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  1. People who inject drugs (PWID) have significantly higher rates of blood borne and sexually transmitted infections due to unsafe injecting practices and risky sexual behaviors.

    Authors: Dragan Lausevic, Senad Begic, Boban Mugosa, Natasa Terzic, Zoran Vratnica, Itana Labovic and Ivana Bozicevic
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:11
  2. It is well known that illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is common among people with an opioid dependence. Less notice has been taken of the fact that these substances are also used for extended period...

    Authors: Torkel Richert and Björn Johnson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:12
  3. Long-term use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has been approved in several countries for smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit smoking. However, information on basic characteristics, degree of nico...

    Authors: Gitte Borup, Kim Lyngby Mikkelsen, Philip Tønnesen and Lona Louring Christrup
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:2
  4. Women living in poor and vulnerable neighbourhoods like Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside (DTES) face multiple burdens related to the social determinants of health. Many of them struggle with addiction, are involv...

    Authors: Iris Torchalla, Isabelle Aube Linden, Verena Strehlau, Erika K Neilson and Michael Krausz
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 11:34

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:65

  5. Women living in poor and vulnerable neighbourhoods like Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside (DTES) face multiple burdens related to the social determinants of health. Many of them struggle with addiction, are involv...

    Authors: Iris Torchalla, Isabelle Aube Linden, Verena Strehlau, Erika K Neilson and Michael Krausz
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2015 12:1

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:65

  6. The use of opiates, particularly heroin, remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Half of the deaths among heroin consumers are attributed to overdose. In response to this problem, overdose preve...

    Authors: Elisabet Arribas-Ibar, Albert Sánchez-Niubò, Xavier Majó, Antònia Domingo-Salvany and Maria Teresa Brugal
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:33
  7. This commentary evaluates regulatory frameworks for the legalized production, sale, and use of marijuana. Specifically, we argue that the primary goal of legalization should be the elimination of the illicit t...

    Authors: Jon Gettman and Michael Kennedy
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:32
  8. It has been over half a century since the landmark Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was adopted, for the first time unifying international drug policy under a single treaty aimed at limiting use, manufactur...

    Authors: Tim K Mackey, Daniel Werb, Leo Beletsky, Gudelia Rangel, Jaime Arredondo and Steffanie A Strathdee
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:31
  9. In Denmark, the first standalone supervised injecting facility (SIF) opened in Copenhagen’s Vesterbro neighborhood on October 1, 2012. The purpose of this study was to assess whether use of services provided b...

    Authors: Elizabeth N Kinnard, Chanelle J Howe, Thomas Kerr, Vibeke Skjødt Hass and Brandon DL Marshall
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:29
  10. We surveyed a population of injection drug users (IDUs) frequenting the mobile Baltimore City Needle Exchange Program (BNEP) to investigate self-care factors associated with chronic wounds, a significant cause...

    Authors: Maria Elisa Smith, Natanya Robinowitz, Patrick Chaulk and Kristine E Johnson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:28
  11. There is an HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Manipur and Nagaland, Northeast India. Approximately one-third of PWID across these two states are aged below 25 years, yet until now there has ...

    Authors: Gregory Armstrong, Amenla Nuken, Gajendra K Medhi, Jagadish Mahanta, Chumben Humtsoe, Melody Lalmuanpuaii and Michelle Kermode
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:27
  12. Grounded in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework, the PROUD (Participatory Research in Ottawa: Understanding Drugs) Study aims to better understand HIV risk and prevalence among people who...

    Authors: Lisa Lazarus, Ashley Shaw, Sean LeBlanc, Alana Martin, Zack Marshall, Kristen Weersink, Dolly Lin, Kira Mandryk and Mark W Tyndall
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:26
  13. Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is regarded as a crime control measure. Yet, some individuals are charged with violent criminal offenses while enrolled in OMT. This article aims to generate nuanced knowledg...

    Authors: Ingrid Amalia Havnes, Thomas Clausen, Christina Brux and Anne-Lise Middelthon
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:24
  14. The use of cigarettes, alcohol, khat, and other substances is a worldwide threat which especially affects young people and which is also common among the youth of Ethiopia. However, its prevalence and associat...

    Authors: Nagasa Dida, Yibeltal Kassa, Teshome Sirak, Ephrem Zerga and Tariku Dessalegn
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:21
  15. Methadone maintenance treatment is the most widely prescribed treatment for opiate dependence with proven benefits for patients. In naïve users or in case of recreational misuse, methadone can be a source of p...

    Authors: Gaël Dupuy, Lia Cavalcanti, Emmanuel Bourgogne, Clara Brichant-Petitjean, Léon Gomberoff, Vanessa Bloch, Frank Bellivier, Jean-Pierre Lépine, Olivier Laprévote and Florence Vorspan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:20
  16. Data of the Central Bureau of Statistic of Nepal from 2008 show a total of more than 46,000 illegal drug users, out of which 61% are injecting drug users (IDU). An injecting mix of medicines like opioids, benz...

    Authors: Saroj Prasad Ojha, Suraj Sigdel, Hans-Günter Meyer-Thompson, Harald Oechsler and Uwe Verthein
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:17
  17. HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) is high in Yunnan and Guangxi provinces in southwest China. To address this epidemic, Population Services International (PSI) and four cooperating agencies...

    Authors: Kai Wang, Hongyun Fu, Kim Longfield, Shilpa Modi, Gary Mundy and Rebecca Firestone
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:15
  18. Tobacco smoking is the main health-care problem in the world. Evaluation of scientific output in the field of tobacco use has been poorly explored in Middle Eastern Arab (MEA) countries to date, and there are ...

    Authors: Sa'ed H Zyoud, Samah W Al-Jabi, Waleed M Sweileh and Rahmat Awang
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:14
  19. Among a cohort of drug-using street-involved youth, we sought to identify the prevalence of reporting increases and decreases in illicit drug use due to their current housing status and to identify factors ass...

    Authors: Tessa Cheng, Evan Wood, Paul Nguyen, Thomas Kerr and Kora DeBeck
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:12
  20. Correctional centre populations are one of the populations most at risk of contracting HIV infection for many reasons, such as unprotected sex, violence, rape and tattooing with contaminated equipment. Specifi...

    Authors: Monika ML dos Santos, Franz Trautmann, Gustaaf Wolvaardt and Romeo Palakatsela
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:11
  21. Few studies have investigated the service needs of persons who inject drugs (PWID) who live in less populated regions of Canada. With access to fewer treatment and harm reduction services than those in more ur...

    Authors: Jessica M McCutcheon and Melanie A Morrison
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:10
  22. Population size estimation is critical for planning public health programmes for injection drug users. Estimation is difficult, as these populations are considered 'hidden’ or 'hard to reach’. The currently ac...

    Authors: Yuan Xu, Murray Fyfe, Liz Walker and Laura LE Cowen
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:9
  23. Cigarette smoking habit usually begins in adolescence. The developing countries in South Asia like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Nepal, where the largest segment of the population is comprised of adolescent...

    Authors: Saadiyah Rao, Syeda Kanwal Aslam, Sidra Zaheer and Kashif Shafique
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:8
  24. There has been widespread support for harm reduction programs as an essential component for responding to the HIV and illicit drug use epidemics. However, despite the growing international acceptance of harm r...

    Authors: Lianping Ti and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:7
  25. Injecting drug users are at increased risk for harmful effects compared to non-injecting drug users. Some studies have focused on differences in characteristics between these two groups (e.g., housing, overall...

    Authors: Petra Havinga, Claudia van der Velden, Anouk de Gee and Agnes van der Poel
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:6
  26. In the context of increasing HIV prevalence among women in regular sexual partnerships, this paper examines the relationship between male injecting drug users' (IDUs) risky injecting practices and sexual risk ...

    Authors: Ritu Kumar Mishra, Deepika Ganju, Sowmya Ramesh, Melody Lalmuanpuii, Langkham Biangtung, Chumben Humtsoe and Niranjan Saggurti
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:5
  27. Policymakers and researchers seek answers to how liberalized drug policies affect people who inject drugs (PWID). In response to concerns about the failing “war on drugs,” Mexico recently implemented drug poli...

    Authors: Angela M Robertson, Richard S Garfein, Karla D Wagner, Sanjay R Mehta, Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, Jazmine Cuevas-Mota, Patricia Gonzalez Moreno-Zuniga and Steffanie A Strathdee
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:4
  28. For the past two decades, there has been an enduring HIV epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs) in India, and the Indian national AIDS control program (NACP) led by the National AIDS Control Organization (...

    Authors: Bindya Jain, Suneeta Krishnan, Sowmya Ramesh, Shrutika Sabarwal, Vijay Garg and Neeraj Dhingra
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:3
  29. Research demonstrates that tobacco packaging elements (including health warning labels, descriptive characteristics, and corporate branding) are associated with knowledge of health risks and product appeal wit...

    Authors: Sarah E Adkison, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Danielle M Smith, Richard J O’Connor and Andrew J Hyland
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:2
  30. People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk of contracting and transmitting and hepatitis C virus (HCV). While accurate screening tests and effective treatment are increasingly available, prior research in...

    Authors: Joshua A Barocas, Meghan B Brennan, Shawnika J Hull, Scott Stokes, John J Fangman and Ryan P Westergaard
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2014 11:1
  31. Transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among incarcerated injection drug users (IDU) is a health epidemic in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Triangular clinics (TCs) were established in prisons a...

    Authors: Rahim Taghizadeh Asl, Babak Eshrati, Colleen Anne Dell, Kelli Taylor, Parviz Afshar, Mohammad Kamali and Ali Mirzazadeh
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:41
  32. In the 20th century, 100 million people across the globe lost their lives due to consumption of tobacco. Every year 15,000 deaths in Nepal are attributable to tobacco smoking and using other products of tobacc...

    Authors: Vishnu Khanal, Mandira Adhikari and Sujan Karki
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:40
  33. We report on an in-depth qualitative study of 28 active and former substance addicted women of low or marginal income on the core components of a harm reduction-based addiction recovery program. These women vo...

    Authors: Edward Kruk and Kathryn Sandberg
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:39
  34. Addiction treatment faces high pretreatment and treatment dropout rates, especially among Aboriginals. In this study we examined characteristic differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients accessi...

    Authors: Xin Li, Huiying Sun, David C Marsh and Aslam H Anis
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:38
  35. Quality of life (QOL) is an important outcome measure in the treatment of heroin addiction. The Taiwan version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL-BREF [TW]) has been developed ...

    Authors: Tiffany Szu-Ting Fu, Yung-Change Tuan, Muh-Yong Yen, Wei-Hsin Wu, Chun-Wei Huang, Wei-Ti Chen, Chiang-Shan R Li and Tony Szu-Hsien Lee
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:37
  36. Contradictory evidence on cannabis adds to the climate of confusion regarding the health harms related to use. This is particularly true for young people as they encounter and make sense of opposing informatio...

    Authors: Barbara M Moffat, Emily K Jenkins and Joy L Johnson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:34
  37. A syndemic conjoins injection drug use, incarceration, and HIV in Vietnam, where there is a need for programs that empower people who use drugs to minimize the harms thereby produced. Here we present a post-ho...

    Authors: Eleanor Hayes-Larson, Lauretta E Grau, Kaveh Khoshnood, Russell Barbour, Oanh Thi Hai Khuat and Robert Heimer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:33
  38. Alternative cigarette-like nicotine delivery systems have been met with diverse opinions. One concern has been for the effect on children. We investigate whether children can differentiate tobacco cigarette sm...

    Authors: Julienne Faletau, Marewa Glover, Vili Nosa and Fiona Pienaar
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2013 10:30