- Open Access
The changing trends in tobacco smoking for young Arab women; narghile, an old habit with a liberal attitude
© Dar-Odeh and Abu-Hammad; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
- Received: 8 January 2011
- Accepted: 30 August 2011
- Published: 30 August 2011
Narghile smoking by young females is becoming more acceptable than cigarettes in the conservative societies of Arab countries. Lack of social constraints on narghile smoking has resulted in an increased prevalence of narghile smoking among young Arab females and an earlier age of onset of this habit when compared to cigarette smoking.
Documented health hazards of narghile smoking including pulmonary, cardiovascular and neoplastic ailments are consequently expected to affect this vulnerable sector of the population together with their offspring. In this commentary, we shed some light on the changing trend of tobacco use among young Arabic women as shown by an increasing number of studies investigating habits of tobacco use in young people.
- young Arab females
Although cigarette smoking is the most common type of tobacco use worldwide, narghile smoking (NS) is spreading globally to affect Arabic and western societies. Recent studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of NS among females in many Arabic countries [1–5]. NS is one of the social habits that shape the general forms of Arabic folklore. It is considered socially acceptable by a substantial proportion of the society including young females. This lenient role of the society in accommodating or even encouraging females to smoke narghile, seems to override the efficient role of religion. Islam is the religion of most Arabs and it essentially demands paying attention to own health as well as public health . Religious authorities and clerics emphasize this attitude towards NS to the public over the media and during Friday prayers. Among Muslim populations, smoking is considered inappropriate for girls, is unladylike, and may ruin a girl's reputation and prospects for marriage . Hence, cigarette smoking has always been a limited or a concealed habit within the Arabic female population particularly unmarried ones. However, the trend of NS has changed the picture and Arabic females -whether married or not- can now smoke narghile in the open without feeling embarrassed or ashamed about it. This permissive role of the society also delivers a wrong message about narghile safety to the public. Many health professionals perceive smoking narghiles as being less harmful than cigarette smoking or even not harmful based on the presumption that the inhaled smoke is filtered through water .
Several studies conducted in most Arabic countries showed that NS is growing in popularity among young females, and trends have shifted between tobacco types, with NS becoming the preferred form of tobacco use for women .
Prevalence of narghile smoking among young females of the Arabic states
Labib et al (2007)
Maziak et al (2004)
Azab et al (2010)
Al-Mulla et al (2008)
Mandil et al (2010)
Tamim et al (2003)
Harrabi et al (2010)
With the exception of Tunisia  in which more girls in the age group of 13-17 years favor cigarettes (1.1%) over narghile (0.2%), the female preference for narghile is obvious, confirming the influential role society plays in shaping smoking behavior of young females.
Studies investigating the effects of NS on health are increasingly reporting its adverse effects. The habit is associated with increased risk of chronic obstructive airway disease as well as adverse cardiovascular effects like increased blood pressure [16–19] There have also been reports of its association with some types of cancer such as bronchogenic carcinoma, oesophageal carcinoma, bladder cancer and pancreatic cancer [20–23] The reader can refer to a number of reviews written in this regards [24–27].
Moreover, one can not consider NS as a "safer" alternative to cigarettes when discussing the important issues of young age and female gender.
It is obvious from the studies investigating prevalence of NS in the Arabic countries that females opt for the narghile and they do so unacceptably at the young age of early adolescence. Exposure to any form of tobacco at young age is expected to increase the risk of tobacco-associated disease. A strong correlation seems to exist between incidence of oral cancer and the age of onset of tobacco use . Consequently, a higher incidence of oral cancer in men and women of younger age group is seen in developing countries than in the United States for example .
Another important aspect pertaining to the young age of female narghile smokers is pregnancy. It was shown that smoking one or more narghiles a day during pregnancy is associated with at least a 100 g reduction in the adjusted mean birth weight of babies . In addition, babies born to women smoking narghile during pregnancy have a higher proportion of other problems, such as pulmonary diseases . Even for women who are ready to give up smoking when pregnant, some may not be aware of their pregnancy, and hence they continue smoking. Unfortunately, the risk of having babies of low birth weight almost triples among those who smoke narghiles in the first trimester .
In some of the Middle Eastern countries, the water tank is replaced with a watermelon, a melon, or even a coconut that is made hollow from the inside to accommodate the water (Figure-2, b). The effect of passing tobacco smoke onto the insides of these fruits is yet to be explored.
Empowerment of women is an important trend affecting most Arabic countries. Consequently, Arabic women can now enjoy a number of privileges like higher education, better career opportunities and as a result an increased spending power. Numbers of women judges, ministers, members of parliament... etc. are on the rise. Unfortunately, many customers of the elite cafés serving narghile in many Arabic cities are actually highly educated, successful women from better-off families. This image contributes to encouraging NS among younger generations particularly female adolescents.
Social pressure and antismoking campaigns are being directed against cigarette smoking and have been relatively successful in limiting cigarette smoking by females in Arabic countries. Furthermore, laws banning smoking in public premises have contributed to the reduced numbers of cigarette smokers. On the other hand, there are no laws forcing narghile café owners to check the age of their customers or to monitor the "hygiene" of their narghiles.
Family role in combating the habit of NS seems to be lacking. On the contrary, a family member like a father, a sister, a brother, or a mother could be the one introducing NS to the young adolescent female relative. The lack of awareness on narghile hazards added to the absent role model of mothers smoking narghile contributes largely to encouraging narghile use among young females.
Globalization in the era of social networking and information technology has minimized the role of the family and transformed it into a rather permissive and more lenient attitude. Young people in the Arab world are no longer compliant as they used to be, and they would like to argue on many issues including social habits like the narghile.
The World Health Organization in collaboration with the ministries of health play a major role in delivering educational programs not only to the school students but also to the parents who should play a more active role in understanding and communicating with their children.
Since peer pressure is a well-recognized aspect as far as narghile smoking is concerned, it is important to involve young generation in the fighting of the narghile epidemic.
On the other hand, governments can, and should, play an active role in regulating the work of cafés serving narghile, whereby regular periodic checks are performed on the café facilities, and when necessary, the confiscation of instruments that do not comply with medical and hygienic standards. Furthermore, public should be made aware of the availability of disposable parts of the narghile like hoses and tips to reduce the communicable diseases.
To that end, it is of prime importance that research is established to investigate whether the "hygienic hoses" and the disposable "mabsams" are as hygienic as they are thought to be
In conclusion, data pertaining to the health hazards of narghile has to be distributed outside scientific journals; it is the right of the public to be aware of the risk of NS. Ministries of health in Arabic countries should play a more active role in licensing, and monitoring narghile cafés.
The authors would like to thank Professor Farouk Shakhatreh from University of Jordan for his valuable remarks. They also appreciate the help of Mr. Ahmad Jaber- a dental student at the University of Jordan- for preparing the pictures.
- Maziak W, Fouad FM, Asfar T, Hammal F, Bachir EM, Rastam S, Eissenberg T, Ward KD: Prevalence and characteristics of narghile smoking among university students in Syria. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2004, 8 (7): 882-889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Azab M, Khabour OF, Alkaraki AK, Eissenberg T, Alzoubi KH, Primack BA: Water pipe tobacco smoking among university students in Jordan. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010, 12 (6): 606-612. 10.1093/ntr/ntq055.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dar-Odeh NS, Bakri FG, Al-Omiri MK, Al-Mashni HM, Eimar HA, Khraisat AS, Abu-Hammad SM, Dudeen AA, Abdallah MN, Alkilani SM, Al-Shami L, Abu-Hammad OA: Narghile (water pipe) smoking among university students in Jordan: prevalence, pattern and beliefs. Harm Reduct J. 2010, 7: 10-10.1186/1477-7517-7-10.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Korn L, Magnezi R: Cigarette and nargila (water pipe) use among Israeli Arab high school students: prevalence and determinants of tobacco smoking. ScientificWorldJournal. 2008, 8: 517-525.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Labib N, Radwan G, Mikhail N, Mohamed MK, Setouhy ME, Loffredo C, Israel E: Comparison of cigarette and water pipe smoking among female university students in Egypt. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007, 9 (5): 591-596. 10.1080/14622200701239696.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bahar Z, Okcay H, Ozbicakci S, Beser A, Ustun B, Ozturk M: The effects of Islam and traditional practices on women's health and reproduction. Nurs Ethics. 2005, 12 (6): 557-570. 10.1191/0969733005ne826oa.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Islam SM, Johnson CA: Correlates of smoking behavior among Muslim Arab-American adolescents. Ethn Health. 2003, 8 (4): 319-337. 10.1080/13557850310001631722.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nuwayhid IA, Yamout B, Azar G, Kambris MA: Narghile (hubble-bubble) smoking, low birth weight, and other pregnancy outcomes. Am J Epidemiol. 1998, 148 (4): 375-383.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Soweid RA: Lebanon: water pipe line to youth. Tob Control. 2005, 14 (6): 363-364.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tamim H, Terro A, Kassem H, Ghazi A, Khamis TA, Hay MM, Musharrafieh U: Tobacco use by university students, Lebanon, 2001. Addiction. 2003, 98 (7): 933-939. 10.1046/j.1360-0443.2003.00413.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chaaya M, Jabbour S, El-Roueiheb Z, Chemaitelly H: Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of argileh (water pipe or hubble-bubble) and cigarette smoking among pregnant women in Lebanon. Addict Behav. 2004, 29 (9): 1821-1831. 10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.04.008.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moh'd Al-Mulla A AHS, Al-Lawati J, Al Nasser S, Ali Abdel Rahman S, Almutawa A ASB, Al-Bedah AM, Al-Rabeah AM, Ali Bahaj A, El-Awa F, CW JN, Asma S: Prevalence of tobacco use among students aged 13-15 years in Health Ministers' Council/Gulf Cooperation Council Member States, 2001-2004. J Sch Health. 2008, 78 (6): 337-343. 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2008.00311.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Al-Turki YA: Smoking habits among medical students in Central Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2006, 27 (5): 700-703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mandil A, BinSaeed A, Ahmad S, Al-Dabbagh R, Alsaadi M, Khan M: Smoking among university students: a gender analysis. J Infect Public Health. 2010, 3 (4): 179-187. 10.1016/j.jiph.2010.10.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harrabi I, Maaloul JM, Gaha R, Kebaili R, Maziak W, Ghannem H: Comparison of cigarette and waterpipe smoking among pupils in the urban area of Sousse, Tunisia. Tunis Med. 2010, 88 (7): 470-473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Al-Safi SA AN, Albalas MA, Al-Doghim I, Aboul-Enein FH: Does shisha smoking affect blood pressure and heart rate?. J Public Health. 2009, 17 (2): 121-126. 10.1007/s10389-008-0220-y.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hakim F, Hellou E, Goldbart A, Katz R, Bentur Y, Bentur L: The acute effects of water pipe smoking on the cardio- respiratory system. Chest. 2010Google Scholar
- Mohammad Y, Kakah M: Chronic respiratory effect of narguileh smoking compared with cigarette smoking in women from the East Mediterranean region. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2008, 3 (3): 405-414.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Al-Kubati M, Al-Kubati AS, al'Absi M, Fiser B: The short-term effect of water-pipe smoking on the baroreflex control of heart rate in normotensives. Auton Neurosci. 2006, 126-127: 146-149.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nafae A, Misra SP, Dhar SN, Shah SN: Bronchogenic carcinoma in Kashmir Valley. Indian J Chest Dis. 1973, 15 (4): 285-295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gunaid AA, Sumairi AA, Shidrawi RG, al-Hanaki A, al-Haimi M, al-Absi S, al-Hureibi MA, Qirbi AA, al-Awlagi S, el-Guneid AM: Oesophageal and gastric carcinoma in the Republic of Yemen. Br J Cancer. 1995, 71 (2): 409-410. 10.1038/bjc.1995.83.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bedwani R, el-Khwsky F, Renganathan E, Braga C, Abu Seif HH, Abul Azm T, Zaki A, Franceschi S, Boffetta P, La Vecchia C: Epidemiology of bladder cancer in Alexandria, Egypt: tobacco smoking. Int J Cancer. 1997, 73 (1): 64-67. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19970926)73:1<64::AID-IJC11>3.0.CO;2-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lo AC, Soliman AS, El-Ghawalby N, Abdel-Wahab M, Fathy O, Khaled HM, Omar S, Hamilton SR, Greenson JK, Abbruzzese JL: Lifestyle, occupational, and reproductive factors in relation to pancreatic cancer risk. Pancreas. 2007, 35 (2): 120-129. 10.1097/mpa.0b013e318053e7d3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ben Saad H: The narghile and its effects on health. Part II: the effects of the narghile on health]. Rev Pneumol Clin. 2010, 66 (2): 132-144. 10.1016/j.pneumo.2009.08.011.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dar-Odeh NS, Abu-Hammad OA: Narghile smoking and its adverse health consequences: a literature review. Br Dent J. 2009, 206 (11): 571-573. 10.1038/sj.bdj.2009.475.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Urkin J, Ochaion R, Peleg A: Hubble bubble equals trouble: the hazards of water pipe smoking. ScientificWorldJournal. 2006, 6: 1990-1997.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maziak W, Ward KD, Afifi Soweid RA, Eissenberg T: Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe: a re-emerging strain in a global epidemic. Tob Control. 2004, 13 (4): 327-333. 10.1136/tc.2004.008169.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McDowell JD: An overview of epidemiology and common risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2006, 39 (2): 277-294. 10.1016/j.otc.2005.11.012.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.