Bryant RA, Nix DP: Acute and Chronic Wounds. Current Management Concepts. 2007, St Louis: Mosby, 3
Finnie A, Nicolson P: Injecting drug use: implications for skin and wound management. Br J Nurs. 2002, 11 (6): S17-S28.
Hope V, Kimber J, Vickerman P, Hickman M, Ncube F: Frequency, factors and costs associated with injection site infections: findings from a national multi-site survey of injecting drug users in England. BMC Infect Dis. 2008, 8: 120-10.1186/1471-2334-8-120.
Hairon N: How to prevent infections in injecting drug users. Nurs Times. 2008, 104 (44): 21-22.
Acquaro J: Managing a chronic wound in a heroin user. Wounds Int. 2012, 3 (94): 24-25.
Powell G: Wound care for injecting drug users: part 1. Nurs Stand. 2011, 25 (46): 51-58. 10.7748/ns2011.07.25.46.51.c8640.
Grau LE, Arevalo S, Catchpool C, Heimer R: Expanding harm reduction services through a wound and abscess clinic. Am J Public Health. 2002, 92 (12): 1915-1917. 10.2105/AJPH.92.12.1915.
Maloney S, Keenan E, Geoghegan N: What are the risk factors for soft tissue abscess development among injecting drug users?. Nurs Times. 2010, 106 (23): 21-24.
Henriksen BM, Albrektsen SB, Simper LB, Gutschik E: Soft tissue infections from drug abuse. A clinical and microbiological review of 145 cases. Acta Orthop Scand. 1994, 65 (6): 625-628. 10.3109/17453679408994618.
Del Giudice P: Cutaneous complications of intravenous drug use. Br J Dermatol. 2004, 15: 1-10.
Lloyd-Smith E, Kerr T, Hogg RS, Li K, Montaner JSG, Wood E: Prevalence and correlates of abscesses among a cohort of injection drug users. Harm Reduct J. 2005, 2: 24-10.1186/1477-7517-2-24.
Gordon RJ, Lowy FD: Bacterial infections in drug users. N Engl J Med. 2005, 353 (18): 1945-1955. 10.1056/NEJMra042823.
Drinka P, Bonham P, Crnich CJ: Swab culture of purulent skin infection to detect infection or colonization with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2012, 13: 75-79. 10.1016/j.jamda.2011.04.012.
Stratigos AJ, Stern R, Gonzalez E, Johnson RA, O’Connell J, Dover JS: Prevalence of skin disease in a cohort of shelter-based homeless men. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999, 41: 197-202. 10.1016/S0190-9622(99)70048-4.
Badiaga A, Menard A, Tissot Dupont H, Ravaux I, Chouquet D, Graveriau C, Raoult D, Brouqui P: Prevalence of skin infections in sheltered homeless. Eur J Dermatol. 2005, 15 (5): 382-386.
Butcher M: Treating mixed aetiology ulcers in a man undergoing drug rehabilitation. Br J Nurs. 2000, 9: S28-S31.
Cook L, Jordan K: Leg ulceration in drug users: development of a multi-disciplinary pathway. Wounds UK. 2010, 6 (4): 74-79.
Acton C: Treatment of a venous leg ulcer found in an intravenous drug user. Wound Essentials. 2008, 3: 69-71.
Powell G: Wound care for injecting drug users: part 2. Nurs Stand. 2011, 25 (47): 41-45. 10.7748/ns2011.07.25.47.41.c8642.
Nuttall R: Holistic care of a drug-related wound: a case study from a clinic for homeless people. Nurs Times. 2009, 105 (27): 18-21.
Douglas M: Necrotizing fasciitis: a nursing perspective. J Adv Nurs. 1996, 24 (1): 162-166. 10.1046/j.1365-2648.1996.15022.x.
Bellis MA, Beynon C, Millar T, Ashton JR, Thomson R, Djuretic T, Taylor A: Unexplained illness and deaths among injecting drug users in England: a case control study using Regional Drug Misuse Databases. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2001, 55: 843-844. 10.1136/jech.55.11.843.
Mertz D, Viktorin N, Wolbers M, Laifer G, Leimenstoll B, Fluckiger U, Battegay M: Appropriateness of antibiotic treatment in intravenous drug users, a retrospective analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2008, 8: 42-10.1186/1471-2334-8-42.
Palmateer NE, Ramsay CN, Browning L, Goldberg DJ, Hutchinson SJ: Anthrax infection among heroin users in Scotland during 2009–2010: a case–control study by linkage to a national drug treatment database. Clin Infect Dis. 2012, 55 (5): 706-710. 10.1093/cid/cis511.
Sultan HY, Boyle AA, Sheppard N: Necrotising fasciitis. Br Med J. 2012, 345: e4274-10.1136/bmj.e4274.
Brett MM, Hood J, Brazier JS, Duerden BI, Hahne SJM: Soft tissue infections caused by spore-forming bacteria in injecting drug users in the United Kingdom. Epidemiol Infect. 2005, 133: 575-582. 10.1017/S0950268805003845.
MacKenzie AR, Laing RBS, Douglas JG, Greaves M, Smith CC: High prevalence of iliofemoral venous thrombosis with severe groin infection among injecting drug users in North East Scotland: successful use of low molecular weight heparin with antibiotics. Postgrad Med J. 2000, 76: 561-565. 10.1136/pmj.76.899.561.
Pieper B, Templin T: Chronic venous insufficiency in persons with a history of injecting drug use. Res Nurs Health. 2001, 24: 423-432. 10.1002/nur.1042.
Pieper B, Templin T: Lower extremity changes, pain, and function in injection drug users. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2003, 25: 91-97. 10.1016/S0740-5472(03)00113-2.
Williams K, Abbey E: Knowledge of deep vein thrombosis among intravenous drug users. Psychiatr Bull. 2006, 30: 263-265. 10.1192/pb.30.7.263.
Cornford CS, Inns J, Mason JM: Deep vein thrombosis in users of opioid drugs: incidence, prevalence and risk factors. Br J Gen Pract. 2011, 61 (593): e781-e786. 10.3399/bjgp11X613115.
Senbanjo R, Tipping T, Hunt N, Strang J: Injecting drug use via femoral vein puncture: preliminary findings of a point-of-care ultrasound service for opioid dependent groin injectors in treatment. Harm Reduct J. 2012, 9 (1): 6-10.1186/1477-7517-9-6.
Kahn S: The post-thrombotic syndrome: progress and pitfalls. Br J Haematol. 2006, 134: 357-365. 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2006.06200.x.
Eklof B, Rutherford RB, Bergan JJ, Carpentier PH, Gloviczki P, Kistner RL, Meissner MH, Moneta GL, Myers K, Padberg FT, Perrin M, Ruckley CV, Coleridge Smith P, Wakefield TW, for the American Venous Forum International Ad Hoc Committee for Revision of the CEAP Classification: Revision of the CEAP classification for chronic venous disorders consensus statement. J Vasc Surg. 2004, 40 (6): 1248-1252. 10.1016/j.jvs.2004.09.027.
Pieper B, Kirsner R, Templin TN, Birk TJ: Injection drug use. An understudied cause of venous disease. Arch Dermatol. 2007, 143 (10): 1305-1309.
Callam MJ: Prevalence of chronic leg ulceration and severe chronic venous disease in western countries. Phlebology. 1992, 7 (Supplement 1): 6-12.
Wheatley C: Collaborative working to improve leg ulcer outcomes for injecting drug users. Br J Nurs. 2007, 16 (8): 444-454. 10.12968/bjon.2007.16.8.23413.
Thakor AS, Wijenaike N: Infective endocarditis from injecting heroin into a leg ulcer. BMJ Case Rep. 2009, doi:10.1136/bcr.07.2008.0493
Roose RJ, Hayashi AS, Cuningham CO: Self-management of injection-related wounds among injecting drug users. J Addict Dis. 2009, 28: 74-80. 10.1080/10550880802545200.
Darke S, Ross J, Kaye S: Physical injecting sites among injecting drug users in Sydney, Australia. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2001, 62: 77-82. 10.1016/S0376-8716(00)00161-7.
Scott J: Safety, Risks and Outcomes from the Use of Injecting Paraphernalia. Scottish Government Social Research. 2008, [http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/127313/0057758.pdf]
Firth J, Nelson EA, Hale C, Hill J, Helliwell P: A review of design and reporting issues in self-reported prevalence studies of leg ulceration. J Clin Epidemiol. 2010, 63: 907-913. 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2009.09.013.
Frischer M, Taylor A: Issues in assessing the nature and extent of local drug misuse. Illegal Drug Use in the United Kingdom. Edited by: Stark C, Kidd BA, Sykes RAD. 1999, Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing
Robinson WT, Risser JMH, McGoy S, Becker AB, Rehman H, Jefferson M, Griffin V, Wolverton M, Tortu S: Recruiting injection drug users: a three-site comparison of results and experiences with respondent-driven and targeted sampling procedures. J Urban Health. 2006, 83 (7): i29-i38.
University of the West of Scotland: The Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative (NESI): Prevalence of HCV and Injecting Risk Behaviours Among People Who Inject Drugs Attending Injecting Equipment Provision Services in Scotland, 2008/2009 & 2010. 2012, Paisley: University of the West of Scotland
Information Services Division (ISD): Estimating the National and Local Prevalence of Problem Drug Use in Scotland 2010/2011. 2011, Edinburgh: National Services Scotland
Frischer M: Estimated prevalence of injecting drug use in Glasgow. Br J Addict. 1992, 87: 235-243. 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1992.tb02697.x.
Foddy B, Savulescu J: Addiction and autonomy: can addicted people consent to the prescription of their drug of addiction?. Bioethics. 2006, 20 (1): 1-15. 10.1111/j.1467-8519.2006.00470.x.
Morrison A, Elliot L, Gruer L: Injecting-related harm and treatment-seeking behaviour among injecting drug users. Addiction. 1997, 92 (10): 1349-1352. 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1997.tb02853.x.
Anthony JC, Vlahov D, Celentano DD, Menon AS, Margolick JB, Cohn S, Nelson KE, Polk BF: Self-report interview data for a study of HIV-1 infection among intravenous drug users: description of methods and preliminary evidence on validity. J Drug Issues. 1991, 21 (4): 739-757.
McElrath K, Chitwood DD, Griffin DK, Comerford M: The consistency of self-reported HIV risk behavior among injection drug users. Am J Public Health. 1994, 84 (12): 1965-1970. 10.2105/AJPH.84.12.1965.
Darke S: Self-report among injection drug users: a review. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1998, 51: 253-263. 10.1016/S0376-8716(98)00028-3.
Information Services Division (ISD): Drug Misuse Statistics Scotland 2011. 2012, Edinburgh: National Services Scotland
Makowe RM, Pennycook AG, Moulton C: Intravenous drug abusers attending an inner city accident and emergency department. Arch Emerg Med. 1992, 9: 32-39. 10.1136/emj.9.1.32.
Hammersley R, Cassidy MT, Oliver J: Drugs associated with drug-related deaths in Edinburgh and Glasgow, November 1990 to October 1992. Addiction. 1995, 90: 959-965. 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1995.tb03504.x.
Health Protection Agency (HPA): Shooting Up: Infections Among People Who Inject Drugs in the UK 2011. An Update: November 2012. 2012, London: Health Protection Agency
Black’s Medical Dictionary. Edited by: Marcovitch H. 2006, London: A&C Black Publishers
Russell R: Missed Hits. [http://www.hiwecanhelp.com/safer-using/injection-injuries/missed-hits.aspx] 2013 accessed 160413
Beeching NJ, Crowcroft NS: Tetanus in injecting drug users. Br Med J. 2005, 330: 208-209. 10.1136/bmj.330.7485.208.
Kalka-Moll WM, Aurbach U, Schaumann R, Schwarz R, Seifert H: Wound botulism in injection drug users. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007, 13 (6): 942-943. 10.3201/eid1306.061336.
Hicks CW, Sweeney DA, Cui X, Li Y, Eichacker PQ: An overview of anthrax infection including the recently identified form of disease in injection drug users. Intensive Care Med. 2012, 38: 1092-1104. 10.1007/s00134-012-2541-0.
Scottish Drugs Forum: Anthrax Alert Heroin Users Are At Risk. Leaflet. 2009, NHS Scotland: Scottish Drugs Forum
Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN): The Care of Chronic Leg Ulcer. 1998, Edinburgh: SIGN
Dale JJ, Callam MJ, Ruckley CV, Harper DR, Berrey PN: Chronic ulcers of the leg: a study of prevalence in a Scottish community. Health Bull (Edinb). 1983, 41: 310-314.
Cornwall JV, Dore CJ, Lewis JD: Leg ulcers: epidemiology and aetiology. Br J Surg. 1986, 73: 693-696. 10.1002/bjs.1800730905.
Nelzen O, Bergqvist D, Lindhagen A, Hallbook T: Chronic leg ulcers: an underestimated problem in primary health care among elderly patients. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1991, 45: 184-187. 10.1136/jech.45.3.184.
Devey T: Drug misuse and leg ulceration. Leg Ulcer Forum J. 2007, 21 (Autumn): 18-20.
Callam MJ, Harper DR, Dale JJ, Ruckley CV: Chronic ulcer of the leg: clinical history. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1987, 294 (6577): 929-931. 10.1136/bmj.294.6577.929.
MacKenzie RK, Brown DA, Allan PA, Bradbury AW, Ruckley CV: A comparison of patients who developed venous ulceration before and after their 50th birthday. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2003, 26: 176-178. 10.1053/ejvs.2002.1954.
Moffat C, Martin R, Smithdale R: Leg Ulcer Management. 2007, Oxford: Blackwell
Green J, Jester R: Health-related quality of life and chronic venous leg ulceration: part 1. Br J Community Nurs. 2009, 14 (12 Suppl): S12-S17.
Persoon A, Heinen MM, van de Vleuten CJ, De Rooij MJ, van de Kerkhof PC, Van Achterberg T: Leg ulcers: a review of their impact on daily life. J Clin Nurs. 2004, 13 (3): 341-354. 10.1046/j.1365-2702.2003.00859.x.
Rippon M, Davies P, White R, Bosanquet N: The economic impact of hard-to-heal leg ulcers. Wounds UK. 2007, 3 (2): 58-69.
Palfreyman SJ, Tod AM, King B, Tomlinson D, Brazier JE, Michaels JA: Impact of intravenous drug use on quality of life for patients with venous ulcers. J Adv Nurs. 2007, 58 (5): 458-467. 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04251.x.
Pieper B: A retrospective analysis of venous ulcer healing in current and former users of injected drugs. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 1996, 23: 291-296.
Smyth B, Fan J, Hser Y-I: Life expectancy and productivity loss among narcotics addicts thirty-three years after index treatment. J Addict Dis. 2006, 5 (4): 37-47.
Callam MJ, Ruckley CV, Harper DR, Dale JJ: Chronic ulceration of the leg: extent of the problem and provision of care. Br Med J. 1985, 290 (June 22): 1855-1856.
Murray S: Vascular Disease Nursing and Management. 2001, London: Whurr, 7
Human P, Franz T, Scherman J, Moodley L, Zilla P: Dimensional analysis of human saphenous vein grafts: implications for external mesh support. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009, 137: 1101-1108. 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2008.10.040.