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  1. Data of the Central Bureau of Statistic of Nepal from 2008 show a total of more than 46,000 illegal drug users, out of which 61% are injecting drug users (IDU). An injecting mix of medicines like opioids, benz...

    Authors: Saroj Prasad Ojha, Suraj Sigdel, Hans-Günter Meyer-Thompson, Harald Oechsler and Uwe Verthein
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:17
  2. HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) is high in Yunnan and Guangxi provinces in southwest China. To address this epidemic, Population Services International (PSI) and four cooperating agencies...

    Authors: Kai Wang, Hongyun Fu, Kim Longfield, Shilpa Modi, Gary Mundy and Rebecca Firestone
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:15
  3. Tobacco smoking is the main health-care problem in the world. Evaluation of scientific output in the field of tobacco use has been poorly explored in Middle Eastern Arab (MEA) countries to date, and there are ...

    Authors: Sa'ed H Zyoud, Samah W Al-Jabi, Waleed M Sweileh and Rahmat Awang
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:14
  4. Among a cohort of drug-using street-involved youth, we sought to identify the prevalence of reporting increases and decreases in illicit drug use due to their current housing status and to identify factors ass...

    Authors: Tessa Cheng, Evan Wood, Paul Nguyen, Thomas Kerr and Kora DeBeck
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:12
  5. Correctional centre populations are one of the populations most at risk of contracting HIV infection for many reasons, such as unprotected sex, violence, rape and tattooing with contaminated equipment. Specifi...

    Authors: Monika ML dos Santos, Franz Trautmann, Gustaaf Wolvaardt and Romeo Palakatsela
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:11
  6. Few studies have investigated the service needs of persons who inject drugs (PWID) who live in less populated regions of Canada. With access to fewer treatment and harm reduction services than those in more ur...

    Authors: Jessica M McCutcheon and Melanie A Morrison
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:10
  7. Population size estimation is critical for planning public health programmes for injection drug users. Estimation is difficult, as these populations are considered 'hidden’ or 'hard to reach’. The currently ac...

    Authors: Yuan Xu, Murray Fyfe, Liz Walker and Laura LE Cowen
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:9
  8. Cigarette smoking habit usually begins in adolescence. The developing countries in South Asia like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Nepal, where the largest segment of the population is comprised of adolescent...

    Authors: Saadiyah Rao, Syeda Kanwal Aslam, Sidra Zaheer and Kashif Shafique
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:8
  9. There has been widespread support for harm reduction programs as an essential component for responding to the HIV and illicit drug use epidemics. However, despite the growing international acceptance of harm r...

    Authors: Lianping Ti and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:7
  10. Injecting drug users are at increased risk for harmful effects compared to non-injecting drug users. Some studies have focused on differences in characteristics between these two groups (e.g., housing, overall...

    Authors: Petra Havinga, Claudia van der Velden, Anouk de Gee and Agnes van der Poel
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:6
  11. In the context of increasing HIV prevalence among women in regular sexual partnerships, this paper examines the relationship between male injecting drug users' (IDUs) risky injecting practices and sexual risk ...

    Authors: Ritu Kumar Mishra, Deepika Ganju, Sowmya Ramesh, Melody Lalmuanpuii, Langkham Biangtung, Chumben Humtsoe and Niranjan Saggurti
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:5
  12. Policymakers and researchers seek answers to how liberalized drug policies affect people who inject drugs (PWID). In response to concerns about the failing “war on drugs,” Mexico recently implemented drug poli...

    Authors: Angela M Robertson, Richard S Garfein, Karla D Wagner, Sanjay R Mehta, Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, Jazmine Cuevas-Mota, Patricia Gonzalez Moreno-Zuniga and Steffanie A Strathdee
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:4
  13. For the past two decades, there has been an enduring HIV epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs) in India, and the Indian national AIDS control program (NACP) led by the National AIDS Control Organization (...

    Authors: Bindya Jain, Suneeta Krishnan, Sowmya Ramesh, Shrutika Sabarwal, Vijay Garg and Neeraj Dhingra
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:3
  14. Research demonstrates that tobacco packaging elements (including health warning labels, descriptive characteristics, and corporate branding) are associated with knowledge of health risks and product appeal wit...

    Authors: Sarah E Adkison, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Danielle M Smith, Richard J O’Connor and Andrew J Hyland
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:2
  15. People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk of contracting and transmitting and hepatitis C virus (HCV). While accurate screening tests and effective treatment are increasingly available, prior research in...

    Authors: Joshua A Barocas, Meghan B Brennan, Shawnika J Hull, Scott Stokes, John J Fangman and Ryan P Westergaard
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:1
  16. Transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among incarcerated injection drug users (IDU) is a health epidemic in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Triangular clinics (TCs) were established in prisons a...

    Authors: Rahim Taghizadeh Asl, Babak Eshrati, Colleen Anne Dell, Kelli Taylor, Parviz Afshar, Mohammad Kamali and Ali Mirzazadeh
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:41
  17. In the 20th century, 100 million people across the globe lost their lives due to consumption of tobacco. Every year 15,000 deaths in Nepal are attributable to tobacco smoking and using other products of tobacc...

    Authors: Vishnu Khanal, Mandira Adhikari and Sujan Karki
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:40
  18. We report on an in-depth qualitative study of 28 active and former substance addicted women of low or marginal income on the core components of a harm reduction-based addiction recovery program. These women vo...

    Authors: Edward Kruk and Kathryn Sandberg
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:39
  19. Addiction treatment faces high pretreatment and treatment dropout rates, especially among Aboriginals. In this study we examined characteristic differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients accessi...

    Authors: Xin Li, Huiying Sun, David C Marsh and Aslam H Anis
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:38
  20. Quality of life (QOL) is an important outcome measure in the treatment of heroin addiction. The Taiwan version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL-BREF [TW]) has been developed ...

    Authors: Tiffany Szu-Ting Fu, Yung-Change Tuan, Muh-Yong Yen, Wei-Hsin Wu, Chun-Wei Huang, Wei-Ti Chen, Chiang-Shan R Li and Tony Szu-Hsien Lee
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:37
  21. Contradictory evidence on cannabis adds to the climate of confusion regarding the health harms related to use. This is particularly true for young people as they encounter and make sense of opposing informatio...

    Authors: Barbara M Moffat, Emily K Jenkins and Joy L Johnson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:34
  22. A syndemic conjoins injection drug use, incarceration, and HIV in Vietnam, where there is a need for programs that empower people who use drugs to minimize the harms thereby produced. Here we present a post-ho...

    Authors: Eleanor Hayes-Larson, Lauretta E Grau, Kaveh Khoshnood, Russell Barbour, Oanh Thi Hai Khuat and Robert Heimer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:33
  23. Alternative cigarette-like nicotine delivery systems have been met with diverse opinions. One concern has been for the effect on children. We investigate whether children can differentiate tobacco cigarette sm...

    Authors: Julienne Faletau, Marewa Glover, Vili Nosa and Fiona Pienaar
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:30
  24. While crack cocaine has been associated with elevated sexual risks and transmission of HIV/STIs, particularly in the context of street-based sex work, few empirical studies have examined correlates of direct s...

    Authors: Putu Duff, Mark Tyndall, Jane Buxton, Ruth Zhang, Thomas Kerr and Kate Shannon
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:29
  25. Areca (Betel Nut) is the fourth most commonly used psychoactive drug throughout the world and is legal in U.S. It is carcinogenic. Within a health program in the Federated States of Micronesia we surveyed use ...

    Authors: Peter Milgrom, Ohnmar K Tut, John Gilmatam, Marcelle Gallen and Donald L Chi
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:26
  26. Despite progressive population health policies to reduce tobacco harm, smoking prevalence continues to be inequitable amongst key ethnic groups in New Zealand. The purpose of this study is to describe the pred...

    Authors: Tasileta Teevale, Simon Denny, Vili Nosa and Janie Sheridan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:25
  27. Blue lights are sometimes placed in public washrooms to discourage injection drug use. Their effectiveness has been questioned and concerns raised that they are harmful but formal research on the issue is limi...

    Authors: Alexis Crabtree, Gareth Mercer, Robert Horan, Shannon Grant, Tracy Tan and Jane A Buxton
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:22
  28. For decades, Thailand has experienced high rates of illicit drug use and related harms. In response, the Thai government has relied on drug law enforcement to address this problem. Despite these efforts, high ...

    Authors: Kanna Hayashi, Lianping Ti, Nadia Fairbairn, Karyn Kaplan, Paisan Suwannawong, Evan Wood and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:21
  29. HIV infection among people who inject drugs (IDU) remains a major global public health challenge. However, among IDU, access to essential HIV-related services remains unacceptably low, especially in settings w...

    Authors: Lianping Ti and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:20
  30. Smokers of any age can reap substantial health benefits by quitting. In fact, no other single public health effort is likely to achieve a benefit comparable to large-scale smoking cessation. Surveys document t...

    Authors: Riccardo Polosa, Brad Rodu, Pasquale Caponnetto, Marilena Maglia and Cirino Raciti
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:19
  31. We utilized multiple recruitment approaches to recruit IDUs in a longitudinal cohort study to examine HIV incidence and behavior change pre- and post-introduction of comprehensive HIV prevention services.

    Authors: Waimar Tun, Mary Philip Sebastian, Vartika Sharma, Ira Madan, Samir Souidi, Dean Lewis, Ibou Thior and Avina Sarna
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:16
  32. The majority of HIV-infected individuals requiring antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Russia are Injection Drug Users (IDU). Substitution therapy used as part of a comprehensive harm reduction program is unavaila...

    Authors: Alla V Shaboltas, Roman V Skochilov, Lillian B Brown, Vanessa N Elharrar, Andrei P Kozlov and Irving F Hoffman
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:15
  33. To determine relapse rates and associated factors among people who use drugs (PWUDs) attending abstinence-oriented drug treatment clinics in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Authors: Yuki Maehira, Ezazul Islam Chowdhury, Masud Reza, Ronald Drahozal, Tarun Kanti Gayen, Iqbal Masud, Sonia Afrin, Noboru Takamura and Tasnim Azim
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:14
  34. About a third of the global HIV infections outside sub-Saharan Africa are related to injecting drug use (IDU), and this accounts for a growing proportion of persons living with HIV. This paper is a response to...

    Authors: Zaino Petersen, Bronwyn Myers, Marie-Claire van Hout, Andreas Plüddemann and Charles Parry
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:13
  35. In spite of the negative health effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking, its use is becoming more common. The objective of this study is to systematically review the medical literature for motives, beliefs and at...

    Authors: Elie A Akl, Mohammed Jawad, Wai Yim Lam, Christopher N Co, Rawad Obeid and Jihad Irani
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:12
  36. Cohort studies provide an excellent opportunity to monitor changes in behaviour and disease transmission over time. In Australia, cohort studies of people who inject drugs (PWID) have generally focused on olde...

    Authors: Danielle Horyniak, Peter Higgs, Rebecca Jenkinson, Louisa Degenhardt, Mark Stoové, Thomas Kerr, Matthew Hickman, Campbell Aitken and Paul Dietze
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:11
  37. Illicit drug users have a high prevalence of HCV and represent the majority of newly infected persons in the U.S. Despite the availability of effective HCV treatment, few drug users have been evaluated or trea...

    Authors: Ashly E Jordan, Carmen L Masson, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Courtney McKnight, Nicole Pepper, Katie Bouche, Laura Guzman, Evan Kletter, Randy M Seewald, Don C Des-Jarlais, James L Sorensen and David C Perlman
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:10
  38. Karachi is the largest metropolis of Pakistan and its economic hub attracting domestic migrants for economic opportunities. It is also the epicenter of HIV epidemic in the country. Since 2004, one pilot study ...

    Authors: Aysha Zahidie, Arshad Altaf, Adeel Ahsan and Tanzil Jamali
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:9