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  1. The sharp rise in opioid use disorder (OUD) among women coupled with disproportionally high rates of unintended pregnancy have led to a four-fold increase in the number of pregnant women with OUD in the United...

    Authors: Stephani L. Stancil, Melissa K. Miller, Alex Duello, Sarah Finocchario-Kessler, Kathy Goggin, Rachel P. Winograd and Emily A. Hurley

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:83

    Content type: Research

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  2. Syringe services programs provide sterile injection supplies and a range of health services (e.g., HIV and HEP-C testing, overdose prevention education, provision of naloxone) to a hard-to-reach population, in...

    Authors: Carol Y. Franco, Angela E. Lee-Winn, Sara Brandspigel, Musheng L. Alishahi and Ashley Brooks-Russell

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:81

    Content type: Research

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  3. Bacterial and fungal infections, such as skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and infective endocarditis (IE), are increasing among people who use drugs in the United States. Traditional healthcare settings...

    Authors: Mary C. Figgatt, Zach R. Salazar, Louise Vincent, Diannee Carden-Glenn, Kelly Link, Lauren Kestner, Tyler Yates, Asher Schranz, Elizabeth Joniak-Grant and Nabarun Dasgupta

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:80

    Content type: Research

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  4. Measuring self-reported experience of health and functioning is important for understanding the changes in the health status of individuals switching from cigarettes to less harmful tobacco and/or nicotine pro...

    Authors: Esther F. Afolalu, Erica Spies, Agnes Bacso, Emilie Clerc, Linda Abetz-Webb, Sophie Gallot and Christelle Chrea

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:79

    Content type: Review

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  5. Georgia has a significant risk of ongoing HIV and HCV outbreak. Within this context, harm reduction aims to reduce risk associated with drug use through community activities, such as peer recruitment and invol...

    Authors: Cale Lawlor, Marine Gogia, Irma Kirtadze, Keti Stvilia, Guranda Jikia and Tamar Zurashvili

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:78

    Content type: Research

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  6. The relationship between incarceration and risk of overdose has been well-documented in the literature, but few studies document the perspectives of persons at risk of overdose who were incarcerated. This sub-...

    Authors: Celine McCaughran-Contreras, Saranee Fernando, Mike Sikora, Jennifer Hawkins, Marinel Kniseley, Daniel Snyder, Connie Long, James Robson, Amanda Slaunwhite and Amy Salmon

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:77

    Content type: Research

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  7. Police constitute a structural determinant of health and HIV risk of people who inject drugs (PWID), and negative encounters with law enforcement present significant barriers to PWID access to harm reduction s...

    Authors: Pieter Baker, Jaime Arredondo, Annick Borquez, Erika Clairgue, Maria L. Mittal, Mario Morales, Teresita Rocha-Jimenez, Richard Garfein, Eyal Oren, Eileen Pitpitan, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Leo Beletsky and Javier A. Cepeda

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:76

    Content type: Research

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  8. The incidence of opioid-related overdose deaths has been rising for 30 years and has been further exacerbated amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Naloxone can reverse opioid overdose, lower death rates, and enable a...

    Authors: Katie Kanter, Ryan Gallagher, Feyisope Eweje, Alexander Lee, David Gordon, Stephen Landy, Julia Gasior, Haideliza Soto-Calderon, Peter F. Cronholm, Ben Cocchiaro, James Weimer, Alexis Roth, Stephen Lankenau and Jacob Brenner

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:75

    Content type: Research

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  9. Increasing rates of injection drug use (IDU) associated-infections suggest significant syringe service program (SSP) underutilization. Our study objective was to assess practices of safe injection techniques a...

    Authors: Kinna Thakarar, Nitysari Sankar, Kimberly Murray, Frances L. Lucas, Debra Burris and Robert P. Smith

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:74

    Content type: Research

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  10. Novel health promotion and treatment uptake initiatives will be necessary to ensure Australia meets 2030 hepatitis C elimination targets. Increasing treatment uptake will be assisted by a better understanding ...

    Authors: Stelliana Goutzamanis, Danielle Horyniak, Joseph S. Doyle, Margaret Hellard and Peter Higgs

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:73

    Content type: Brief report

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  11. The use of cannabis as medicine (CaM) both prescribed and non-prescribed has increased markedly in the last decade, mirrored in a global shift in cannabis policy towards a more permissive stance. There is some...

    Authors: Sinikka L. Kvamme, Michael M. Pedersen, Kristine Rømer Thomsen and Birgitte Thylstrup

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:72

    Content type: Research

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  12. Due to the loss of tolerance to opioids during medication-assisted treatment (MAT), this period may represent a time of heightened risk for overdose. Identifying factors associated with increased risk of overd...

    Authors: Vivian Y. O. Au, Tea Rosic, Nitika Sanger, Alannah Hillmer, Caroul Chawar, Andrew Worster, David C. Marsh, Lehana Thabane and Zainab Samaan

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:71

    Content type: Research

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  13. Pharmacists are among the most accessible healthcare providers in the United States and uniquely positioned to provide harm reduction services. The availability of pharmacy-based harm reduction services and ph...

    Authors: Rachel A. Parry, William A. Zule, Christopher B. Hurt, Donna M. Evon, Sarah K. Rhea and Delesha M. Carpenter

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:70

    Content type: Research

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  14. Intravenous drug use (IVDU) represents the major factor of HCV transmission, but the treatment uptake among people who inject drugs (PWID) remains low owing to a false presumption of low efficacy. The aim of o...

    Authors: Sona Frankova, Zuzana Jandova, Gabriela Jinochova, Miluse Kreidlova, Dusan Merta and Jan Sperl

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:69

    Content type: Research

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  15. Enrolling sufficient number of people who inject drugs (PWID) into syringe services programs (SSP) is important to curtail outbreaks of drug-related harms. Still, little is known about barriers and facilitator...

    Authors: Umedjon Ibragimov, Katherine E. Cooper, Evan Batty, April M. Ballard, Monica Fadanelli, Skylar B. Gross, Emma M. Klein, Scott Lockard, April M. Young and Hannah L. F. Cooper

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:68

    Content type: Research

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  16. People who inject drugs are often imprisoned, which is associated with increased levels of health risks including overdose and infectious diseases transmission, affecting not only people in prison but also the...

    Authors: Heino Stöver, Anna Tarján, Gergely Horváth and Linda Montanari

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:67

    Content type: Research

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  17. Drug checking is a harm reduction intervention aiming to reduce substance use-related risks by improving drug user knowledge of the composition of unregulated drugs. With increasing fears of fentanyl adulterat...

    Authors: Tara Beaulieu, Evan Wood, Samuel Tobias, Mark Lysyshyn, Priya Patel, Jennifer Matthews and Lianping Ti

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:66

    Content type: Brief report

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  18. While there is robust evidence for strategies to reduce harms of illicit drug use, less attention has been paid to alcohol harm reduction for people experiencing severe alcohol use disorder (AUD), homelessness...

    Authors: Bernie Pauly, Meaghan Brown, Clifton Chow, Ashley Wettlaufer, Brittany Graham, Karen Urbanoski, Russell Callaghan, Cindy Rose, Michelle Jordan, Tim Stockwell, Gerald Thomas and Christy Sutherland

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:65

    Content type: Research

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  19. The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated unprecedented changes in the way that health, social, and housing services are delivered to individuals experiencing homelessness and problem substance use. Protecting th...

    Authors: Tessa Parkes, Hannah Carver, Wendy Masterton, Danilo Falzon, Joshua Dumbrell, Susan Grant and Iain Wilson

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:64

    Content type: Research

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  20. Studies have suggested that the injection drug use (IDU) was no longer the main transmission route of HIV/AIDS in China. However, there has never been a study to assess the national HIV epidemic among persons ...

    Authors: Bo Zhang, Xiangyu Yan, Yongjie Li, He Zhu, Zhimin Liu, Zuhong Lu and Zhongwei Jia

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:63

    Content type: Research

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  21. Drug use is a growing concern in Ghana. People who inject drugs (PWID) are highly vulnerable to HIV and other infectious diseases. Ghana’s National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS 2016–2020 identifies PWID as a ke...

    Authors: Lisa J. Messersmith, Rose Adjei, Jennifer Beard, Angela R. Bazzi, Joel J. Earlywine, Edwin Darko, Thomas Agyarko-Poku, Mabel Kissiwah Asafo, Sherry Adoma Bempah and Yaw Adu-Sarkodie

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:62

    Content type: Research

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  22. With legal access to medical cannabis in Canada since 2001, there is a need to fully characterize its use at both the individual and population levels. We draw on data from Canada’s largest cohort study of med...

    Authors: Cerina Lee, Jessica M. Round, Scott Klarenbach, John G. Hanlon, Elaine Hyshka, Jason R. B. Dyck and Dean T. Eurich

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:61

    Content type: Research

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  23. The inclusion of people with lived and living experience of substance use is essential to effective and client-centered harm reduction services and strategies. The aim of this study is to critically examine an...

    Authors: A. Greer, J. A. Buxton, B. Pauly and V. Bungay

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:60

    Content type: Research

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  24. Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed in prisons amidst the controversies surrounding their potential role in causing behavioral disinhibition and aggressive behavior and their association with use and traff...

    Authors: Stéphanie Baggio, Vladan Starcevic, Patrick Heller, Karen Brändle, Irina Franke, Andreas Schneeberger, Anna Buadze, Alex Gamma, Roman Schleifer, Laurent Gétaz, Hans Wolff and Michael Liebrenz

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:58

    Content type: Research

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  25. For people with opioid use disorder who are not responding to oral opioid agonist treatment, evidence supports the effectiveness of injectable opioid agonist treatment with injectable hydromorphone (an opioid ...

    Authors: Heather Palis, Scott MacDonald, Jennifer Jun and Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:57

    Content type: Case report

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  26. Digital harm-reduction interventions typically focus on people with severe drug-use problems, yet these interventions have moderate effectiveness on drug-users with lower levels of risk of harm. The difference...

    Authors: Vasilis S. Vasiliou, Samantha Dockray, Samantha Dick, Martin P. Davoren, Ciara Heavin, Conor Linehan and Michael Byrne

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:56

    Content type: Research

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  27. Alcohol use is a common practice of almost all communities worldwide and it is more common among persons with HIV infection. Alcohol consumption among people with HIV/AIDS may result in poor treatment adherenc...

    Authors: Birhanie Mekuriaw, Zelalem Belayneh, Alemayehu Molla and Tsegaye Mehare

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:55

    Content type: Review

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  28. Targeted screening for hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection is not yet widely executed in Belgium. When performed in people who use drugs (PWUD), it is mainly focused on those receiving opiate agonist therapy (OA...

    Authors: Dana Busschots, Cécile Kremer, Rob Bielen, Özgür Muhammet Koc, Leen Heyens, Eefje Dercon, Rita Verrando, Tessa Windelinckx, Griet Maertens, Stefan Bourgeois, Niel Hens, Catharina Matheï and Geert Robaeys

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:54

    Content type: Research

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  29. There is concern that cannabis use negatively affects vulnerable groups such as youth; however, the relationship between cannabis use and health care utilization has not been well characterized in this populat...

    Authors: Hudson Reddon, M.-J. Milloy, Evan Wood, Ekaterina Nosova, Thomas Kerr and Kora DeBeck

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:53

    Content type: Research

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  30. People who inject drugs may be particularly vulnerable to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) due to underlying health problems, stigma and social vulnerabilities. Harm reduction s...

    Authors: K. Lindqvist, C. Wallmofeldt, E. Holmén, A. Hammarberg and M. Kåberg

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:52

    Content type: Research

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  31. Female sexual partners of men who inject drugs (MWID) living with HIV are at risk of HIV transmission. HIV prevalence estimates among non-drug using female sex partners of MWID are scarce, with no studies docu...

    Authors: Jenny Iversen, Salman ul H Qureshi, Malika Zafar, Machteld Busz and Lisa Maher

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:51

    Content type: Research

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  32. Despite the popularity of dating apps, there remain scarce data on the motivations, consequences and their influence on sexual behaviour change in the Australian population.

    Authors: Shirali Garga, Meryl T. Thomas, Ashneet Bhatia, Aidan Sullivan, Franklin John-Leader and Sabrina W. Pit

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:49

    Content type: Research

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  33. Prior research examining the relationship between cannabis use, sedentary behavior, and physical activity has generated conflicting findings, potentially due to biases in the self-reported measures used to ass...

    Authors: Lydia Q. Ong, John Bellettiere, Citlali Alvarado, Paul Chavez and Vincent Berardi

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:48

    Content type: Research

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  34. Naloxone distribution programs have been a cornerstone of the public health response to the overdose crisis in the USA. Yet people who use opioids (PWUO) continue to face a number of barriers accessing naloxon...

    Authors: Kristin E. Schneider, Glenna J. Urquhart, Saba Rouhani, Ju Nyeong Park, Miles Morris, Sean T. Allen and Susan G. Sherman

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:47

    Content type: Brief report

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  35. With direct-acting antivirals dramatically reshaping the public health response to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), prisons are set to play a critical role in elimination efforts. Despite the theoretical demonstra...

    Authors: Jake Rance, Lise Lafferty and Carla Treloar

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:46

    Content type: Research

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  36. Injection drug use drives HIV transmission in Southeast Asia, where around a quarter of users are living with HIV. Vietnam developed Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) programs to reduce unsafe drug abuse. Co...

    Authors: Anisa Y. Mughal, Melissa Ann Stockton, Quynh Bui, Vivian Go, Brian W. Pence, Tran Viet Ha and Bradley N. Gaynes

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:45

    Content type: Research

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  37. Infectious complications of injection drug use (IDU) often require lengthy inpatient treatment. Our objective was to identify the number of admissions related to IDU in Regina, Canada, as well as describe pati...

    Authors: Polina Tsybina, Sandy Kassir, Megan Clark and Stuart Skinner

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:44

    Content type: Research

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  38. Harm perceptions of tobacco and nicotine products can influence their use and could be targeted by policies to change behaviour. IQOS was introduced to the UK in 2016, and there is little independent qualitati...

    Authors: Katherine A. East, Charlotte N. E. Tompkins, Ann McNeill and Sara C. Hitchman

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:42

    Content type: Research

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  39. Methadone and buprenorphine are the most prevalent types of opioid maintenance programs in Andalusia. The main objective is comparing the functional status of patients with pharmacological opioid maintenance t...

    Authors: Juan J. Ruíz Ruíz, José M. Martinez Delgado and Nuria García-Marchena

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:41

    Content type: Research

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  40. Psychedelic-assisted therapy may represent an upcoming paradigm shift in the treatment of mental health problems as recent clinical trials have demonstrated strong evidence of their therapeutic benefits. While...

    Authors: Brian Pilecki, Jason B. Luoma, Geoff J. Bathje, Joseph Rhea and Vilmarie Fraguada Narloch

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:40

    Content type: Opinion

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  41. Between December 2018 and January of 2019, we evaluated the accuracy of the point-of-care Hepatitis C (HCV) antibody test (POC; OraQuick HCV) used at a community-based needle and syringe exchange program servi...

    Authors: Anneli Uusküla, Ave Talu, Jürgen Rannap, David M. Barnes and Don Des Jarlais

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:39

    Content type: Research

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  42. The social determinants of health that influence steps in the entire Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) treatment cascade must be identified to achieve HCV elimination goals. This project aimed to evaluate the associatio...

    Authors: Jacob Ziff, Trang Vu, Danielle Dvir, Farah Riazi, Wilma Toribio, Scott Oster, Keith Sigel and Jeffrey Weiss

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:38

    Content type: Research

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  43. The smoking of illicit drugs presents a serious social and economic burden in Canada. People who smoke drugs (PWSD) are at increased risk of contracting multiple infections through risky drug practices. Peer-l...

    Authors: Sulaf Elkhalifa, Ehsan Jozaghi, Samona Marsh, Erica Thomson, Delilah Gregg, Jane Buxton and Ann Jolly

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:37

    Content type: Research

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  44. Indigenous communities in Canada face significant challenges with intergenerational trauma, which manifests in substance use disorders. There is consensus that connecting treatment approaches to culture, land,...

    Authors: T. N. Marsh, C. Eshakakogan, J. K. Eibl, M. Spence, K. A. Morin, G. J. Gauthier and D. C. Marsh

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:35

    Content type: Methodology

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  45. The use of psychoactive substances frequently starts at a younger age than adulthood. Considering the perspective of young people, this retrospective study tried to provide them with a role in identifying thei...

    Authors: Gabriela Almeida Pinto da Silva, Catarina Pinto Pereira and Marta Sofia de Sousa Pinto

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2021 18:34

    Content type: Research

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