-related deaths in the UK are at the highest level on record—the war on drugs has failed. A short film has been produced intended for public and professional audiences featuring academics, representatives ...

    Authors: Adam Holland

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:97

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  44. Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for people who inject drugs (PWID). Studies demonstrate that certain injection practices correlate with SSTI inci...

    Authors: Amelia Baltes, Wajiha Akhtar, Jen Birstler, Heidi Olson-Streed, Kellene Eagen, David Seal, Ryan Westergaard and Randall Brown

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:96

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. People who inject drugs are at increased health risk in a pandemic due to their greater susceptibility to severe disease and as a consequence of the restrictions put in place to halt the spread of infection. H...

    Authors: Rebecca Wilkinson, Lindsey Hines, Adam Holland, Sema Mandal and Emily Phipps

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:95

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. This study examines the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and the harm reduction response in six Eurasian countries: Belarus, Moldova, Serbia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia. The aim is to identify...

    Authors: Eliza Kurcevič and Rick Lines

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2020 17:94

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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