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  1. Individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) often have concurrent use of non-opioid substances. When patients enter opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), less is known about outcomes regarding the use of other ty...

    Authors: Endre Dahlen Bjørnestad, John-Kåre Vederhus and Thomas Clausen
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:101
  2. The rapid increase in e-cigarette use over the past decade has triggered an important public health question on the potential association between e-cigarette use and combustible cigarette smoking. Following AM...

    Authors: Mimi M. Kim, Isabella Steffensen, Red Thaddeus D. Miguel, Tanja Babic and Julien Carlone
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:99
  3. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people who inject drugs in the state of Manipur, India, is 43%; however, access to care is poor. We piloted a Community-led and comprehensive hepatitis car...

    Authors: Nalinikanta Rajkumar, Lokeshwar Singh Khumukcham, Dhabali Thangjam, Surender Singh, Giten Khwairakpam, Sonjelle Shilton and Amit Goel
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:98
  4. Structural harm reduction is an approach to care for people who use drugs (PWUD) that incorporates services and resources (e.g., naloxone, sterile syringes). As conceptualized in our previous research, harm re...

    Authors: Emma Sophia Kay, Stephanie L. Creasy, Jessica Townsend and Mary Hawk
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:97
  5. Research regarding the contribution of specific psychoactive substances to suicidality has yielded equivocal results. The present study examined the prevalence and factors associated with suicidal thoughts and...

    Authors: Ramin Shiraly, Seyed Amin Jazayeri, Asal Seifaei, Ali Khani Jeihooni and Mark D. Griffiths
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:96
  6. The use of stimulants and other substances with the purpose of enhancing, maintaining, and prolonging sexual activity is known as sexualized substance use. Also known as chemsex, this pattern of use has been m...

    Authors: Claudia Rafful, Ricardo Orozco, Daniela Peralta, Leonardo Jiménez-Rivagorza, María Elena Medina-Mora, Nely Gutiérrez and Missael Morales-Gutierrez
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:95
  7. The COVID-19 pandemic had a disproportionate impact on the health and wellbeing of people who use drugs (PWUD) in Canada. However less is known about jurisdictional commonalities and differences in COVID-19 ex...

    Authors: Sanjana Mitra, Zachary Bouck, Sarah Larney, Camille Zolopa, Stine Høj, Nanor Minoyan, Katie Upham, Indhu Rammohan, Wing Yin Mok, Kanna Hayashi, M-J Milloy, Kora DeBeck, Ayden Scheim and Dan Werb
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:94
  8. Naloxone is an effective FDA-approved opioid antagonist for reversing opioid overdoses. Naloxone is available to the public and can be administered through intramuscular (IM), intravenous (IV), and intranasal ...

    Authors: Paige M. Lemen, Daniel P. Garrett, Erin Thompson, Megan Aho, Christina Vasquez and Ju Nyeong Park
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:93
  9. Mortality related to opioid overdose in the U.S. has risen sharply in the past decade. In California, opioid overdose death rates more than tripled from 2018 to 2021, and deaths from synthetic opioids such as ...

    Authors: Lissa Moran, Jeff Ondocsin, Simon Outram, Daniel Ciccarone, Daniel Werb, Nicole Holm and Emily A. Arnold
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:92
  10. Substance use disorder treatment and recovery support services are critical for achieving and maintaining recovery. There are limited data on how structural and social changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic impa...

    Authors: Eshan U. Patel, Suzanne M. Grieb, Abigail K. Winiker, Jennifer Ching, Catherine G. Schluth, Shruti H. Mehta, Gregory D. Kirk and Becky L. Genberg
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:91
  11. Although electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) appear to be effective in helping people who smoke to stop smoking, concerns about use of e-cigarettes among young people have led to restrictions on non-tobacco f...

    Authors: Jasmine N. Khouja, Maddy L. Dyer, Michelle A. Havill, Martin J. Dockrell, Marcus R. Munafò and Angela S. Attwood
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:90
  12. In British Columbia, Canada, smoking is the most common modality of drug use among people who die of opioid toxicity. We aimed to assess oxygen saturation (SpO2) while people smoked opioids during a pilot study t...

    Authors: Jessica Moe, Jane A. Buxton, Yueqiao Elle Wang, Tamara Chavez, Damian Feldman-Kiss, Charotte Marr, Roy A. Purssell and Michael Otterstatter
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:89
  13. Barriers to access to hepatitis C treatment with direct-acting antivirals in people who inject drugs in the community setting. Qualitative study with prison population. Hepatitis C (HCV) treatments with direct...

    Authors: Elena Yela, Neus Solé, Lidia Puig, Darío López Gallegos and Rafael Clua-García
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:88
  14. In response to the overdose crisis, a collaborative group of two community-based organizations, a health authority and a research institute in Vancouver, Canada, implemented a pilot community-based drug checki...

    Authors: Pierre-julien Coulaud, Koharu Loulou Chayama, Cameron Schwartz, Aaron Purdie, Mark Lysyshyn, Lianping Ti and Rod Knight
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:87
  15. During the early period of the COVID-19 pandemic, public health orders disrupted income generation in numerous sectors and many governments provided emergency financial support. Access to government support an...

    Authors: Erica McAdam, Kanna Hayashi, Zishan Cui, Haleigh Anderson, Scarlett Nelson, M.-J. Milloy and Kora DeBeck
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:86
  16. During the COVID−19 pandemic, clinics offering medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) needed to rapidly introduce unsupervised take−home dosing, while relapsing patients and patients unable to enter treatme...

    Authors: Roberto Abadie and Celia B. Fisher
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:85
  17. A heated tobacco product (HTP) authorized for purchase in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration as a reduced harm product was removed from the market after about 2 years of sales. Adults who us...

    Authors: Brendan Noggle, Kevin M. Ball and Andrea Rae Vansickel
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:84
  18. Recovery from addiction is frequently equated with abstinence. However, some individuals who resolve an addiction continue to use substances, including via substitution (i.e., increased use of one substance af...

    Authors: Corinne A. Beaugard, Alexander Y. Walley and Maryann Amodeo
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:83
  19. Cannabis use before the COVID-19 pandemic for many involved sharing prepared cannabis for inhalation, practices that were less prevalent during the pandemic. State-level COVID-19 containment policies may have ...

    Authors: Ryan D. Assaf, Rita Hamad, Marjan Javanbakht, Onyebuchi A. Arah, Steven J. Shoptaw, Ziva D. Cooper and Pamina M. Gorbach
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:82
  20. Psychological and social status, and environmental context, may mediate the likelihood of experiencing overdose subsequent to illicit drug use. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and synthesise ...

    Authors: Christopher J. Byrne, Fabio Sani, Donna Thain, Emma H. Fletcher and Amy Malaguti
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:81
  21. Buprenorphine is an effective treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD); however, buprenorphine initiation can be complicated by withdrawal symptoms including precipitated withdrawal. There has been increasing i...

    Authors: Benjamin L. H. Jones, Michelle Geier, John Neuhaus, Phillip O. Coffin, Hannah R. Snyder, Christine S. Soran, Kelly R. Knight and Leslie W. Suen
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:80
  22. People who nonmedically use drugs (PWUD) face intricate social issues that suppress self-actualization, communal integration, and overall health and wellness. “Strengths-based” approaches, an under-used pedago...

    Authors: Jerel M. Ezell, Mai T. Pho, Elinor Simek, Babatunde P. Ajayi, Netra Shetty and Suzan M. Walters
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:79
  23. As well as being associated with serious negative health outcomes, smoking has been reported to have an array of physiological and psychological effects, including effects on mood and cognitive function. Post-...

    Authors: Harry J. Green, Olivia K. O’Shea, Jack Cotter, Helen L. Philpott and Nik Newland
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:78
  24. Drug overdose deaths in the United States exceeded 100,000 in 2021 and 2022. Substance use stigma is a major barrier to treatment and harm reduction utilization and is a priority target in ending the overdose ...

    Authors: Adams L. Sibley, Emma Klein, Hannah L.F. Cooper, Melvin D. Livingston III, Robin Baker, Suzan M. Walters, Rachel E. Gicquelais, Stephanie A. Ruderman, Peter D. Friedmann, Wiley D. Jenkins, Vivian F. Go, William C. Miller, Ryan P. Westergaard and Heidi M Crane
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:77
  25. Understanding current substance use practices is critical to reduce and prevent overdose deaths among individuals at increased risk including persons who use and inject drugs. Because individuals participating...

    Authors: Tyler G. Erath, Rosalie LaCroix, Erin O’Keefe, Stephen T. Higgins and Richard A. Rawson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:76
  26. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health threat in Canada. In British Columbia (BC) province, 1.6% of the population had been exposed to HCV by 2012. Prevalence and incidence of HCV are very high in populatio...

    Authors: Nance E. Cunningham, Jessica Lamb, Amanda Staller, Mel Krajden, Robert S. Hogg, Angela Towle, Viviane Dias Lima and Kate Salters
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:75
  27. In recent years, stimulant use has increased among persons who use opioids in the rural U.S., leading to high rates of overdose and death. We sought to understand motivations and contexts for stimulant use amo...

    Authors: R. J. Fredericksen, R. Baker, A. Sibley, A. T. Estadt, D. Colston, L. S. Mixson, S. Walters, J. Bresett, X. A. Levander, G. Leichtling, T. Davy-Mendez, M. Powell, T. J. Stopka, M. Pho, J. Feinberg, J. Ezell…
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:74
  28. HIV-positive people who inject drugs (PWID) experience challenges in initiating and adhering to antiretroviral treatment (ART). Counselling using motivational interviewing (MI) techniques may help them formula...

    Authors: Lydia V. Wongso, Arie Rahadi, Evi Sukmaningrum, Miasari Handayani and Rudi Wisaksana
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:73
  29. People who use drugs experience pain at two to three times the rate of the general population and yet continue to face substantial barriers to accessing appropriate and adequate treatment for pain. In light of...

    Authors: Evelyne Marie Piret, M.-J. Milloy, Pauline Voon, JinCheol Choi, Kora DeBeck, Kanna Hayashi and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:72
  30. This study compares emergency department (ED) revisits for patients receiving hospital-based substance-use support compared to those who did not receive specialized addiction services at Health Sciences North ...

    Authors: Mark Tatangelo, Russell Landry, Denis Beaulieu, Catherine Watson, Shannon Knowlan, Alex Anawati, Adele Bodson, Natalie Aubin, David C. Marsh, Tara Leary and Kristen A. Morin
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:71
  31. Despite having a high risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections, people who inject drugs (PWID) often do not receive recommended HPV screenings due to barriers to healthcare. Guideline-based cervical H...

    Authors: Samuel Hinkes, Katrina Ciraldo, Erin Kobetz, Tyler S. Bartholomew, Sarah Rinehart, Nicolette Siringo, Rebecca Barnett, Neha Godbole, Frantzia Jeanty, Morgan Frederick and Hansel E. Tookes
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:70
  32. People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for opioid overdose and infectious diseases including HIV. We piloted PARTNER UP, a telemedicine-based program to provide PWID with medication for opioid use dis...

    Authors: Mehri S. McKellar, Andrea C. Des Marais, Hillary Chen, Yujung Choi, Rebecca Lilly, Denae Ayers, Jesse Bennett, Lauren Kestner, Brian Perry, Stephanie Poley, Amy Corneli, Christina S. Meade and Nidhi Sachdeva
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:69
  33. Long-acting injectable depot buprenorphine may increase access to opioid agonist treatment (OAT) for patients with opioid use disorder in different treatment phases. The aim of this study was to explore the ex...

    Authors: Björn Johnson, Bodil Monwell and Andrea Johansson Capusan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:68
  34. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is drug of high prevalence in Aotearoa New Zealand and is the primary drug analysed by legal drug checking services. We aimed to address the gap in literature pertainin...

    Authors: Jai Whelan, Geoff Noller and Ryan D. Ward
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:67
  35. Post-overdose outreach programs engage overdose survivors and their families soon after an overdose event. Staff implementing these programs are routinely exposed to others’ trauma, which makes them vulnerable...

    Authors: Samantha F. Schoenberger, Emily R. Cummins, Jennifer J. Carroll, Shapei Yan, Audrey Lambert, Sarah M. Bagley, Ziming Xuan, Traci C. Green, Franklin Cook, Amy M. Yule, Alexander Y. Walley and Scott W. Formica
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:66
  36. HIV prevalence among people who use drugs (PWUD) in Tanzania is 4–7 times higher than in the general population, underscoring an urgent need to increase HIV testing and treatment among PWUD. Drug use stigma wi...

    Authors: Linda B. Mlunde, Khalida Saalim, Jessie K. Mbwambo, Pfiriael Kiwia, Elizabeth Fitch, Willbrord Manyama, Isack Rugemalila, Sue Clay, Barrot H. Lambdin, Rachel D. Stelmach, Carla Bann and Laura Nyblade
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:65
  37. Xylazine is an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist that has emerged as a contaminant in the illicit drug supply of fentanyl. Xylazine use may be suspected in naloxone-resistant overdoses and atypical, chronic ...

    Authors: Peyton V. Warp, Maia Hauschild, David P. Serota, Katrina Ciraldo, Irasema Cruz, Tyler S. Bartholomew and Hansel E. Tookes
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:64
  38. Drug checking services aim to provide compositional information for the illicit drug supply and are being employed in public health responses to extreme rates of overdose associated with fentanyl within street...

    Authors: Lea Gozdzialski, Rebecca Louw, Collin Kielty, Ava Margolese, Eric Poarch, Miriam Sherman, Fred Cameron, Chris Gill, Bruce Wallace and Dennis Hore
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:63
  39. To reach the global elimination goals of viral hepatitis B and C (HBC, HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections as a public health threat by 2030, monitoring is needed...

    Authors: Amrei Krings, Gyde Steffen and Ruth Zimmermann
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:62
  40. While community pharmacies have been successful in providing harm reduction support for illicit substance consumers, little research has explored their role in addressing the needs of anabolic–androgenic stero...

    Authors: Timothy Piatkowski, Sarah Benn, Lkhagvadulam Ayurzana, Michelle King, Sara McMillan and Laetitia Hattingh
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:59
  41. The United States (US) continues to experience unprecedented rates of overdose mortality and there is increased need to identify effective harm reduction practices. Research from Canada describes cannabis dona...

    Authors: Sarah E. Duhart Clarke, Grant Victor, Pamela Lynch, Leslie W. Suen and Bradley Ray
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:58
  42. Co-use of methamphetamine (MA) and opioids (pharmaceutical pills, heroin and fentanyls) has increased in the United States and is represented in rising mortality. Although coinciding with the import of low cos...

    Authors: Sarah Mars, Jeff Ondocsin, Nicole Holm and Daniel Ciccarone
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:57
  43. Although harm reduction is highlighted as an effective intervention for alcohol and drug use, a funding gap for harm reduction interventions has been identified, mainly in low- and middle-income countries. In ...

    Authors: João Maurício Gimenes Pedroso, Cristiana Nelise de Paula Araujo and Clarissa Mendonça Corradi-Webster
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:56
  44. Overdose prevention centers (OPCs) are being implemented in the United States as a strategy to reduce drug-related mortality and morbidity. Previous studies have suggested that people who use drugs (PWUD) with...

    Authors: Michael Tan, Carolyn Park, Jacqueline Goldman, Katie B. Biello, Jane Buxton, Scott E. Hadland, Ju Nyeong Park, Susan G. Sherman, Alexandria Macmadu and Brandon D. L. Marshall
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:54
  45.  Individuals suffering with addiction have historically experienced disproportionally high levels of stigma. The process of inpatient care for those with substance abuse disorder (SUD) is multifaceted, shaped ...

    Authors: Maham Rehman, Leigh Chapman, Lisa Liu, Sara Calvert and Javeed Sukhera
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:53
  46. The United States is currently facing an opioid overdose crisis. Research suggests that multiple interventions are needed to reduce overdose deaths including increasing access and retention to medications to t...

    Authors: Julia Dickson-Gomez, Sarah Krechel, Jessica Ohlrich, Helena Danielle Green Montaque, Margaret Weeks, Jianghong Li, Jennifer Havens and Antoinette Spector
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2024 21:52